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Sharma S.D.,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry | Kumar P.,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry | Yadav S.K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute ICAR
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The aim of this research was designed to determine the effectiveness of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter sensu Gerdemann), Glomus magnicaulis (Hall) and Azotobacter strains on growth promotion of mango seedlings under limited nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) soil fertilization for sustainable nursery management in rainfed ecosystem. Three districts in the state of Himachal Pradesh namely, 'Kangra', 'Hamirpur' and 'Bilaspur' being located in the Shiwalik hill range of north-western Himalayas of India were selected purposely to measure the intensity of occurrence and distribution of indigenous AM fungal species and A. chroococcum strains in local 'Dashehari' mango orchards. AM fungi viz., G. fasciculatum (Thaxter sensu Gerdemann), G. magnicaulis (Hall), G. mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) and Gigaspora heterogamma (Nicol. and Gerd.), and two strains of A. chroococcum viz., AZ1 and AZ2 were predominant in the rhizosphere soil of the orchards. The data inferred that AM fungal spore load, root colonization and A. chroococcum bacterial count in different locations ranged from 2150-2975 sporeskg-1 of the moist soil, 8.5-11.8% and 3.1×106-4.7×106 colony forming units (cfu), respectively. Soil type of the orchards varied between sandy loam and clay loam. To assess the comparative effectiveness of AM species and Azotobacter strains, the inocula were screened alone and in dual combination at different levels of N and P inorganic fertilizers. The inocula of potent isolates/strains i.e., Glomus fasciculatum, G. magnicaulis, AZ1 and AZ2 were multiplied and inoculated under varied N and P fertilization in the ratio of 12:4gkg-1 i.e. 2/3 N+P, 3/4 N+P and full N+P. Vegetative development affected by the mycorrhizal and bacterial inoculation was more pronounced when seedlings were inoculated with G. fasciculatum followed by G. magnicaulis with AZ1 and/or AZ2 alone, and in dual combination at 2/3 dose of N+P. The inoculation of either of AM fungal species and/or bacterial strains led to a significant increase in plant height, stem diameter, leaf area and total root length in comparison to non-inoculated control, and was also demonstrated with G. fasciculatum and AZ1 stimulated maximum growth of the seedlings in reduced N and P inorganic fertilizer sources. Considering the overall results, G. fasciculatum and AZ1 had a greater effect on vegetative growth promotion in reduced soil nutrient supply on mango seedlings. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mandal K.G.,Opp. Rail Vihar | Kundu D.K.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Thakur A.K.,Opp. Rail Vihar | Kannan K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute ICAR | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Rice production in aerobic conditions holds promise in Asia especially in the era of increasing irrigation water scarcity. Field experiments were conduceted on aerobic rice systems at the research farm of the Directorate of Water Management (ICAR), Bhubaneswar, India, during dry seasons of 2007-2008 to 2009-2010 to evaluate different irrigation regimes and water saving potential in aerobic rice compared to traditional flooded rice, varietal performance and fertilizer N-rates. Results revealed that the rice varieties viz. 'Surendra', 'Apo' and 'Lalat' showed the highest yield potential between 3.9 to 4.6 t ha-1 under aerobic conditions with soil moisture at 80-90% of field capacity throughout the growing season. These varieties were suitable for growing under aerobic condition because of favorable physiological characteristics and crop yield. Water input as a pre-sowing irrigation was estimated as 54-62 mm for aerobic rice, and 362-401 mm for wet land preparation for traditional flooded rice. On average, water input during crop growth stage was 506 mm for aerobic rice and 882 mm for traditional flooded rice. In total, saving potential of water input was 42-60% with aerobic rice when compared to traditional flooded rice. The grain yield was 2.39-3.36 t ha-1 under aerobic irrigation regimes, with the highest being with irrigation at 80-90% of field capacity of soils. Results showed a reduction in yield under aerobic conditions as compared to traditional flooded. This yield reduction was 16% with irrigation at 80-90% of field capacity. However, estimated water productivity, with respect to rainfall and irrigation water input, increased in aerobic rice (4.71 kg grain ha-1 mm-1) compared to traditional one (3.04 kg grain ha-1 mm-1). Studies on irrigation x N interaction revealed that a highest grain yield of 4.4 t ha-1 was obtained with N rate of 120 kg ha-1 receiving 780 mm irrigation for rice variety 'Surendra'. The next best combination viz. N rate of 80 kg ha-1 with 780 mm irrigation (3.84 t ha-1) and N rate of 120 kg ha-1 and 660 mm irrigation (3.61 t ha-1) were statistically similar. Hence, based on availability of irrigation water, N rate needs to be decided. The study on varietal (viz. 'Apo', 'Lalat' and 'Surendra') response to N rates showed that, irrespective of variety, aerobic rice with 120 N kg ha-1 with 780 mm irrigation gave the highest grain and straw yield of 4.24 and 6.63 t ha-1 with grain and straw N-uptake of 52.17 and 52.63 kg ha-1, respectively.

Somasundaram J.,Indian Institute of Science | Singh R.K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute ICAR | Prasad S.N.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute ICAR | Sethy B.K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute ICAR | And 3 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2011

Crop yields in rainfed areas are primarily dependent on the rainfall pattern and stored soil moisture. High smectite clay causes the formation of cracks, which are a striking feature of black Vertisols which are also distinguished by the presence of pot-holes. Soil water is recharged during the rainy season via these cracks, which also results in pot-hole formation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different conservation measures on pot-holes. Length, width and depth were measured during dry spells after the onset of the monsoon under various field treatments. The results indicate that uncultivated fields have a greater volume of pot-holes (573m3/ha) than cultivated ones due to unbroken gentle slopes, which would have caused silt-laden runoff to travel longer distances to form pot-holes. The results show that among the cultivated fields, a control plot had the maximum volume of pot-holes (450m3/ha), followed by a conservation bench terrace (CBT) (231m3/ha), residue incorporated (RI) fields (142m3/ha) and contour furrow areas (CF) (119m3/ha). The CBT field treatment had a higher volume of pot-holes despite a high percentage of micro-aggregates and high total porosity. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 British Society of Soil Science.

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