Santiago, Chile

Central University of Chile
Santiago, Chile

The Central University of Chile is the first autonomous private university in Chile, founded in 1982 in Santiago de Chile. It's accredited in the areas of institutional management and undergraduate teaching by the National Accreditation Commission of Chile for a term of four years from December 2008 to December 2012.The Central University of Chile is structured in nine faculties, in which are held 2 Ph.D. programs, 23 master's programs, 29 undergraduate programs, 6 top-level technical programs and various training programs and continuing education in the areas of Management, Architecture, Social science, Law, Education, Health and Technology.The Headquarters of Central University of Chile is located in the University District of Santiago, near the Toesca metro station, addition to four campuses, an extension center and a sports center in the heart of the capital, totaling more than 80,000 m² infraestructura. Also has two campus in the cities of Antofagasta and La Serena in the north of Chile.In 2010 the Central University of Chile established the country's first community college, with support from LaGuardia Community College of the City University of New York Wikipedia.

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Elgueta J.C.,Central University of Chile
2016 IEEE International Conference on Automatica, ICA-ACCA 2016 | Year: 2016

For the learning and teaching process is not enough to count with the right type of methodology according to the objectives. The successful implementation of this is in some cases is linked to the way it is carried out; in other words, the application itself. There are projects in this field which fail to succeed simply because teachers who are new do not have prior experience and make mistakes in their application. However, this 'luxury' today is not permitted, in a process that takes a short period of implementation since it takes place during an academic semester and when students are involved. Therefore, you should maximize the chances of success using the experience of other scholars or teachers. This paper presents a set of 'best practices' that enable the teacher using the teaching-learning process Methodology A + A, in such a way to achieve his aims at a low cost. © 2016 IEEE.

Elgueta J.C.,Central University of Chile
2016 IEEE International Conference on Automatica, ICA-ACCA 2016 | Year: 2016

Traditional engineering education is usually very theoretical and in a closed environment. By using the Learning Methodology + Service (L+S) and various techniques and Agile methods, performed from the beginning of the life cycle of a project, the incorporation of a different form of collaborative learning is encouraged. The learning objectives proposed in this project were: To learn to develop software by means of Agile methods in the context of the Learning Methodology + Service (L+S) and apply the skills of a Civil Engineer in Computing and Informatics. The software product achieved benefited a group of booksellers of Plaza Carlos Pezoa Véliz, Municipality of Santiago (RM). Apart from the application, the students of the course learned to develop software in a differently: in a playful way and with a high sense of social responsibility. They learned from their peers through constructive discussion, respecting beliefs and values, generating trust and creating social wealth. But above all, they learned how to become better professionals and better citizens. © 2016 IEEE.

Informed consent is the core aspect of the patient-physician relationship. Since its beginnings, clinical bioethics was opposed to the authoritarian paternalism characteristic of medicine since the 19th century. The informed consent was developed to provide patients with sufficient information to allow autonomous decisions when faced with medical diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives. In spite of bioethics’ effort to perfect informed consent, the discipline has been unable to avoid informed consent from becoming an impersonal and administrative procedure. Even though the major goal of this procedure is to provide sufficient information to allow patients an objective weighting of benefits and risks of medical practice, the uncertainties of medicine make full disclosure unattainable. Collecting more information finally leads to indecision and ultimate trust in medical advice. The clinical encounter is fundamentally a fiduciary relationship, and bioethics ought to accept that its main objective is to strengthen the trust bond that is essential to the clinical encounter. This goal may become incompatible with the quest for unlimited autonomy. Patients often will only require information as long as they distrust that medical institutions and their professionals are considering their interests and needs. The main proposal of this article is to temper bioethics’ insistence on autonomy, and accept that patients essentially seek to be protected and cared for. Informed consent ought to relent its efforts at full autonomy to the benefit of trustworthiness in medicine, and trust in clinical practice. © 2016, Sociedad Medica de Santiago. All Rights Reserved.

