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Pandey J.P.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Tiwari R.K.,P.A. College
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Insects represent almost all territories of the earth and account around 75% of total animal population. It is still ambiguous that being a cold blooded/poikilothermic organism, without acquired immune responses, how do they survive in all geographical regions of the world? Probably, it indicates its very strong innate immune responses i.e., cellular and humoral. Insect blood cells or hemocytes are the main component of cellular immune responses. They are biochemically very sensitive towards change and are the primary target of cellular defence system of insects and have proven their ability to mediate diverse immuno-defence processes against invading pathogens and other adverse conditions/stresses i.e., temperature, starvation, photoperiod, humidity etc. Therefore, in the present review, effort has been made to correlate various responses of hemocytes against the change, in order to propose hemocyte-based model in the form of catalogue to discern the health status and its future application in applied and biomedical sciences. Since hemocytes respond very instantly against change hence, it is expected that by using hemocyte catalogue as a pointer impact of several biotic and abiotic factors can be evaluated. Outcome of the present review will summarize the hemocytic response against adversaries/change in the form of catalogue for its potential use in applied and biomedical fields. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.


Pandey J.P.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Mishra P.K.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Kumar D.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Sinha A.K.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Generally, Antheraea mylitta cocoons cooking is carried out in alkaline condition by using soap, soda, H2O2, etc., which adversely affects the natural beautiful colour and softness of tasar silk. At eclosion stage, the emerging adults of tasar silkworm, A, mylitta exude a proteolytic enzyme 'cocoonase' which helps in softening anterior portion of cocoon shell and facilitates emergence of moths. Interestingly, cocoonase directly acts on the sericin protein without affecting the fibroin protein. It evidently indicates that, sericin is excellent natural substrate of cocoonase. This natural phenomenon engenders an idea to collect the cocoonase of A. mylitta and investigate its possible-efficacy in cocoon cooking. The SDS-PAGE analysis of freshly collected cocoonase (from emerging moths) showed molecular weight around 26 kDa. A simple technique for cocoonase collection from freshly pierced cocoons has been developed. Cooking of cocoon in cocoonase is concentration, pH, temperature and time dependent. Low concentration (1:15, 1:20, 1:25, 1:30 and 1:35) increases the cooking time and decreases the cooking efficiency. Higher concentration (1:5 dilutions) minimises the cocking time and increases the cooking efficiency. But cocoons were not fully reeled due to hardness in inner portion of the cocoons. Initial boiling of cocoon in water for 30 min followed by cooking in cocoonase (1:5) at 35-40°C temperature and 8.5 to 9.0 pH yielded comparatively better cooking efficiency with 50-55% silk recovery. Yarn obtained from the cocoons cooked in cocoonase preserve natural beautiful unique tasar silk colour, softness and lustre. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Pandey J.P.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Tiwari R.K.,P.A. College
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The red cotton bug, Dysdercus cingulatus, an important polyphagous pest, causes heavy loss to cotton and lady's finger (bhindi) crops which badly affects the economy of poor farmers. In the present study, the impact of different concentrations of neem based insecticides (NBIs) on coupling, moulting, development, hemocyte, fecundity and egg-hatching of D. cingulatus was evaluated. Various concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5%) and doses (2.5 to 20 μL) of NBIs viz. neemark, multineem and neemazal were prepared by diluting them in acetone were applied topically on the dorsum of the body of nymphs and adults and eggs of different age groups. NBIs caused developmental abnormalities such as prolongation of nymphal periods, ecdysial stasis, formation of adultoids and adults with varied degrees of wing deformities. The delay in moulting of treated nymphs is found concentration, dose and stage dependent. The application of NBIs on cephalic and thoracic regions and on ventral surface of insects showed more sensitivity than on abdominal region and dorsal surface. The NBIs application interrupted the coupling and cause lessening of fecundity and egg-hatching also. Among aforesaid NBIs, neemazal treatment was somewhat more effective. In addition, significant reduction in Total Hemocyte Count (THC) and deformities in hemocyte morphology were also observed in NBIs treated insects. It is assumed that the phenomena like metamorphic developments, coupling and fecundity are controlled by Juvenile Hormone (JH) via regulating the release of allatotropic factor from the brain and all these effects of NBIs are stage specific and concentration and dose dependent. NBIs induced changes in hemocyte contour might be also regulated by the brain hormone. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Kumar D.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Pandey J.P.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Ragini,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Sinha A.K.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board | Prasad B.C.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2012

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury is sericigenous wild insect has own dictation on its life cycle stages. Being a poikilothermic organism, temperature decides the fate of A. mylitta during embryonic and postembryonic development. Silkworm eggs (seed) is very vital input of tasar silk industry but due to global warming elevation in temperature with less humidity during 1st crop grainage of A mylitta negatively affects the quality and quantity of egg hatching. In the present study, impact of temperature stress on embryonic development and biochemical profile of A. mylitta eggs has been investigated. Data reveals that considerable alteration in temperature used to hamper the protein and carbohydrate profile which leads to affect the embryonic development and hatching of eggs. Fluctuation in temperature with low humidity causes delay in egg hatching and decrease in hatching percentage. But higher temperature with low humidity during embryonic development of eggs resulted in death of embryo during early age. The depressed eggs with fully formed dead larvae inside the eggs were found after high temperature stress. The concentration of the protein and carbohydrate steadily decreases during subsequent larval differentiation until hatching. Protein and carbohydrate profile also confirm the death of embryo during early stage. In un-hatched eggs, due to less metabolized utilization higher concentration of these nutrients are available. Our initial information indicates that protein and carbohydrate profile can be utilized as biochemical marker for testing appropriate embryonic development and hatchability of eggs. © 2012 Academic Journals Ink.

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