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Sahoo A.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Singh B.,National Dairy Research Institute | Sharma O.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

The feeding value of sun dried Ea (Eupatorium adenophorum, Ea) leaves in combination with mulberry (Morus alba, Ma) was studied by in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique and in vivo feeding experiment with sheep. The IVGP involved both kinetic assay and ruminal fermentation attributes (gas production, CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA), purines and digestibility parameters). IVGP data from the combined substrates having Ea at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, 50.0 and 100.0% levels with Ma ruminally incubated for 72h were studied by using single pool Logistic model. The in vitro result was validated in vivo involving eighteen sheep (18mo, average BW 22.5±1.1kg) which were randomly distributed in three equal groups. Group 1 served as control and fed with a complete diet having concentrate mixture and wheat straw at 50:50 ratio. In groups 2 and 3, the concentrate was replaced at 50% level with Ma and Ma+Ea (60:40 ratio), respectively. A digestion trial was conducted after 3months of experimental feeding for assessing feed and nutrient intake and digestibility. The potential gas production (B) revealed an increasing trend up to 40% (from 41.5 to 48.5ml) accompanied by a decreasing lag (L, from 2.15 to 0.69h), increase in rate maxima (μm, from 2.18 to 3.02) and a decrease in halfway time to the maximum gas volume (t1/2, from 11.73 to 8.72h) and all these values reversed at higher inclusion levels. CH4 production showed a declining trend with the increase in Ea in the substrate (20% reduction with 100% Ea). VFA production (mM/g DM) decreased from 3.69 to 2.47 with a consequent decrease in acetate: propionate ratio from 4.39 to 3.14 at Ea 40%. True DM digestibility decreased at Ea higher than 40%. Partitioning factor (PF) and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis also showed an increasing trend up to 40% Ea. The feeding experiment in sheep showed non-significant difference in DM and nutrient intake between the groups, but there was a marked depression (P<0.001) in digestibility of nutrients when concentrate was replaced with Ma, which declined further with the inclusion of Ea. However, the animals showed positive live weight gain (average daily gain 20g/d) and the difference from other dietary groups was non-significant. On the basis of positive in vitro ruminal fermentation data (lower total gas, CH4, VFA, improved acetate: propionate ratio, higher digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, PF) for Ma 60+ Ea40 and in vivo data on the forage mixture with Ea having high CP (223g/kg DM), moderate intake and OM digestibility (0.599) sustaining minimum live weight gain in sheep, the encroaching eupatorium biomass can partly substitute costly protein concentrates and may have potential to be incorporated in the complete diet. However, long term feeding experiment is warranted to rule out its toxic effect. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Sejian V.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Maurya V.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on physiological adaptability and growth performance of Malpura ewes. Twenty-eight adult Malpura ewes (average BW 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups, viz., GI (n = 7; control), GII (n = 7; thermal stress), GIII (n = 7; nutritional stress), and GIV (n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall-fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding, while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h/day between 1000 and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were feed intake, water intake, physiological responses (viz., respiration rate, pulse rate, and rectal temperature), body weight, and body condition scoring (BCS) of ewes. Both thermal and combined stress significantly (P < 0. 05) affected the feed intake, water intake, respiration rate, and rectal temperature. The feeding schedule followed in the experiment significantly (P < 0.05) altered the body weight and BCS between the groups. The results reveal that when compared with thermal stress, nutritional stress had less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, it had a significant influence on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, the total cost may have severe impact on biological function. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Singh D.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Swarnkar C.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The study was undertaken to develop and evaluate a colour chart to identify degree of anaemia in sheep of Rajasthan for management of haemonchosis and maintaining the anthelmintic susceptibility in population of parasites for longer period. Initially each sheep in a flock was monitored at monthly interval for correlating the intensity of Haemonchus contortus infection and blood profile (packed cell volume and haemoglobin). At each occasion photographs of conjunctivae were taken and a colour chart was developed (indicating 1-5 degree of conjunctiva colour) to indicate packed cell volume and anaemic status of the sheep. Based on the colour chart, the animals falling in category 1 to 3 were considered as normal while those falling in category 4 and 5 were considered as anaemic. The correlation between faecal egg count and degree of anaemia was positive in wormy season. The colour of conjunctiva was found to have negative correlation with haematological values. In subsequent years the colour chart was applied to all sheep flocks at Sheep Breeding Farm, Fatehpur (Rajasthan). It was observed that monthly proportion of sheep falling in category 4 or 5 were maximum of 17.35% in the month of September, 2008. The system was suitable in detecting the susceptible animals during wormy season. With this approach of targeted selective treatment (TST), the average frequency of anthelmintic drench in flock was 22.93±4.03% per annum compared to > 100% in conventional strategic treatment. In conclusion, though TST approach require some time and labour investment for selecting the animals for treatment but significantly reduced the cost of anthelmintic drenching as well as selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance.


