Central South University located in Changsha, a historic and cultural city in Hunan province, central south of the People's Republic of China. CSU was established in April 2000 on the basis of the amalgamation of the three former individual universities, namely Central South University of Mining and Technology , Hunan Medical University and Changsha Railway University . Wikipedia.
News Article | May 5, 2017
New York, NY, May 5, 2017 - An international group of experts has concluded that, for patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, antipsychotic medications do not have negative long-term effects on patients' outcomes or the brain. In addition, the benefits of these medications are much greater than their potential side effects. These findings, by Jeffrey Lieberman, MD, Lawrence C. Kolb Professor and Chairman of Psychiatry at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeon and Director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute, and colleagues from institutions in the United States, Germany, The Netherlands, Austria, Japan, and China, were published today in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Nearly seven million Americans take antipsychotic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia and related conditions. The medications are prescribed to alleviate the symptoms of psychosis and longer-term, to prevent relapse. In recent years, however, concerns have been raised that these medications could have toxic effects and negatively impact long-term outcomes. This view, if not justified by data, has the potential mislead some patients (and their families) to refuse or discontinue antipsychotic treatment. For this reason, the researchers undertook a comprehensive examination of clinical and basic research studies that examined the effects of antipsychotic drug treatment on the clinical outcomes of patients and changes in brain structure. "The evidence from randomized clinical trials and neuroimaging studies overwhelmingly suggests that the majority of patients with schizophrenia benefit from antipsychotic treatment, both in the initial presentation of the disease and for longer-term maintenance to prevent relapse," said Dr. Lieberman. Moreover, whatever side effects that these medications might cause are greatly outweighed by their therapeutic benefits. "Anyone who doubts this conclusion should talk with people whose symptoms have been relieved by treatment and literally given back their lives," Lieberman added. The studies also revealed that delaying or withholding treatment has been associated with poorer long-term outcomes. "While a minority of patients who recover from an initial psychotic episode may maintain their remission without antipsychotic treatment, there is currently no clinical biomarker to identify them, and it is a very small number of patients who may fall into this subgroup," said Dr. Lieberman. "Consequently, withholding treatment could be detrimental for most patients with schizophrenia." And while preclinical studies in rodents suggested that antipsychotic medications can sensitize dopamine receptors, there is no evidence that antipsychotic treatment increases the risk of relapse. While antipsychotic medications can increase the risk for metabolic syndrome, which is linked to heart disease, diabetes, and stroke, the study did not include a risk-benefit analysis. "While more research is needed to address these questions, the strong evidence supporting the benefits of antipsychotic medications should be made clear to patients and their families, while at the same time they should be used judiciously" said Dr. Lieberman. The paper is entitled, "The Long-Term Effects of Antipsychotic Medication on Clinical Course in Schizophrenia." The authors are Donald Goff, MD (New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY), Peter Falkai, MD, PhD (Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany), Wolfgang Fleischhacker, MD, (Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria), Ragy Girgis, MD (Columbia University Medical Center), Rene M. Kahn, MD, PhD (University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands;), Hiroyuki Uchida, MD, PhD (Keiyo University, Tokyo, Japan), Jingping Zhao, MD, Ph.D. (Central South University, Chengsha, China), and Jeffrey Lieberman, MD (Columbia University Medical Center and New York State Psychiatric Institute). Dr. Goff has received research support from Avanir Pharmaceuticals, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Stanley Medical Research Institute. Dr. Fleischhacker has received research support from Boehringer-Ingelheim, Janssen, Lundbeck, and Otsuka; he has received honoraria for serving as a consultant to and/or on advisory boards for Allergan, Dainippon-Sumitomo, GedeonRichter, Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Takeda, and Teva; and he has received speaker's fees and travel support from AOP Orphan, Dainippon Sumitomo, Gedeon Richter, Janssen, Lundbeck, Pfizer, Otsuka, and Teva. Dr. Girgis receives research support from Allergan, BioAdvantex, Genentech, and Otsuka. Dr. Kahn has received consulting fees from Alkermes, Forrest, Forum, Gedeon-Richter, Janssen-Cilag, Minerva Neurosciences, and Sunovion and speaker's fees from Janssen-Cilag and Lilly. Dr. Uchida has received grants from Astellas Pharmaceutical, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Meiji-Seika Pharmaceutical, Mochida Pharmaceutical, Novartis, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, and Shionogi; speaker's honoraria from Dainippon-Sumitomo Pharma, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Meiji-Seika Pharma, MSD, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Shionogi, and Yoshitomi Yakuhin; and advisory panel payments from Dainippon-Sumitomo Pharma. All other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests. New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Department of Psychiatry (NYSPI/Columbia Psychiatry). New York State Psychiatric Institute (founded in 1896) and the Columbia University Department of Psychiatry have been closely affiliated since 1925. Their co-location in a New York State facility on the New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center campus provides the setting for a rich and productive collaborative relationship among scientists and physicians in a variety of disciplines. NYSPI/Columbia Psychiatry is ranked among the best departments and psychiatric research facilities in the nation and has contributed greatly to the understanding of and current treatment for psychiatric disorders. The Department and Institute are home to distinguished clinicians and researchers noted for their clinical and research advances in the diagnosis and treatment of depression, suicide, schizophrenia, bipolar and anxiety disorders and childhood psychiatric disorders. Their combined expertise provides state of the art clinical care for patients, and training for the next generation of psychiatrists and psychiatric researchers. Columbia University Medical Center provides international leadership in basic, preclinical, and clinical research; medical and health sciences education; and patient care. The medical center trains future leaders and includes the dedicated work of many physicians, scientists, public health professionals, dentists, and nurses at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Mailman School of Public Health, the College of Dental Medicine, the School of Nursing, the biomedical departments of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and allied research centers and institutions. Columbia University Medical Center is home to the largest medical research enterprise in New York City and State and one of the largest faculty medical practices in the Northeast. The campus that Columbia University Medical Center shares with its hospital partner, NewYork-Presbyterian, is now called the Columbia University Irving Medical Center. For more information, visit cumc.columbia.edu or columbiadoctors.org.
