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Reddy R.M.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute
Asian Textile Journal | Year: 2010

The major host plants of all silkworms are available as cultivated or nature grown under different agro climatic conditions and their rearing has become prerogative for rural farmers in India. The silk proteins are extensively used as anti-hay fever masks, gauze pads, contact lenses, catheters and bandages, as artificial skin, blood vessels, tendons, ligaments to treat dermatological disorders besides as anti-coagulants in specialized surgeries. The eye catching art of cocoon craft is very resourceful utility of pierced silk cocoon and one of the cultural and traditional products in certain states of India. The silk bio-polymer is used in manufacturing eye lenses, tissue restoration of burn victims, and as matrix of abrasion surgery. The pupal oil has cosmetic value and is used extensively in face powders and creams, body deodorants besides as hair darkener and shaper with its capacity of making hair black, supple, and flexible. Source

Manohar Reddy R.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2010

The commercially important tropical tasar silk insect, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is having 44 ecoraces distributed along central India (12-31°N latitude and 72-96°E longitude) with varied phenotypic, physiological and behavioral characters. The sericigenous insect feeds primarily on Shorea robusta (Sal), Terminalia arjuna (Arjun), Terminalia tomentosa (Asan) besides variety of secondary and tertiary food plants available in tropical deciduous forests of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh states of India. Some wild tasar ecoraces like, Raily (Chhattisgarh), Modal and Jata (Orissa), Sarihan and Laria (Jharkhand), Bhandara (Maharashtra) and Andhra (Andhra Pradesh), besides domesticated Daba and Sukinda are contributing for livelihood and alleviating the socio-economic status of around hundred and fifty thousand Indian tribal families. However, the extensive collection of nature grown cocoons, rapid deforestation and human encroachment to insect habitats has declined ecorace population. So, there is an imperative need to involve and educate local tribals on cocoon collection and insect conservation to save from extinction. The orderly involvement of forest, tribal welfare, sericulture departments and Non Government Organizations (NGOs) along with local aboriginals can up-keep the silk insect conservation for sustainable utility. This coordinated management of tasar insect population will also help in rejuvenation of their semi-domesticated relative seri-biodiversity and integrated bio-resource (flora and fauna) management of insect ecozones. © 2010 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Kiran Kumar K.P.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute | Sankar Naik S.,Andhra University
International Journal of Zoological Research | Year: 2011

In the silkworm rearing, the usage of commercial silkworm hybrids resistant/tolerant to silkworm diseases is economical and better option particularly in tropical countries, where inadequate disinfection methods are practiced. Among the major silkworm diseases, grasserie caused by Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (BmNPV) is controlled by polygens. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop BmNPV tolerant polyvoltine x bivoltine hybrids by utilizing newly evolved BmNPV tolerant polyvoltine breeds viz., AKP 1, AKP 2 and AKP 3 as lines and bivoltine breeds viz., AKB 6, AKB 7 and AKB 8 as testers by employing LinexTester analysis. Nine hybrid combinations were compared with the control hybrids viz., Pure MysorexCSR 2 and APM lxAPS 8. Total score of positive traits of Specific Combing Ability (SCA), mid Parental Heterosis (MPH) and Better Parent Heterosis (BPH) was observed maximum in case of AKP l×AKB 6 with 20 fallowed by AKP l×AKB 8 (19), AKP 2×AKB 7 (13), AKP 3xAKB 6 (13). Least total score was observed in the case of AKP l×AKB 7. Based upon the total scores (SCA, MPH and BPH), over dominance and E.I values, AKP lxAKB 6 and AKP l×AKB 8 were identified as promising tolerant hybrids against BmNPV with productive merits. These tolerant hybrids can be suggested to the farmers for utilization after conducting large scale trials. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Kumar D.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute | Pandey J.P.,St Xaviers College | Jain J.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute | Mishra P.K.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute | Prasad B.C.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute
International Journal of Zoological Research | Year: 2011

In the present study, quantitative and qualitative changes in protein profile of different tissue of larvae, pupae, adult and eggs of Tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury was investigated. Stage and age dependent variation in protein concentration and SDS-PAGE protein profile of 36 and 64 kDa protein was observed in different tissue. The concentration of protein was recorded higher in eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth and significant variation was also noticed in normal and depressed eggs. Interestingly, substantial changes in SDS-PAGE protein profile was observed in normal and depressed eggs and eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth. Haemolymph and midgut protein concentration was recorded higher in 3rd and 5th instar feeding larvae and in 4th instar mature larvae. Concentration of protein in the haemolymph of pupae before the brain window becomes opaque was higher in both the sexes than opaque stage. Fat body protein concentration in larvae showed increasing trend from 3rd to 5th instar larvae and it was higher in pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and fresh moth. In addition, higher protein concentration was recorded in gonads of pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and in reproductive organs of fresh moth. Present findings would promote to further understand the precise reason for depression of eggs and changes in protein profile in different tissue of A. mylitta. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Mishra P.K.,Research Extension Center | Pandey J.P.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute | Sinha A.K.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute | Sinha M.K.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute | Chakravorty D.,Central Tasar Research and Training Institute
Journal of Advanced Zoology | Year: 2012

Daba bivoltine ecorace of tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta is commercially exploited in tropical India for production of tasar silk. Large scale tasar cocoon production is done by the aboriginals of tropical India on the naturally available plants of Terminate anuria Westwood and T. tomentosa W. & A., however, bulk of cocoons are also collected from Shorea robusta in nature. The substantial proportion of diapausing seed cocoons wherein pupae remain in diapause is lost due to adverse weather in summer season. A tentative period of diapause termination has been determined to be beyond 180 days of diapausing pupae. During this period resumption of physiological activities take place which triggers pupal-adult transformation recognizing the favourable environmental conditions. During this period, tissue specific physio-biochemical changes taking place have not been properly studied so as to correlate them with pupal weight loss and subsequent adult emergence. In the present study concentration of Important biochemical constituents, protein profile vis-a vis pupal age and weigh loss has been reported. During the diapause termination period there was more pupal weight loss than the remaining period of diapause. Overall percent weight loss was observed to be 0.950g of female pupae and 0.64Og of male pupae up to 175 days. Surprisingly, the pupal weight loss In 45 days of diapause termination period was recorded to be 0.550g (8.107%) female and 0.470g (5.334%) of male pupae. At the same age/period female diapausing pupae are ready to emerge when overall cumulative percent weight loss goes up to 13.215% and when male pupae have lost 12.597% body weight. The quantitative total protein in the haemolymph sharply decreased in both female and male pupae. Similar trends of decrease in the level of protein were also seen in gonad and fat body tissues. Haemolymph trehalose level remained at its lowest level till male and female pupae attained the age of 180 to 205 days, thereafter a peak was noticed when pupae attained the age of 210 days followed by sharp decrease and increase prior to adult emergence. Contrary to it, glycogen did not show a fluctuating trend rather it consistently increased till the adults emerged. This cyclic increase or decrease of Important biochemical constituents during diapause termination period of A. mylitta indicates that as per need these constituents are synthesized or get accumulated and later utilized for further growth and pupal adult-transformations. Similar trend was also observed In fat body glycogen. A 48kD female specific protein band was prominently seen through out this period. Intensity of two diapause specific protein bands of 16 & 18kD gradually goes down in haemolymph brain when pupae become older and almost disappear when adult emergence nears. The cumulative percent weight loss of pupae and disappearance of diapause specific protein can be used as markers for the probable period of adult emergence. Accordingly, all the preparatory measures for grainages can be done well in advance while keeping a close watch on the gravimetric of pupal weight loss of diapausing pupae. Source

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