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Sahoo A.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Singh B.,National Dairy Research Institute | Sharma O.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

The feeding value of sun dried Ea (Eupatorium adenophorum, Ea) leaves in combination with mulberry (Morus alba, Ma) was studied by in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique and in vivo feeding experiment with sheep. The IVGP involved both kinetic assay and ruminal fermentation attributes (gas production, CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA), purines and digestibility parameters). IVGP data from the combined substrates having Ea at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, 50.0 and 100.0% levels with Ma ruminally incubated for 72h were studied by using single pool Logistic model. The in vitro result was validated in vivo involving eighteen sheep (18mo, average BW 22.5±1.1kg) which were randomly distributed in three equal groups. Group 1 served as control and fed with a complete diet having concentrate mixture and wheat straw at 50:50 ratio. In groups 2 and 3, the concentrate was replaced at 50% level with Ma and Ma+Ea (60:40 ratio), respectively. A digestion trial was conducted after 3months of experimental feeding for assessing feed and nutrient intake and digestibility. The potential gas production (B) revealed an increasing trend up to 40% (from 41.5 to 48.5ml) accompanied by a decreasing lag (L, from 2.15 to 0.69h), increase in rate maxima (μm, from 2.18 to 3.02) and a decrease in halfway time to the maximum gas volume (t1/2, from 11.73 to 8.72h) and all these values reversed at higher inclusion levels. CH4 production showed a declining trend with the increase in Ea in the substrate (20% reduction with 100% Ea). VFA production (mM/g DM) decreased from 3.69 to 2.47 with a consequent decrease in acetate: propionate ratio from 4.39 to 3.14 at Ea 40%. True DM digestibility decreased at Ea higher than 40%. Partitioning factor (PF) and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis also showed an increasing trend up to 40% Ea. The feeding experiment in sheep showed non-significant difference in DM and nutrient intake between the groups, but there was a marked depression (P<0.001) in digestibility of nutrients when concentrate was replaced with Ma, which declined further with the inclusion of Ea. However, the animals showed positive live weight gain (average daily gain 20g/d) and the difference from other dietary groups was non-significant. On the basis of positive in vitro ruminal fermentation data (lower total gas, CH4, VFA, improved acetate: propionate ratio, higher digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, PF) for Ma 60+ Ea40 and in vivo data on the forage mixture with Ea having high CP (223g/kg DM), moderate intake and OM digestibility (0.599) sustaining minimum live weight gain in sheep, the encroaching eupatorium biomass can partly substitute costly protein concentrates and may have potential to be incorporated in the complete diet. However, long term feeding experiment is warranted to rule out its toxic effect. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Singh D.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Swarnkar C.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The study was undertaken to develop and evaluate a colour chart to identify degree of anaemia in sheep of Rajasthan for management of haemonchosis and maintaining the anthelmintic susceptibility in population of parasites for longer period. Initially each sheep in a flock was monitored at monthly interval for correlating the intensity of Haemonchus contortus infection and blood profile (packed cell volume and haemoglobin). At each occasion photographs of conjunctivae were taken and a colour chart was developed (indicating 1-5 degree of conjunctiva colour) to indicate packed cell volume and anaemic status of the sheep. Based on the colour chart, the animals falling in category 1 to 3 were considered as normal while those falling in category 4 and 5 were considered as anaemic. The correlation between faecal egg count and degree of anaemia was positive in wormy season. The colour of conjunctiva was found to have negative correlation with haematological values. In subsequent years the colour chart was applied to all sheep flocks at Sheep Breeding Farm, Fatehpur (Rajasthan). It was observed that monthly proportion of sheep falling in category 4 or 5 were maximum of 17.35% in the month of September, 2008. The system was suitable in detecting the susceptible animals during wormy season. With this approach of targeted selective treatment (TST), the average frequency of anthelmintic drench in flock was 22.93±4.03% per annum compared to > 100% in conventional strategic treatment. In conclusion, though TST approach require some time and labour investment for selecting the animals for treatment but significantly reduced the cost of anthelmintic drenching as well as selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance.