Swarnkar C.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Singh D.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

A comparison of parasitological status and economic benefit derived from 2 schemes of worm management in naturally infected sheep flocks was made in semi-arid Rajasthan. During the period from June 2004 to March 2011, sheep (8061) were monitored for productive performance and evaluated for gastrointestinal strongyles by examining 25172 faecal samples. The monthly incidence and intensity of strongyle nematodes remained almost similar among flocks given either strategic (1 drench/annum) or conventional (3 drenches/annum) anthelmintic treatment. The epidemiological profile exhibited higher magnitude of infection only during monsoon (July-October). The comparative economic evaluation showed that reduction in anthelmintic frequency in strategic scheme as against conventional scheme had no adverse effect on flock performance and yields better financial return to farmers. The result reflected the value and success of single drench schedule (strategic scheme) for the effective management of predominant gastrointestinal nematodes in field flocks of semi-arid Rajasthan which is based on relevant epidemiological information.


Bhatt R.S.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P < 0.001). The digestibility and intake of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was higher (P < 0.05) in T(2). The N intake, absorption, and balance showed a similar trend. Increase (P < 0.05) in total N, trichloroacetic acid precipitable N, and ammonia N was observed with extension of realimentation period. Blood metabolic profile also showed improvement (P < 0.05) from an undernourished state to normal after alimentation. Animals in T(2) accumulated higher LW with minimal expenditure of metabolizable energy (73.4 vs 79.1 MJ) and higher efficiency of feed conversion during 68 to 90 days of realimentation. Linear improvement (P < 0.01) in carcass traits (preslaughter weight, empty live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, and amount of subcutaneous and intramuscular fat) and composition of longissimus dorsi muscle was observed. Ad lib concentrate supplementation for a period of 90 days may thus be considered appropriate for achieving desired efficiency of gain and improvement in body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.


Naqvi S.M.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

Feed scarcity during hot summer months is one of the major predisposing factors for low reproductive efficiency of livestock reared in hot semiarid environment. A study was conducted to assess the effect of concentrate supplementation during summer months on growth, reproductive performance, and blood metabolites in Malpura ewes. Twenty adult Malpura ewes were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into two groups viz, group 1 (n = 10; control) and group 2 (n = 10; concentrate supplementation). The study was conducted for a period of 35 days covering two estrus cycles. In the first cycle, only PGF(2α) was given to all ewes, while in second cycle, all ewes were synchronized for estrus using progesterone-impregnated intravaginal sponges and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. The animals were allowed for grazing for 8-10 h per day. Apart from grazing, group 2 ewes were supplemented with concentrate mixture at 1.5 % of body weight. Concentrate supplementation had significant influence on body weight, ADG, estrus percentage, estrus duration, onset of estrus, ovulation response, plasma glucose, total protein, and urea. The present study reveals that ewes supplemented with concentrate mixture at 1.5 % of body weights during summer season significantly influenced the growth and reproductive performance of Malpura ewes. Further, the study signifies the importance of providing additional feed supplementation to ewes kept grazing under the conditions of a hot, semiarid environment to improve their reproductive efficiency.


