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Hoch T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hoch T.,University of Nantes | Breton E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Breton E.,University of Nantes | And 5 more authors.
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2016

Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an emerging zoonotic disease. The causative agent is a virus (CCHFV), mainly transmitted by ticks of the species Hyalomma marginatum in Eastern Europe and Turkey. In order to test potential scenarios for the control of pathogen spread, the basic reproduction number (R0) for CCHF was calculated. This calculation was based on a population dynamics model and parameter values from the literature for pathogen transmission. The tick population dynamics model takes into account the major processes involved and gives estimates for tick survival from one stage to the other and number of feeding ticks. It also considers the influence of abiotic (meteorological variables) and biotic factors (host densities) on model outputs, which were compared with data collected in Central Anatolia (Turkey). R0 computation was thereafter used to test control strategies and especially the effect of acaricide treatment. Simulation results indicate that such treatments could have valuable effects provided that the acaricide is applied regularly throughout the spring and summer, and over several years. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis to abiotic and biotic factors showed that, even though temperature has a strong impact on model outputs, host (mainly hare) densities also play a role. The kind of model we have developed provides insight into the ability of different strategies to prevent and control disease spread and has proved its relevance when associated with field trials. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Ramnial V.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Kosmider R.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Aylan O.,Etlik Central Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Freuling C.,Institute of Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Rabies was eradicated from the UK in 1922 through strict controls of dog movement and investigation of every incident of disease. Amendments were made to the UK quarantine laws and the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) was subsequently introduced in 2000 for animals entering the UK from qualifying listed countries. European Regulation 998/2003 on the non-commercial movement of pet animals initiated the European Union Pet Movement Policy (EUPMP) in July 2004. The introduction of EUPMP harmonized the movement of pet animals within the EU (EUPMPlisted) but raised the possibility of domestic animals entering the UK from a non-EU state where rabies is endemic (EUPMPunlisted). A quantitative risk assessment was developed to estimate the risk of rabies entering the UK from Turkey via companion animals that are incubating the disease and enter through PETS or EUPMP compared to quarantine. Specifically, the risk was assessed by estimating the annual probability of rabies entering the UK and the number of years between rabies entries for each scheme. The model identified that the probability of rabies entering the UK via the three schemes is highly dependent on compliance. If 100% compliance is assumed, PETS and EUPMPunlisted (at the current level of importation) present a lower risk than quarantine, i.e. the number of years between rabies entry is more than 170 721 years for PETS and 60 163 years for EUPMPunlisted compared to 41 851 years for quarantine (with 95% certainty). If less than 100% compliance is assumed, PETS and EUPMPunlisted (at the current level of importation) present a higher risk. In addition, EUPMPlisted and EUPMPunlisted (at an increased level of importation) present a higher risk than quarantine or PETS at 100% compliance and at an uncertain level of compliance. © Crown Copyright. Published by Cambridge University Press 2009.

Fischer M.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | Wernike K.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | Freuling C.M.,Institute of Molecular Biology | Muller T.,Institute of Molecular Biology | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial specifically designed on the use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of lyssavirus genomic RNA was organized. The trial focussed on assessment and comparison of the performance of conventional and real-time assays. In total, 16 European laboratories participated. All participants were asked to investigate a panel of defined lyssavirus RNAs, consisting of Rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and -2) RNA samples, with systems available in their laboratory. The ring trial allowed the important conclusion that conventional RT-PCR assays were really robust assays tested with a high concordance between different laboratories and assays. The real-time RT-PCR system by Wakeley et al. (2005) in combination with an intercalating dye, and the combined version by Hoffmann and co-workers (2010) showed good sensitivity for the detection of all RABV samples included in this test panel. Furthermore, all used EBLV-specific assays, real-time RT-PCRs as well as conventional RT-PCR systems, were shown to be suitable for a reliable detection of EBLVs. It has to be mentioned that differences were seen in the performance between both the individual RT-PCR systems and the laboratories. Laboratories which used more than one molecular assay for testing the sample panel always concluded a correct sample result. Due to the markedly high genetic diversity of lyssaviruses, the application of different assays in diagnostics is needed to achieve a maximum of diagnostic accuracy. To improve the knowledge about the diagnostic performance proficiency testing at an international level is recommended before using lyssavirus molecular diagnostics e.g. for confirmatory testing. © 2013 Fischer et al.

Toprak B.,Etlik Central Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Ulusoy Y.,Etlik Central Veterinary Control and Research Institute
Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

The lingual papillae on dorsal lingual surface of a young lion (Panthera leo) of two months of age were examined by macroscopic and light microscopic observations. The dimensions of the tongue of the young lion were about 9 cm in length and 3.5 cm in width. Three types of papillae, filiform, fungiform and vallate were observed. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. The fungiform papillae were distributed among filiform papillae, and were smaller and more abundant in the apex of the tongue compared to on the lateral right and left sides. A few taste buds were found in the epithelium of the dorsal parts of the fungiform papillae. The vallate papillae were located on both sides on the posterior end of the lingual body. There were five vallate papillae in total. Taste buds of the vallate papillae were observed in the inner trench walls of the papillae. Von Ebner glands orifices opened at the bottom of the furrow of the vallate papillae.

Johnson N.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge | Un H.,Etlik Central Veterinary Control and Research Institute | Fooks A.R.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge | Freuling C.,Institute of Epidemiology | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Turkey is the only country in Europe where urban dog-mediated rabies persists. Control measures in recent decades have reduced the burden of rabies to relatively low levels but foci of disease still persist, particularly in urban areas. Occasional human cases result from this persistence although the source of these appears to be both dog and wildlife reservoirs. This review considers the current state of rabies in Turkey including current control measures, the varying epidemiology of the disease throughout this country and the prospects for rabies elimination. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009.

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