Swarnkar C.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Singh D.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to ascertain the extent of variation in the efficacy of anthelmintics in different seasons and its correlation with status of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in different agroclimatic regions of Rajasthan. Sheep flocks (141) distributed in different agroclimatic conditions were used for study. The efficacy of anthelmintics was determined by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The seasonal analysis of data on % FECR exhibited that overall efficacy ranged from 56.80±3.99 (June-August) to 79.76±2.23 (December - February) and from 72.65±6.83 (March - May) to 91.46±2.07 (December - February) for benzimidazole and tetramisole, respectively. No seasonal variation was observed for efficacy of closantel against Heamonchous contortus in sheep and it remained > 99%. The anthelmintic treatment during climatic extreme (winter) when there is little or no translation of exogenous stage was found responsible for increased frequency of flocks possessing benzimidazole-resistant worms. The trend analysis exhibited positive skewness with platykurtic curve for benzimidazole while for tetramisole the skewness is moderately negative with leptokurtic curve. Our findings are suggestive that there is need for regular monitoring of drug efficacy and anthelmintic resistance, formulation of epidemiology based integrated worm management programme and in-depth study on role of refugia on drug efficacy.

Tripathi M.K.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Karim S.A.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This study investigated effects of feeding three individual, and a mixed, yeast culture (Kluyveromyces marximanus NRRL3234, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCDC42, Saccharomyces uvarum ATCC9080 all in a 1:1:1, ratio) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and microbial crude protein (CP) synthesis in feedlot lambs during the post-weaning phase of growth. Sixty weaner lambs (90 ± 3.5 d old and 15.9 ± 0.50 kg BW) were fed for 91 d in five equal groups. The control group of lambs received sterilized culture medium while the treatment groups were fed a yeast culture in addition to a ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR). The yeast culture, dosed at 1 ml/kg body weight (BW) had 1.5-2.0 × 10 9 live cells/ml. Yeast culture supplementation did not influence intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose and the metabolizable energy (ME) level of the diets were similar between control and yeast supplemented lambs. Lambs in all groups were in positive N balance, but N intake and N voided in feces and urine, as well as N balance, did not change due to yeast culture supplementation. Urinary allantoin excretion was similar, but purine derivatives absorbed (mM/d) were higher (P<0.05) in yeast culture supplemented lambs. Yeast culture supplementation improved (P<0.05) microbial CP synthesis. Supplementation of SC and mixed yeast improved (P=0.002) BW gain of lambs by 21% and 16% respectively. All yeast culture supplemented lambs had higher feed efficiency in comparison to control lambs. Among the three yeast cultures used, S. cerevisiae had the most potential as a growth promoting feed additive in feedlot lamb production, and it may serve as an alternate to antibiotics and ionophores as a growth promoter of weaner lambs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sejian V.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Maurya V.P.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on physiological adaptability and growth performance of Malpura ewes. Twenty-eight adult Malpura ewes (average BW 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups, viz., GI (n = 7; control), GII (n = 7; thermal stress), GIII (n = 7; nutritional stress), and GIV (n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall-fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding, while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h/day between 1000 and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were feed intake, water intake, physiological responses (viz., respiration rate, pulse rate, and rectal temperature), body weight, and body condition scoring (BCS) of ewes. Both thermal and combined stress significantly (P < 0. 05) affected the feed intake, water intake, respiration rate, and rectal temperature. The feeding schedule followed in the experiment significantly (P < 0.05) altered the body weight and BCS between the groups. The results reveal that when compared with thermal stress, nutritional stress had less significant effect on the parameters studied. However, when both these stresses were coupled, it had a significant influence on all the parameters studied in these ewes. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, the total cost may have severe impact on biological function. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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