Sejian V.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Maurya V.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to assess the effect of thermal, nutritional and combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on the growth, oestradiol and progesterone levels during oestrus cycles in Malpura ewes. Twenty-eight adult Malpura ewes were used in the present study. The ewes were randomly allocated into four groups, viz., GI (n=7; control), GII (n=7; thermal stress), GIII (n=7; restricted feeding) and GIV (n=7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI and GII ewes) to induce nutritional insufficiency. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6h a day between 10:00 and 16:00hours to induce thermal stress for a period of two oestrous cycles. Parameters studied were body weight, oestrus incidences, plasma oestradiol 17-β, plasma progesterone, conception rate, gestation period, lambing rate, and birth weight of lambs. The results indicate that combined stress significantly (p<0.05) reduced body weight, oestrus duration, birth weight of lambs, and oestradiol 17-β whereas significantly (p<0.05) increased oestrus cycle length and progesterone. Furthermore, the results reveal that on comparative basis, ewes were able to better adapt in terms of growth and reproduction to restricted feeding than thermal stress. However, when restricted feeding was coupled with thermal stress it had significant (p<0.05) influence on body weight, average daily gain, oestradiol 17-β and progesterone concentrations. This showed that combined stress were more detrimental for these reproductive hormones in Malpura ewes under a hot semi-arid environment. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Tripathi M.K.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Karim S.A.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Yeast cultures are being exploited as a substitute of antibiotics in animal feeding to promote gut health and performance. This experiment assessed the effect of supplementation of the live yeast cultures on live weight change, rumen fermentation, ciliate protozoa population, microbial hydrolytic enzymes status and slaughtering performance of growing lamb during post weaning phase of growth. Sixty weaner lambs were fed ad libitum a composite feed mixture (CFM) for 91days in five equal groups. The CFM had roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio of 25:75. In addition to CFM control lambs were supplemented sterilized culture while other lamb groups received either Kluyveromyces marximanus (NRRL3234; KM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCDC42; SC), Saccharomyces uvarum (ATCC9080; SU) or mixed (all tree cultures in 1:1:1 ratio) culture. The yeast cultures contained 1.5-2.0×109 cells per ml, which were fed at 1ml per kg live weight to each lamb of treatment groups. Dry matter intake was similar among control and yeast culture supplemented lambs ranging from 68.4 to 81.2g/kgW0.75. However, daily gain was higher (p=0.002) in SC and mixed yeast culture supplemented lambs. Half carcass weight ranged from 14.2 to 15.1kg and dressing 52.2 to 53.5% were similar among five lamb groups. Similarly, other carcass traits did not change by yeast supplementation. The SU and mixed culture supplementation declined rumen fluid pH and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration. Individual yeast cultures increased but mixed yeast culture reduced total ciliates protozoa. Individual cultures increased Entodinomorphs while mixed culture reduced its number in rumen ecosystem. The SU culture increased (p=0.023) Diplodinomorphs population. Proteases activity was 499, 407, 284 and 144 units higher respectively, in mixed, SC, SU and KM culture supplemented lambs. Cellular activity of α-amylase enzyme was lower in SC, KM and mixed yeast culture lambs. Extra cellular activity of β-glucosidase enzyme was similar (p=0.581), whereas cellular (p=0.007) and total activity was higher (p=0.029) in SU culture lambs. The extra cellular and total activity of xylanase was not different but cellular activity was higher (p=0.042) in KM lambs. The carboxymethyle cellulase activity was similar among the five animal groups. The SC, SU and mixed culture supplementation improved feed intake (p=0.722) by 8.0, 13.3 and 18.8% and daily gain (p=0.002) by 26.6, 11.7 and 18.8% respectively in lambs. The SC culture feeding promoted feed intake and growth by 8 and 26.6% respectively showing the suitability of growth promoting microbial feed additive. The SC culture supplementation in rumen ecosystem also facilitated microbial growth and improved activity of short chain polysaccharides degrading micro-organism. Therefore, SC culture can be used as a growth promoting feed additives in meat animal production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Tripathi M.K.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Karim S.A.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This study investigated effects of feeding three individual, and a mixed, yeast culture (Kluyveromyces marximanus NRRL3234, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCDC42, Saccharomyces uvarum ATCC9080 all in a 1:1:1, ratio) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and microbial crude protein (CP) synthesis in feedlot lambs during the post-weaning phase of growth. Sixty weaner lambs (90 ± 3.5 d old and 15.9 ± 0.50 kg BW) were fed for 91 d in five equal groups. The control group of lambs received sterilized culture medium while the treatment groups were fed a yeast culture in addition to a ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR). The yeast culture, dosed at 1 ml/kg body weight (BW) had 1.5-2.0 × 10 9 live cells/ml. Yeast culture supplementation did not influence intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose and the metabolizable energy (ME) level of the diets were similar between control and yeast supplemented lambs. Lambs in all groups were in positive N balance, but N intake and N voided in feces and urine, as well as N balance, did not change due to yeast culture supplementation. Urinary allantoin excretion was similar, but purine derivatives absorbed (mM/d) were higher (P<0.05) in yeast culture supplemented lambs. Yeast culture supplementation improved (P<0.05) microbial CP synthesis. Supplementation of SC and mixed yeast improved (P=0.002) BW gain of lambs by 21% and 16% respectively. All yeast culture supplemented lambs had higher feed efficiency in comparison to control lambs. Among the three yeast cultures used, S. cerevisiae had the most potential as a growth promoting feed additive in feedlot lamb production, and it may serve as an alternate to antibiotics and ionophores as a growth promoter of weaner lambs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sejian V.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Maurya V.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI (n=7; control), GII (n=7; thermal stress), GIII (n=7; nutritional stress) and GIV (n=7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T 4, T 3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly (P<0.05) affected all parameters studied. Furthermore, the results revealed that, compared to thermal stress, nutritional stress had a less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, they had a severe impact on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that two stressors occurring simultaneously may impact severely on the biological functions necessary to maintain homeostasis in sheep. © 2010 ISB.

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