News Article | April 19, 2017
On 17 April 2017, Chinese geneticists discovered that major mutations in vitamin D related genes are much more common in autism subjects than in controls: Li et al. Vitamin D-related genes are subjected to significant de novo mutation burdens in autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, April 17, 2017. Dr. Li and colleagues found multiple mutations of vitamin D related genes (VDRG), writing that this could be part of the genetic mechanism “underlying ASD pathogenesis.” A meta-analysis found vitamin D deficiency is much more common in autistic children than typically developing children, thought to be due to less sun exposure. But, low vitamin D levels in autistic individuals is lower at 3 months’ gestation, at birth and at age six, so sun exposure does not explain it. Also, two open label trials and a randomized controlled trial found that high dose vitamin D has a treatment effect in established autism. For details of these vitamin D and autism papers, contact Dr. Cannell below. Dr. Li and colleagues discovered that low vitamin D in autism is due to genetics, according to Dr. Li et al in the above paper. They found de novo mutations (a new mutation arising in the egg or sperm that were not present in the parents) were much more likely in vitamin D related genes. This may explain why autistic children have such low vitamin D levels and why vitamin D may help treat and/or prevent autism. It is important to understand that even if you inherit low vitamin D levels, sunshine or supplements may overcome the genetics. To contact the authors, contact: Dr. Zhong Sheng Sun Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing,China Email: sunzs(at)biols9dot)ac(dot)cn Kun Xia, the State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, China. Email: xiakun(at)sklmg.edu(dot)cn This press release was sponsored by: John Cannell MD Vitamin D Council 1411 Marsh Street, Ste 203 San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 jjcannell(at)vitaminDcouncil(dot)org 805 439-1075
Tan C.,Central South University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011
An extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy decision making technique, to a group decision environment is investigated, where inter-dependent or interactive characteristics among criteria and preference of decision makers are taken into account. To get a broad view of the techniques used, first, some operational laws on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values are introduced. Based on these operational laws, a generalized interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operator is proposed which is used to aggregate decision makers' opinions in group decision making process. In addition, some of its properties are discussed. Then Choquet integral-based Hamming distance between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values is defined. Combining the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operator with Choquet integral-based Hamming distance, an extension of TOPSIS method is developed to deal with a multi-criteria interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy group decision making problems. Finally, an illustrative example is used to illustrate the developed procedures. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tan Q.,Central South University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011
Regeneration deficiency is one of the main obstacles limiting the effectiveness of tissue-engineered scaffolds. To develop scaffolds that are capable of accelerating regeneration, we created a heparin/chitosan nanoparticle-immobilized decellularized bovine jugular vein scaffold to increase the loading capacity and allow for controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The vascularization of the scaffold was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The functional nanoparticles were prepared by physical self-assembly with a diameter of 67-132 nm, positive charge, and a zeta potential of ∼30 mV and then the nanoparticles were successfully immobilized to the nanofibers of scaffolds by ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride/hydroxysulfosuccinimide modification. The scaffolds immobilized with heparin/chitosan nanoparticles exhibited highly effective localization and sustained release of VEGF for several weeks in vitro. This modified scaffold significantly stimulated endothelial cells' proliferation in vitro. Importantly, utilization of heparin/chitosan nanoparticles to localize VEGF significantly increased fibroblast infiltration, extracellular matrix production, and accelerated vascularization in mouse subcutaneous implantation model in vivo. This study provided a novel and promising system for accelerated regeneration of tissue-engineering scaffolds.
Huang J.,Central South University
Autophagy | Year: 2012
Autophagy is a catabolic process critical to maintaining cellular homeostasis and responding to cytotoxic insult. Autophagy is recognized as "programmed cell survival" in contrast to apoptosis or programmed cell death. Upregulation of autophagy has been observed in many types of cancers and has been demonstrated to both promote and inhibit antitumor drug resistance depending to a large extent on the nature and duration of the treatment-induced metabolic stress as well as the tumor type. Cisplatin, doxorubicin and methotrexate are commonly used anticancer drugs in osteosarcoma, the most common form of childhood and adolescent cancer. Our recent study demonstrated that high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)-mediated autophagy is a significant contributor to drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells. Inhibition of both HMGB1 and autophagy increase the drug sensitivity of osteosarcoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ULK1-FIP200 complex is required for the interaction between HMGB1 and BECN1, which then promotes BECN1-PtdIns3KC3 complex formation during autophagy. Thus, these findings provide a novel mechanism of osteosarcoma resistance to therapy facilitated by HMGB1-mediated autophagy and provide a new target for the control of drug-resistant osteosarcoma patients.
