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Gomez E.A.,University of Guayaquil | Kato H.,Hokkaido University | Hashiguchi Y.,Central University of Ecuador | Hashiguchi Y.,Kochi University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kato H.,Hokkaido University | Caceres A.G.,National Major San Marcos University | Caceres A.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud | Hashiguchi Y.,Central University of Ecuador | Hashiguchi Y.,Kochi University
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016

The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area. © 2016 Kato et al. Source


Gonzalez-Andrade F.,Metropolitan Hospital | Lopez-Pulles R.,Central University of Ecuador
Public Health Genomics | Year: 2010

Ecuador has a heterogeneous population of almost 14 million people and a complex health care system provided through provincial and national health programs by government and private hospitals. There are public health facilities at regional and territorial level. Ecuador has a small cadre of genetic professionals that provide clinical genetic services in a few private medical centers in the main cities. Prenatal screening is offered exclusively in a few individual hospitals, with variable uptake as part of prenatal care. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs are almost inexistent. There is broad variation in optional participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are no regulatory frameworks that are directly pertinent to genetic testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Ecuador is conducted by a diverse collection of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG. Source


Gomez E.A.,University of Guayaquil | Kato H.,Hokkaido University | Mimori T.,Kumamoto University | Hashiguchi Y.,Central University of Ecuador | Hashiguchi Y.,Kochi University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Distribution of the vector species is a major risk factor for the endemicity of leishmaniasis. In the present study, the vertical distribution of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Ecuadorian Andes, was surveyed at different altitudes (300-2500. m above sea level) of the Andean slope. The vector species Lu. ayacuchensis was identified at an altitude of 650. m and a higher areas, and higher distribution ratio of the species was observed at higher altitudes. In addition, high ratios of L. (L.) mexicana infection were detected in higher areas, but none in lower populations of sand flies. Since an association between sand fly populations and vector competence is suggested in Lu. ayacuchensis, haplotype analysis was performed on the species from different altitudes of the study areas; however, no apparent difference was observed among populations. These results suggested that Lu. ayacuchensis in Andean slope areas of Ecuador has the potential to transmit L. (L.) mexicana and spread leishmaniasis in these areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Duran C.E.,Central University of Ecuador | Azermai M.,Ghent University | Stichele R.H.V.,Ghent University
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Background: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. Methods: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. Results: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. Conclusion: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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