Thiruvanathapuram, India
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Choudhary V.K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Suresh Kumar P.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2013

Replenishing nutrients through organic sources is essential to maintain the soil health and sustainability in Eastern Himalayan Region, India which is organic by default. Keeping this in mind an experiment was laid out on randomized block design with six treatments viz., T2: Vermicompost (VC; 2.5 Mg ha-1), T1: Poultry manure (PM; 1.25 Mg ha-1), T3: Swine manure (SM; 3.0 Mg ha-1), T4: Cow dung manure (CDM; 10.0 Mg ha-1), T5: Farm yard manure (FYM; 10.0 Mg ha-1) and T6: control and replicated thrice to study the effect of applied organic nutrients on growth and yield attributes of maize. The physical parameters like porosity, maximum water holding capacity (MWHC), field capacity (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP), bulk density (BD) and moisture releasing pattern was measured better when the crop was supplied with FYM followed by CDM. Chemical parameters like pH, Soil organic carbon (SOC), available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were recorded better on VC followed by PM over control. The growth, physiological parameters, yield attributes and yield were recorded higher on VC. The uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was higher on VC followed by PM, whereas least nutrients were taken up by control. Similarly the gross and net return was recorded higher on VC followed by PM, whereas, B: C ratio was recorded higher on PM followed by CDM. However the lowest economic returns were recorded on control. Agronomic efficiency was recorded higher on VC followed by PM.


Divya Nair M.P.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Padmaja G.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Moorthy S.N.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Cassava starch factory residue (CSFR), a low cost solid byproduct of the cassava starch industry, having around 60% unextracted starch and 15% cellulose is a potential candidate for bioethanol production. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of four enzymes such as Multifect ® XL, Optimash™ XL, Optimash™ BG and Accellerase™1000 was studied. Whilst the former three enzymes exerted maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 60 °C, Accellerase had optimum activity at pH 4.5 and 60 °C. The enzyme cocktail, Multifect XL-Optimash XL-Accellerase (5, 15 and 20 g enzyme protein kg -1 CSFR respectively) was more effective than sequential process with the same enzyme loading. Hydrothermal treatment (HT) of CSFR for 30 min at 100 °C enhanced the susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage as compared to HT for 45 and 60 min as well as autoclaving or microwave exposure. Optimash BG was the most effective on HT CSFR and approximately 704.8 g glucose was released kg -1 CSFR. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of hydrothermally treated CSFR as a cheap substrate for ethanol production. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Nair S.B.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Jyothi A.N.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

Cassava starch-graft-polymethacrylamide (PMAM) copolymers were synthesized by a free-radical-initiated polymerization reaction, and the products were tested for their efficiency as flocculants and textile sizing agents. The highest percentages of grafting and monomer conversion were 79.9 and 78.0%, respectively. The grafted starches were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The average molecular weight of PMAM chains in the grafted starches ranged from 15.9 to 30.8 × 105 g/mol. The grafted starches exhibited a higher peak viscosity and paste stability in comparison to the native starch (NS). Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that grafting provided fairly shear-stable hydrogels, and the highest storage modulus obtained was 17,900 Pa compared to 1879 Pa for NS. The flocculation studies demonstrated the superiority of starch-g-PMAM over cassava starch and PMAM as an efficient flocculant. The tensile strength of cotton yarns sized with the starch-grafted copolymer was significantly higher (104 MPa) compared to that sized with NS (34 MPa). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Laxminarayana K.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