Zhu C.,Central South University
Optics Communications | Year: 2012
This paper proposes a novel image encryption scheme based on the improved hyperchaotic sequences. Firstly, the hyperchaotic sequences are modified to generate chaotic key stream that is more suitable for image encryption. Secondly, the final encryption key stream is generated by correlating the chaotic key stream and plaintext which result in both key sensitivity and plaintext sensitivity. The scheme can achieve high key sensitivity and high plaintext sensitivity through only two rounds diffusion operation. The performance test and security analysis has been performed using the histograms, correlation coefficients, information entropy, peak signal-to-noise ratio, key sensitivity analysis, differential analysis, key space analysis, decryption quality and speed analysis. Results suggest that the proposed image encryption scheme is secure and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for the secure image communication applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lu Q.,Central South University
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2013
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by aberrant immune responses against healthy cells and tissues, in which a given individual's genetic susceptibilities play a central role; however, the exact mechanisms underlying the development of these conditions remain for the most part unknown. In recent years, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that, in addition to genetics, other complementary mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, in particular, epigenetics. Epigenetics is defined as stable and heritable patterns of gene expression that do not entail any alterations to the original DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms primarily consist of DNA methylation, histone modifications and small non-coding RNA transcripts. Epigenetic marks can be affected by age and other environmental triggers, providing a plausible link between environmental factors and the onset and development of various human diseases. Because of their primary function in regulating timely gene expression, epigenetic mechanisms offer potential advantages in terms of interpreting the molecular basis of complicated diseases and providing new promising therapeutic avenues for their treatment. The present review focuses on recent progress made in elucidating the relationship between epigenetics and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, primary Sjögren's syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis and type 1 diabetes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Tang X.H.,Central South University
Advanced Nonlinear Studies | Year: 2014
Consider the semilinear Schrödinger equation -Δu + V(x)u = f (x, u), x ∈ ℝN, u ∈ H1(ℝN), where f is a superlinear, subcritical nonlinearity. We mainly study the case where both V and f are periodic in x and 0 belongs to a spectral gap of -Δ + V. Based on the work of Szulkin and Weth [J Funct Anal 257: 3802-3822, 2009], we develop a new technique to show the boundedness of Cerami sequences and derive a new super-quadratic condition that there exists a θ0 ∈ (0, 1) such that 1 - θ2/2 t f (x, t) ≥ ∫ θt t f (x, s)ds, ∀ θ ∈ [0, θ0] for the existence a "ground state solution" which minimizes the corresponding energy among all nontrivial solutions. Our result unifies and improves some known ones and the recent ones of Szulkin and Weth [J Funct Anal 257: 3802-3822, 2009] and Liu [Calc. Var. 45: 1-9, 2012].
Lin L.,Central South University
Nanoscale | Year: 2011
Large-scale centimetres-long single-crystal β-SiC nanowires have been prepared using CH4 as the carbon source and SiO or the mixture of Si and SiO2 as the silicon source by a simple catalyst-free CVD route under superatmospheric pressure conditions. The nanowries grown on ceramic boat or corundum substrates, with lengths of several centimetres and the average diameters of around 40 nm, were composed of single-crystal β-SiC core along the  direction and amorphous SiO2 shell of about 1-30 nm thick depending on the growth position along the flowing direction of the carrier gas. The total gas pressure is an important factor for the synthesis of the large-scale centimetres-long β-SiC nanowires, which can easily adjust the pressure of the vapors to supersaturation condition. The growth of the nanowires was governed by the Vapor-Solid mechanism. The β-SiC nanowires showed an intense blue light emission at room temperature. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Central South University | Date: 2013-03-12
A method for extracting tungsten from scheelite by: 1) adding a mixed acid including H_(2)SO_(4 )and H_(3)PO_(4 )to a decomposition reactor; 2) heating the mixed acid to a temperature of 70-100 C.; adding scheelite while controlling the liquid-solid ratio at about 3:1-8:1 L/kg; allowing the components in the decomposition reactor to react for 1-6 h, and filtering to obtain a filtrate; 3) supplementing the filtrate with sulfuric acid consumed in the reaction; 4) crystallizing the filtrate to obtain phosphotungstic acid crystals and mother liquor; 5) dissolving the phosphotungstic acid crystals in water to obtain phosphotungstic acid solution; 6) transforming the phosphotungstic acid solution into an ammonium tungstate solution for the purpose of preparing ammonium paratungstate; and 7) supplementing the mother liquor with phosphoric acid and water to an initial level and reusing the mother liquor for ore leaching.