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Vijayan K.,Central Silk Board | Saratchandra B.,Central Silk Board | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

As the threat from urbanization, climatic changes, out breaks of new diseases and pests, and the frequent occurrence of natural calamities increases as a result of global warming, conservation of plant genetic resources is seen widely as a necessary step to preserve the world's germplasm for posterity. Conservation strategies for vegetatively propagated plants are different from those adopted for conserving annual crops. This article summarizes the strategies that are best suited for better and safer conservation of precious genetic germplasm of mulberry, an economically important tree of Asia. An overview of the merits and demerits of in situ, ex situ and in vitro techniques as well as DNA banking or cryopreservation is provided in the context of mulberry genetic resources. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Vijayan K.,Central Silk Board | Chung M.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Tsou C.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Intragenomic variability is known to be present in multi-copy gene sequences of several plant species and causes severe problems on molecular phylogenetic analysis. Initial investigation revealed extensive presence of intragenomic variability in nrITS of Camellia. Detailed investigation using 20-30 sequences from each leaf sample of seven species of Camellia revealed considerable sequence variability in terms of Kimura pair-wise distance, nucleotide diversity and Tamura's D parameters. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the dispersion of rDNA loci into multiple chromosomes and a small percentage of species in Camellia were allotetraploids. The distribution of rDNA loci into nonhomologous chromosomes along with long generation period and incidence of the interspecific hybridization are considered the major reasons for the failure of complete homogenization of the nrITS repeats by concerted evolution in Camellia. Nevertheless, in the majority diploid species or in the dominant sequence types of the allotetraploids, nrITS sequence variability was not high enough to obliterate the phylogenetic signals. Thus, utilization of nrITS in the phylogeny of Camellia is still possible, if adequate care is taken. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


More S.V.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Khandelwal H.B.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Joseph M.A.,Central Silk Board | Laxman R.S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Journal of Natural Fibers | Year: 2013

Degumming of Chinese bivoltine silk with alkaline proteases from various microbial sources was investigated and compared with commercial enzymes. Among the proteases tested, two fungal and two actinomycete proteases were promising, which showed weight loss similar to conventional method (19.58% to 21.78%). Conidiobolus brefeldianus and BOA-2 proteases were best enzymes, which showed weight loss similar to conventional method with low enzyme concentrations and in shorter time. No significant differences were found in tensile strength or elongation at break by enzymatic degumming indicating that there was no damage to the fiber. Scanning electron micrographs showed the sericin deposits were removed and the fibers were separated. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Vijayan K.,Central Silk Board | Raju P.J.,Central Silk Board | Tikader A.,Central Silk Board | Saratchnadra B.,Central Silk Board
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

Mulberry (Morus sp.) is one of the economically important trees grown in Asian countries. It is cultivated to provide leaves for feeding the caterpillars of the silk producing insect (Bombyx mori L.). In addition, it adds value through production of edible fruits, timber and several pharmaceutically important chemicals. Improvement of mulberry through conventional breeding is limited due to high heterozygosity and long generation period. Attempts have recently been made to complement conventional breeding with modern biotechnological tools such as plant tissue culture, recombinant DNA technology and molecular markers to facilitate mulberry genetic improvement. The techniques of tissue culture have grown considerably in mulberry and encompassed areas including micropropagation, plant regeneration from leaf discs, and screening for stress tolerance. Recently, genetic engineering was adopted to enhance drought and salt tolerance in mulberry using HVA1 and Osmotin genes. Molecular markers such as Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) have been used for molecular characterization of mulberry germplasm, biodiversity analysis, genetic mapping and identification of molecular markers for growth and yield. However, still a number of issues such as resistance to fungal and bacterial diseases, combating infestation of pests and insects, and tolerance to drought and salinity are to be sorted out to achieve sustainable mulberry cultivation to meet the increasing demand of the silk industry. This review describes the developments of tissue culture, transgenesis and molecular markers in mulberry and highlights the current constraints and future prospects.