Response of the integrated use of mycorrhiza, inorganic and organic manures on microbial variables and yield performance of colocasia (Colocasia esculenta L.) was studied in an acid Alfisol. Significantly highest mean cormel yield (14.13 t ha−1) was recorded due to application of super optimal doses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK). Integrated application of lime + farmyard manure (FYM) + ½ NPK + zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) has recorded the highest dehydrogenase activity (2.048 µg TPF hr−1 g−1) and Fluorescein Diacetate Hydrolysis assay (1.855 µg g−1 hr−1). The highest acid and alkaline phosphatase activities (77.67 and 51.18 µg PNP g−1 h−1, respectively) were observed due to Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculation in combination with lime + FYM + ½ NPK. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities had a highly significant relationship with cormel yield and the biochemical constituents of colocasia. The study emphasized the conjunctive use of balanced inorganic fertilizers and organic manures to enhance the enzymatic activities and to realize higher crop yields of colocasia in acid Alfisols. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Nambisan B.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Toxicity of cassava arises due to the presence of the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin which are hydrolysed by endogenous enzyme linamarase to acetonecyanohydrin (ACN) and cyanide (CN) which are toxic. Major research efforts to eliminate/reduce cyanoglucosides have focused on (i) development of acyanogenic cassava varieties by breeding; (ii) controlling its metabolism; and (iii) processing to remove cyanogens. The cyanoglucoside (CNG) content in cassava is genetically controlled and cultivars may be classified as low (<50 μg/g), medium (50-100 μg/g) and high CN (>100 μg CN eq./g) varieties. Molecular techniques for reducing tuber CNG have focused on development of transgenic plants with reduced expression of cyt P 450 in leaves, or increased expression of hydroxynitrilelyase in tuber. For immediate solution, CNG content can be reduced using several processing methods. Traditional methods used for processing include boiling, drying, parboiling and drying, baking, steaming, frying and preparation of flour. These processes result in CN losses ranging from 25% to 98%. The cyanogen level in the final product is influenced both by the tuber CNG and the method of processing. In order to achieve safe levels of 10 μg/g in cassava products, new methods of processing, especially for cassava containing more than 250 μg CN eq./g, remains a challenging problem. © 2010.


Jyothi A.N.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Composite Interfaces | Year: 2010

Starch, which is a natural carbohydrate biopolymer, has been the subject of academic and industrial studies for many decades, basically due to its low cost, biodegradability and versatility of use. Chemical modification of starch by grafting various monomers onto it imparts increased hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity or polyelectrolyte nature to starch depending on the reagent and conditions used. The starch graft copolymers are synthesized by the free radical initiated reaction of starch with acrylic monomers in presence of a free radical initiator such as ceric ammonium nitrate. High viscosity, thermal stability, biodegradability, good film forming properties and water absorption capacity are some of the properties shown by the graft copolymers of starch. Graft copolymers find various applications in industry as flocculants, waste water treatment and heavy metal ion removal, for sizing cotton, as mulch films, in oil drilling, as biodegradable polymers and in superabsorbents. Starch graft copolymers are also gaining increasing importance in the manufacture of molded plastics, ion-exchange resins, plastic films and in cosmetics. Non-biodegradable plastic waste is an ecological threat. Use of starch as an extender and replacement of synthetic polymers-based hydrogels is currently an active research area. Incorporation of starch into other synthetic polymers not only reduces our dependence on petrochemical derived monomers but also provides materials in which the starch portion can biodegrade rapidly in the environment. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Nair S.B.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Jyothi A.N.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2013

Cassava starch (ST)-konjac glucomannan (KGM) blend films were prepared, characterized, and their suitability as matrices for the sustained release of a model drug, theophylline (Thp) was investigated. Structural studies showed that there was a good compatibility between ST and KGM and also revealed the existence of strong interaction between Thp and the polymer blend. The thermal stability of the films did not alter on blending of the two polymers. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and swelling capacity of the blend films were higher than that of the neat ST, while lower than that of the neat KGM films. The drug release was related to the pH of the medium and the relative humidity (RH) under which the films were stored. The drug release data fitted well to Higuchi kinetic model and the mechanism corresponds to anomalous transport with non-Fickian kinetics corresponding to coupled diffusion/polymer relaxation. The rate of drug release was significantly (p<0.05) and positively correlated with the degree of erosion of the blend films. The study showed that the blend film with a composition, ST: 1.5 × 10-3 kg and KGM: 1.5 × 10-3 kg with 20% glycerol as plasticizer stored at a relative humidity in the range 11-53% was appropriate for the sustained release of the less water soluble drug, theophylline. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Nedunchezhiyan M.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

