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Lelystad, Netherlands

van den Borne B.H.P.,University Utrecht | Nielen M.,University Utrecht | van Schaik G.,GD Animal Health Service | Melchior M.B.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence bacteriological cure of bovine subclinical mastitis after antimicrobial treatment. To test this hypothesis, multilocus sequence typing was performed on Staph. aureus isolates from 60 treated and 79 untreated control quarters that were obtained from well-defined cohorts of dairy cows from a recently conducted randomized field trial on early treatment of subclinical mastitis. Bovine-associated ST were distinguished from non-bovine-associated ST based on the literature and public databases. The association between host adaptation and bacteriological cure was investigated using population-averaged logistic regression models. Thirteen ST were identified, with approximately 80% of isolates belonging to bovine-associated ST. The odds for cure were around 2.5 times as high for non-bovine-associated ST as for bovine ST in treated quarters, whereas no difference in spontaneous cure was observed in untreated control quarters. In addition, host adaptation was related to known predictors of cure, such as penicillin susceptibility and somatic cell count. All isolates belonging to non-bovine-associated ST were resistant to penicillin, whereas the majority of isolates belonging to bovine-associated ST were penicillin susceptible. Penicillin-resistant bovine-associated strains were associated with high somatic cell counts compared with other strains. The correlation between penicillin resistance, cell counts, and host adaptation may affect the association between host adaptation and cure. For diagnostic purposes, a simple and fast alternative to multilocus sequence typing of Staph. aureus to determine host adaptation may be valuable. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Mulders M.N.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Haenen A.P.J.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Geenen P.L.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Vesseur P.C.,Association of Dutch Poultry Processing Industries NEPLUVI | And 10 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

To determine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in poultry and slaughterhouse personnel, 40 Dutch broiler flocks, in six slaughterhouses and 466 personnel were sampled. Of the employees, 26 were positive (56%), indicating a higher risk of exposure when compared to the general Dutch population (01%). This risk was significantly higher for personnel having contact with live animals (52%) - especially hanging broilers on the slaughterline (200%) - than for all other personnel (19%). Conventional electric stunning conferred a significantly higher risk of MRSA carriage for employees than CO2 stunning (97% vs. 20%). A total of 405 broilers were sampled upon their arrival at the slaughterhouse, of which 69% were positive. These broilers originated from 40 Dutch slaughter flocks of which 350% were positive. MRSA contamination in the different compartments of slaughterhouses increased during the production day, from 8% to 35%. Of the 119 MRSA isolates, predominantly livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was found, although 277% belonged to ST9 (spa type t1430). There is an increased risk of MRSA carriage in personnel working at broiler slaughterhouses, particularly those having contact with live animals. © Cambridge University Press 2010. Source

Elbers A.R.W.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI | Meiswinkel R.,Maria de Monte | van Weezep E.,Central Veterinary Institute | Kooi E.A.,Central Veterinary Institute | van der Poel W.H.M.,Central Veterinary Institute
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2015

A total of 130 pools of Culicoides biting midges collected between May and September 2012 in the Netherlands were assayed for Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The Culicoides midges were caught in the same area as where in 2011 a high proportion of Culicoides pools tested positive for SBV, in majority with a high viral load (Ct values between 20 and 30). Two of a total of 42 pools comprising 50 midges/pool of the Obsoletus complex from the 2012 collection tested weak positive (Ct values: 34.96 and 37.66), indicating a relatively low viral load. On an individual midge level, the proportion of SBV-infected Culicoides of the Obsoletus complex caught in the same area and in a comparable period of the year was significantly lower in 2012 (0.1% = 1 per 1050 tested) compared with 2011 (0.56% = 13 per 2300 tested). © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Van Tongeren S.P.,University of Groningen | Roest H.I.J.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI | Degener J.E.,University of Groningen | Harmsen H.J.M.,University of Groningen
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

For some microbial species, such as Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of the disease anthrax, correct detection and identification by molecular methods can be problematic. The detection of virulent B. anthracis is challenging due to multiple virulence markers that need to be present in order for B. anthracis to be virulent and its close relationship to Bacillus cereus and other members of the B. cereus group. This is especially the case in environments where build-up of Bacillus spores can occur and several representatives of the B. cereus group may be present, which increases the chance for false-positives. In this study we show the presence of B. anthracis-like bacteria and other members of the B. cereus group in a microbial community within the human environment of the International Space Station and their preliminary identification by using conventional culturing as well as molecular techniques including 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and real-time PCR. Our study shows that when monitoring the microbial hygiene in a given human environment, health risk assessment is troublesome in the case of virulent B. anthracis, especially if this should be done with rapid, easy to apply and on-site molecular methods. © 2014 van Tongeren et al. Source

Gonzales J.L.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI part of Wageningen UR | Gonzales J.L.,University Utrecht | Stegeman J.A.,University Utrecht | Koch G.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI | And 2 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2013

Background Targeted risk-based surveillance of poultry types (PT) with different risks of introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) infection may improve the sensitivity of surveillance. Objective To quantify the rate of introduction of LPAIv infections in different PT. Methods Data from the Dutch LPAIv surveillance programme (2007-2010) were analysed using a generalised linear mixed and spatial model. Results Outdoor-layer, turkey, duck-breeder and meat-duck, farms had a 11, 8, 24 and 13 times higher rate of introduction of LPAIv than indoor-layer farms, respectively. Conclusion Differences in the rate of introduction of LPAIv could be used to (re)design a targeted risk-based surveillance programme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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