Kottow M.,Central University of Chile
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy | Year: 2017

Phenomenology in medicine’s main contribution is to present a first-person narrative of illness, in an effort to aid medicine in reaching an accurate disease diagnosis and establishing a personal relationship with patients whose lived experience changes dramatically when severe disease and disabling condition is confirmed. Once disease is diagnosed, the lived experience of illness is reconstructed into a living-with-disease narrative that medicine’s biological approach has widely neglected. Key concepts like health, sickness, illness, disease and the clinical encounter are being diversely and ambiguously used, leading to distortions in socio-medical practices such as medicalization, pharmaceuticalization, emphasis on surveillance medicine. Current definitions of these concepts as employed in phenomenology of medicine are revised, concluding that more stringent semantics ought to reinforce an empirical phenomenological or postphenomenological approach. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Gonzalez P.A.,Central University of Chile | Gonzalez P.A.,Diego Portales University | Moncada F.,University of the Frontier | Vasquez Y.,University of the Frontier
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

We study scalar perturbations in the background of a topological Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions. We compute analytically the quasinormal modes and from these modes we show that topological Lifshitz black hole is stable. On the other hand, we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section and we show that there is a range of modes with high angular momentum which contributes to the absorption cross section in the low frequency limit. Furthermore, in this limit, we show that the absorption cross section decreases if the scalar field mass increases, for a real scalar field mass. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica.

Monttea chilensis (Plantaginaceae) is an endemic shrub to the arid and semi-arid areas of Chile, classified as an Endangered Species. In order to contribute to the ex situ conservation of the species by cuttings propagation, two experiments were conducted. The cuttings used were binodal, and the hormone indol butyric acid (IBA) was applied in the concentration of 1,500, 3,000, 5,000 and 7,500 ppm and a control without hormone. Sixty cuttings per treatment were used rooted under propagation bed conditions with basal heat (22 ºC) and 80% humidity regulated with nebulizers under plastic tunnel. The hormone did not increase rooting, resulting in a similar result (40% of rooting) the control cuttings and those with 1,500 ppm of IBA. Higher and lower IBA concentrations had an adverse effect on rooting. © 2016 Universidad de Concepcion. All rights reserved.

Whitman C.J.,Central University of Chile
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2014

According to the latest official census of 2002, earth construction represented 5.5% of the Chilean building stock. These buildings of traditional construction techniques of unfired earth and straw blocks (adobe), rammed earth (tapial) or wattle and daub (quincha) form a large proportion of Chile's National Monuments and heritage buildings. In addition to their heritage value, these buildings with their high thermal mass, respond well to the climate conditions of both the altiplano of northern Chile and the Central Valley, zones with high diurnal temperature oscillations, with typical daily temperature differences of up to 20°C. However following the 2005 earthquake in Tarapacá, northern Chile and that of the 27th February 2010 in Central Chile a serious rethink has been required as to the retention and restoration of adobe buildings. Public opinion has labelled earth construction as unsafe and most reconstruction to date has taken place with prefabricated timber solutions which lack the necessary thermal mass to respond well to the climatic conditions. At the same time research into the structural integrity, seismic resistance, maintenance and the living conditions provided by earth construction has been undertaken. In this wider context this paper presents the compilation of international and Chilean research into the hygrothermal properties of adobe construction, in addition to the authors insitu measurements of the temperature and relative humidity in two surviving adobe dwellings in the earthquake hit village of Chépica located in Chilés Central valley. These measurements are compared with those of a dwelling rebuilt with straw bales and earth render in the same location. Based on this information the paper studies the challenge of rebuilding and restoring heritage buildings whilst providing occupants with the necessary levels of environmental comfort. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Ronse De Craene L.,Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh | Bull-Herenu K.,University of Santiago de Chile | Bull-Herenu K.,Central University of Chile
Annals of Botany | Year: 2016