A field experiment was conducted for consecutive 3 years (from 2003-04 to 2005-06) at Dumuduma, Bhubaneshwar under rainfed conditions to find out the influence of mulching along with different levels of NPK fertilization on total productivity, energy use efficiency and economics of greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system. Higher total productivity (23.0 tonne/ha), productivity efficiency (109.5 kg/ha/day) and net return (Rs 55,700/) were obtained with the application of 120-39.3-100 kg N-P-K/ha along with mulching. However, higher energy use efficiency (5.07) was found with the application of 100-32.7-83.3 kg N-P-K/ha along with mulching. Mulching along with 120-39.3-100 kg N-P-K/ha registered the highest N, P and K uptake and post-harvest soil nutrients status followed by mulching along with 100-32.7-83.3 kg N-P-K/ha.


Jisha S.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Padmaja G.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

Composite flours are extensively used in the bakery industry to develop designer food products, having specific nutritional or functional properties. Though rich in carbohydrate, cassava flour has not been properly exploited for making bakery products, mainly because of its low protein content contributing to poor dough characteristics. Induced malting using amylolytic enzymes and pregelatinization through hydrothermal cooking were tried to modify the textural and functional attributes of cassava flour, which was then blended with various cereal and legume additives as well as rice bran and used for making two baked products such as muffins and biscuits. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was added to fortify protein in all the formulations. Pseudo-malted cassava flour-based muffins and biscuits had lower starch content (36-44% and 36.5-41.2%, respectively) than similar products from unmalted cassava flour (39-46% and 43.75%, respectively). The crude protein content of the muffins and biscuits from WPC fortified composite mixes ranged from 7.96% to 14.36% and 9.63% to 11.00%, respectively, which was significantly higher than the native cassava flour (1.30%). Besides, the total dietary fiber could be enhanced to the extent of 1.54-3.10% in muffins and 1.70-2.61% in biscuits, through fortification with cereal and/or legume flours or bran sources, which is also considerable when compared to only 0.435% in native cassava flour. In vitro starch digestibility was the lowest for cassava (unmalted)-/rice bran-based muffins (25.02 units) and cassava (unmalted)-/finger millet flour-based biscuits (36.08 units), indicating the potential of these combinations for making therapeutic baked products for obese and diabetic people. Spread ratio and spread factor were the least (9.27 and 60.99, respectively) for the biscuits made with unmalted cassava/finger millet mixes, while use of Termamyl pseudo-malted cassava/finger millet raised the spread ratio to 11.11 and spread factor to 73.09. © 2008 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Parvathy P.C.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Jyothi A.N.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

Cassava starch-graft-poly(acrylamide) superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with varying absorbencies were synthesized. Weight average molecular weight (M w) of the hydrolyzed starch-graft-copolymers ranged from 1.6 × 106 to 2.8 × 106 g/mol, the largest being shown by the sample with highest percentage grafting. The storage (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of hydrogels were determined as a function of frequency. G″ was larger than G′ for the hydrogels with higher absorbencies and exhibited a liquid-like behavior. However, hydrogels with lower absorbencies showed a reverse viscoelastic behavior. The viscosity of hydrogels determined using a Brookfield viscometer at different shear rates was found to be larger for the hydrogels with higher absorbencies. The melting temperature (T m) and enthalpy change of fusion (ΔHf) of the SAPs ranged from 149.7 to 177.7°C and 65 to 494.9 J/g, respectively and showed a positive correlation with grafting parameters and Mw. Heavy metal ion removal capacity of hydrogel followed the order Cu2+ > Pb 2+ > Zn2+. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40368. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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