Vijayan K.,Central Silk Board | Srivastava P.P.,Central Silk Board | Raghunath M.K.,Central Sericulture Research and Training Institute | Saratchandra B.,Central Silk Board
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Mulberry is an economic tree being cultivated in China, India and several other Asian countries to feed the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as mulberry leaf is the only food material available for this insect. The recent burst in the industrialization and urbanization has considerably reduced the availability of land for agriculture purposes in these Asian countries. This, in turn, has added much pressure on many agro-based industries, including sericulture, to utilize the hitherto unutilized or marginally utilized areas for crop production. Sericulture, a rural agro-based industry, is attempting to expand mulberry cultivation to drought- and salinity-affected lands. Mulberry is only moderately tolerant to salinity and drought stresses, thus utilization of natural variations in stress tolerance does not hold much promise. Therefore, efforts are being taken to develop stress-tolerant varieties using modern biotechnological methods, including transgenesis. This paper provides an overview of the progress made to achieve this latter goal, highlighting the problems and prospects. Different methodologies used to achieve transgenic mulberry, their merits and demerits are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Sinha R.K.,Central Silk Board | Sathyanarayana K.,Central Silk Board
Indian Silk | Year: 2012

Maharashtra, the leading non-traditional silk producing state in the county, today has stooped to conquer. The pragmatic approach, the switch over largely to bivoltine, and augmentation of tasar block plantation, blended with social-forestry concern is an indication of its long-term planning and vision. Presented here is the status of sericulture in the state, issues and the strategies for sustained growth of the industry.


Qadri S.M.H.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute | Kumaresan P.,Central Silk Board
Indian Silk | Year: 2013

In view of the need for effective and timely redressai of the technology related issues of the farmers and the snag in the extension machinery for obvious reasons on the other hand, participation by the private players has yielded desirable results. The present concept paper suggests expanding the role of the Chawki Rearing Centre as Sericulture Resource Centre, ensuring effective extension.


Kumaresan P.,Central Silk Board
Indian Silk | Year: 2013

The prices of silk in the domestic market depend on various factors viz., production of silk in the country, cost of production vis-à-vis cost of inputs of production, demand for silk, import of silk from China as also prices of consumer commodities. An empirical study made with the available data with regard to the trend in cost of production of cocoon in India vis-à-vis China, helps understand the comparative advantage/disadvantage of Indian sericulture.


Kumaresan P.,Central Silk Board | Qadri S.M.H.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Indian Journal of Sericulture | Year: 2012

The area under mulberry and raw silk production grew at healthy rates in major silk producing states as well as in the country as a whole during 1980s and earlier part of 1990s. However, the rate of growth in raw silk production decelerated after mid 1990s as a result of decline in mulberry area. Nonetheless, owing to the improved technologies developed and popularized in the field, the productivity levels were sustained over the period. Varying pattern and magnitude of instability in mulberry were recorded across the states. The area instability was observed as the major source of production instability in most of the major silk producing states.


Srinivasa D.R.,Central Silk Board | Rajmohan,Man2succeed Consulting Firm Maruthi Nagar
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2012

The quality of the raw material is a paramount importance for any industry to have a final quality product. As far as the silk Industry is concerned, silkworm cocoon is the raw material for silk reeling. The raw silk is obtained from the shell of silk worm cocoons and is made up of long and continuous silk filament which is proteinaceous spun by the mature silkworm. The quality of the cocoons have considerable impact on the quality and quantity of the raw silk and economics of silk reeling. The present report is the result of the study which was undertaken to assess awareness among farmers on the factors influencing the quality of the cocoon and its importance on cocoon pricing. Through a questionnaire containing various factors which affect the quality of the cocoon was collected using random sampling from the farmers who bring the cocoons to the cocoon market located in Ramanagaram, Karnataka state. From each lot, a sample of I kg of cocoons was taken for testing and the defective cocoons are categorized as melted, flimsy, uzi infected, stained, deformed etc., along with the details such as defective cocoon percentage (DCP), shell ratio percentage (SR), cocoon quality index (CQI), and grades are tabulated for further analysis. Total Quality Management (TQM) tools viz., pareto chart, Cause and effect analysis and Failure Modes Effect Analysis (FMEA) were used based on the data collected from the testing of raw materials (Cocoon). The Study revealed that most of the farmers were unaware of the causes of the melted and irregular cocoons. The study recommend the need for appropriate training for making the farmers more quality conscious. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012.

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