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Thiruvanathapuram, India

Choudhary V.K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Suresh Kumar P.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2013

Replenishing nutrients through organic sources is essential to maintain the soil health and sustainability in Eastern Himalayan Region, India which is organic by default. Keeping this in mind an experiment was laid out on randomized block design with six treatments viz., T2: Vermicompost (VC; 2.5 Mg ha-1), T1: Poultry manure (PM; 1.25 Mg ha-1), T3: Swine manure (SM; 3.0 Mg ha-1), T4: Cow dung manure (CDM; 10.0 Mg ha-1), T5: Farm yard manure (FYM; 10.0 Mg ha-1) and T6: control and replicated thrice to study the effect of applied organic nutrients on growth and yield attributes of maize. The physical parameters like porosity, maximum water holding capacity (MWHC), field capacity (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP), bulk density (BD) and moisture releasing pattern was measured better when the crop was supplied with FYM followed by CDM. Chemical parameters like pH, Soil organic carbon (SOC), available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were recorded better on VC followed by PM over control. The growth, physiological parameters, yield attributes and yield were recorded higher on VC. The uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was higher on VC followed by PM, whereas least nutrients were taken up by control. Similarly the gross and net return was recorded higher on VC followed by PM, whereas, B: C ratio was recorded higher on PM followed by CDM. However the lowest economic returns were recorded on control. Agronomic efficiency was recorded higher on VC followed by PM.

Nambisan B.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Toxicity of cassava arises due to the presence of the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin which are hydrolysed by endogenous enzyme linamarase to acetonecyanohydrin (ACN) and cyanide (CN) which are toxic. Major research efforts to eliminate/reduce cyanoglucosides have focused on (i) development of acyanogenic cassava varieties by breeding; (ii) controlling its metabolism; and (iii) processing to remove cyanogens. The cyanoglucoside (CNG) content in cassava is genetically controlled and cultivars may be classified as low (<50 μg/g), medium (50-100 μg/g) and high CN (>100 μg CN eq./g) varieties. Molecular techniques for reducing tuber CNG have focused on development of transgenic plants with reduced expression of cyt P 450 in leaves, or increased expression of hydroxynitrilelyase in tuber. For immediate solution, CNG content can be reduced using several processing methods. Traditional methods used for processing include boiling, drying, parboiling and drying, baking, steaming, frying and preparation of flour. These processes result in CN losses ranging from 25% to 98%. The cyanogen level in the final product is influenced both by the tuber CNG and the method of processing. In order to achieve safe levels of 10 μg/g in cassava products, new methods of processing, especially for cassava containing more than 250 μg CN eq./g, remains a challenging problem. © 2010.

Laxminarayana K.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Response of the integrated use of mycorrhiza, inorganic and organic manures on microbial variables and yield performance of colocasia (Colocasia esculenta L.) was studied in an acid Alfisol. Significantly highest mean cormel yield (14.13 t ha−1) was recorded due to application of super optimal doses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK). Integrated application of lime + farmyard manure (FYM) + ½ NPK + zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) has recorded the highest dehydrogenase activity (2.048 µg TPF hr−1 g−1) and Fluorescein Diacetate Hydrolysis assay (1.855 µg g−1 hr−1). The highest acid and alkaline phosphatase activities (77.67 and 51.18 µg PNP g−1 h−1, respectively) were observed due to Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculation in combination with lime + FYM + ½ NPK. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities had a highly significant relationship with cormel yield and the biochemical constituents of colocasia. The study emphasized the conjunctive use of balanced inorganic fertilizers and organic manures to enhance the enzymatic activities and to realize higher crop yields of colocasia in acid Alfisols. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Nedunchezhiyan M.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

A field experiment was conducted for consecutive 3 years (from 2003-04 to 2005-06) at Dumuduma, Bhubaneshwar under rainfed conditions to find out the influence of mulching along with different levels of NPK fertilization on total productivity, energy use efficiency and economics of greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system. Higher total productivity (23.0 tonne/ha), productivity efficiency (109.5 kg/ha/day) and net return (Rs 55,700/) were obtained with the application of 120-39.3-100 kg N-P-K/ha along with mulching. However, higher energy use efficiency (5.07) was found with the application of 100-32.7-83.3 kg N-P-K/ha along with mulching. Mulching along with 120-39.3-100 kg N-P-K/ha registered the highest N, P and K uptake and post-harvest soil nutrients status followed by mulching along with 100-32.7-83.3 kg N-P-K/ha.

Jyothi A.N.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Composite Interfaces | Year: 2010

Starch, which is a natural carbohydrate biopolymer, has been the subject of academic and industrial studies for many decades, basically due to its low cost, biodegradability and versatility of use. Chemical modification of starch by grafting various monomers onto it imparts increased hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity or polyelectrolyte nature to starch depending on the reagent and conditions used. The starch graft copolymers are synthesized by the free radical initiated reaction of starch with acrylic monomers in presence of a free radical initiator such as ceric ammonium nitrate. High viscosity, thermal stability, biodegradability, good film forming properties and water absorption capacity are some of the properties shown by the graft copolymers of starch. Graft copolymers find various applications in industry as flocculants, waste water treatment and heavy metal ion removal, for sizing cotton, as mulch films, in oil drilling, as biodegradable polymers and in superabsorbents. Starch graft copolymers are also gaining increasing importance in the manufacture of molded plastics, ion-exchange resins, plastic films and in cosmetics. Non-biodegradable plastic waste is an ecological threat. Use of starch as an extender and replacement of synthetic polymers-based hydrogels is currently an active research area. Incorporation of starch into other synthetic polymers not only reduces our dependence on petrochemical derived monomers but also provides materials in which the starch portion can biodegrade rapidly in the environment. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

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