Background and Aims Obdiplostemony has long been a controversial condition as it diverges from diplostemony found among most core eudicot orders by the more external insertion of the alternisepalous stamens. In this paper we review the definition and occurrence of obdiplostemony, and analyse how the condition has impacted on floral diversification and species evolution. Key Results Obdiplostemony represents an amalgamation of at least five different floral developmental pathways, all of them leading to the external positioning of the alternisepalous stamen whorl within a two-whorled androecium. In secondary obdiplostemony the antesepalous stamens arise before the alternisepalous stamens. The position of alternisepalous stamens at maturity is more external due to subtle shifts of stamens linked to a weakening of the alternisepalous sector including stamen and petal (type I), alternisepalous stamens arising de facto externally of antesepalous stamens (type II) or alternisepalous stamens shifting outside due to the sterilization of antesepalous stamens (type III: Sapotaceae). In primary obdiplostemony the alternisepalous stamens arise before the antesepalous stamens and are more externally from initiation. The antesepalous stamen whorl is staminodial and shows a tendency for loss (type I), or the petals are missing and the alternisepalous stamens effectively occupy their space (type II). Although obdiplostemony is often related to an isomerous gynoecium, this is not essential. Phylogenetically, both secondary and primary obdiplostemony can be seen as transitional stages from diplostemony to either haplostemony or obhaplostemony. Obdiplostemony is the consequence of shifts in the balance between the two stamen whorls, affecting either the alternisepalous stamens together with the petals, or the antesepalous stamens. Conclusions We advocate a broad definition of obdiplostemony, to include androecia with incomplete whorls, staminodial whorls, anisomerous gynoecia and an absence of petals. As such, the taxonomic significance of obdiplostemony is transient, although it is a clear illustration of how developmental flexibility is responsible for highly different floral morphs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

Classen-Bockhoff R.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Bull-Herenu K.,Central University of Chile | Bull-Herenu K.,University of Santiago de Chile
Annals of Botany | Year: 2013

Backgrounds and Aims Conceptual and terminological conflicts in inflorescence morphology indicate a lack of understanding of the phenotypic diversity of inflorescences. In this study, an ontogeny-based inflorescence concept is presented considering different meristem types and developmental pathways. By going back to the ontogenetic origin, diversity is reduced to a limited number of types and terms. Methods Species from 105 genera in 52 angiosperm families are investigated to identify their specific reproductive meristems and developmental pathways. Based on these studies, long-term experience with inflorescences and literature research, a conceptual framework for the understanding of inflorescences is presented. Key Results Ontogeny reveals that reproductive systems traditionally called inflorescences fall into three groups, i.e. 'flowering shoot systems' (FSS), 'inflorescences' sensu stricto and 'floral units' (FUs). Our concept is, first, based on the identification of reproductive meristem position and developmental potential. The FSS, defined as a seasonal growth unit, is used as a reference framework. As the FSS is a leafy shoot system bearing reproductive units, foliage and flowering sequence play an important role. Second, the identification of two different flowerproducing meristems is essential. While 'inflorescence meristems' (IMs) share acropetal primordia production with vegetative meristems, 'floral unit meristems' (FUMs) resemble flower meristems in being indeterminate. IMs produce the basic inflorescence types, i.e. compound and simple racemes, panicles and botryoids. FUMs give rise to dense, often flower-like units (e.g. heads). They occur solitarily at the FSS or occupy flower positions in inflorescences, rendering the latter thyrses in the case of cymose branching. Conclusions The ontogenetic concept differs from all existing inflorescence concepts in being based on meristems and developmental processes. It includes clear terms and allows homology statements. Transitional forms are an explicit part of the concept, illustrating the ontogenetic potential for character transformation in evolution.©The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.

Gonzalez P.A.,Central University of Chile | Gonzalez P.A.,Diego Portales University | Saridakis E.N.,Baylor University | Vasquez Y.,University of the Frontier
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We present teleparallel 3D gravity and we extract circularly symmetric solutions, showing that they coincide with the BTZ and Deser-de-Sitter solutions of standard 3D gravity. However, extending into f(T) 3D gravity, that is considering arbitrary functions of the torsion scalar in the action, we obtain BTZ-like and Deser-de-Sitter-like solutions, corresponding to an effective cosmological constant, without any requirement of the sign of the initial cosmological constant. Finally, extending our analysis incorporating the electromagnetic sector, we show that Maxwell-f(T) gravity accepts deformed charged BTZ-like solutions. Interestingly enough, the deformation in this case brings qualitatively novel terms, contrary to the pure gravitational solutions where the deformation is expressed only through changes in the coefficients. We investigate the singularities and the horizons of the new solutions, and amongst others we show that the cosmic censorship can be violated. Such novel behaviors reveal the new features that the f(T) structure brings in 3D gravity. © SISSA 2012.

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