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Sakthivel N.,Regional Sericultural Research Station | Qadri S.M.H.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2010

A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of application of certain commonly used insecticides and botanicals in mulberry fields on the population built-up of predatory coccinellid beetles. The results revealed that the population of coccinellid beetles was drastically reduced 1 day after spray (DAS) in the plots treated with dichlorovos (88.63%), followed by phosalone (78.56%), dimethoate (72.19%) and metasystox (68.97%) whereas in the plots treated with pungam oil there was least reduction (29.72%) followed by neem oil (35.20%). The predators regained significant built up of their population at 5 DAS in plots treated with pungam oil and 10 DAS in the plots treated with neem oil, dichlorovos and phosalone whereas it continued to be at reduced levels (44.35%) in dimethoate followed by metasystox (32.61%) treated plots even at 10 DAS. © JBiopest.

Rahmathulla V.K.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute | Suresh H.M.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2012

Food consumption and utilization is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Under different environmental, feeding, and nutritional conditions, and with ingestion of the same amount of mulberry leaves, the silkworm shows significant difference in its ability to digest, absorb, and convert food to body matter. Here, influences of season, temperature, and humidity on food intake, assimilation, and conversion efficiency of the Indian bivoltine hybrid (CSR2 × CSR4) Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) were studied. The results indicated that food ingestion and assimilation were significantly higher among silkworm batches where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained compared with silkworm batches exposed to natural climatic conditions of the respective season. However, during summer the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher among silkworms reared under natural temperature and humidity conditions when compared with the control. During the winter and rainy season, the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher in control batches, where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained. Ingesta and digesta required to produce one gram of cocoon/shell were also lower in control batches for all seasons except summer. This may be due to the physiological adaptation of silkworms to overcome stress during the summer season.

Kumar V.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute | Kodandaramaiah J.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute | Rajan M.V.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Micromorphological and anatomical traits in relation to physiological characteristics were studied in the leaves of 4 mulberry (Morus sp.) cultivars (V1, TR10, S34, and Mysore local) by scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that leaf thickness was lowest (124.42 ± 2.21 μm) in the TR10 genotype and highest in V1 (263.77 ± 5.17 μm). Cultivar S34 ranked second in respect to leaf thickness (203.57 ± 1.98 μm), followed by Mysore local (127.94 ± 2.19 μm). The thickness of palisade parenchyma was 143.66 ± 2.42 μm in V1, 64.95 ± 1.60 μm in TR10, 83.92 ± 1.43 μm in S34, and 62.69 ± 1.36 μm in Mysore local. The ratio for the character of palisade parenchyma thickness among the cultivars was 2.30:1.34:1.04:1 for V1, S34, TR10, and Mysore local, respectively; differences among the 4 mulberry cultivars studied were significant. The thickness of spongy parenchyma differed significantly among the 4 mulberry cultivars studied, and the greatest thickness recorded was 72.61 ± 1.48 μm in S34; it was lowest (34.04 ± 1.03 μm) in TR10. The values of spongy parenchyma thickness were more than double in V1 and S34 when compared to TR10. The experimental data revealed a maximum photosynthetic rate of 27.39 ± 0.65 μmol m-2 s-1 in V1 followed by 24.66 ± 1.33, 19.76 ± 0.81, and 17.02 ± 0.71 μmol m-2 s-1 in TR10, S34, and Mysore local, respectively, and differences among the genotypes were statistically significant. Similarly, leaf pigment content (SCMR values) also exhibited significant intergenotypic differences, ranging from 35.23 (Mysore local) to 42.13 (V1) and correlating positively with chlorophyllous palisade tissue in the mesophyll and photosynthetic rates. Ultimately, this manifested in leaf yields. © TÜBİTAK.

Geetha G.S.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Indian Journal of Sericulture | Year: 2011

Participation of women in sericulture is as old as sericulture industry. Women and sericulture are two sides of same coin. Though her participation is more than 60%, her socio economic status remains low, disempowered and continues to be sidelined in the matter of empowerment. Women's participation and their empowerment often are hindered by may a factors. The main barriers could be caste system, poverty, low educational status, limited work opportunities, low income, lack of assets and access to credit. Understanding these constraints is a must to plan an agenda for women's participation in sericulture activities. Hence the study was formulated with the main objective to identify the factors which act as constraints for women's participation and involvement in sericulture activities. The findings of the study carried out in Mandya district of Karnataka indicate combination of factors that are responsible for women participation in sericulture. Landlessness, inadequateaccess to credit, no separate rearing house, lack of technological knowhow, lack of family labour, unaffordable lease amount on mulberry garden, land located at distances, non-profitable activity, health problems, lack of sericulture inputs etc, are the ruling factors influencing women's participation and involvement in sericulture. The concerned has to take initiative to address these factors, if women are to be induced to participate, involve and empowered. Changes must be brought about in social norms, traditions and ideologies. Social transformation must be brought out in women's agency through increased access to resources backed with institutional change and a bottom up approach.

Nirmal Kumar S.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Indian Silk | Year: 2011

S. Nirmal Kumar states that significant progress were made and challenges faced in developing better silkworm breeds by CSRTI, Mysore, India . The research undertaken to develop new breeds with unique traits, such as artificial diet, thin denier, sericin rich, large filament, and sex-limited hybrids had great potential of application in newer areas. The introduction of NN6D and The introduction of NN6D and systematic breeding approaches by 1970s, which resulted in evolving which resulted in evolving bivoltine breeds NB4D2, NB18, and NB7. The development of new rearing technology made the rearing of bivoltine breeds possible and these rearing of bivoltine breeds resulted in a linear improvement of cocoon yield and quality of multivoltine hybrids. The institute initiated breeding programs in the 1980s to evolve multivoltine breeds with shorter larval duration, high silk content, disease tolerance, and better silk quality and higher yield.

Dayakar Yadav B.R.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Indian Silk | Year: 2011

CSRTI, Mysore, India, made significant efforts to improve productivity of mulberry in traditional areas and under stress conditions. Mulberry was used as the only feed for Bombyx mon silkworm and had significant contribution in cocoon production in the country. The program for mulberry improvement in the country started in early 1960s when several high yielding mulberry varieties were evolved through conventional, polyploidy, and backcrossing materials. The major contributions came from CSRTIs at Berhampore and Mysore. The mulberry varieties selected from the morphological traits showed considerable variations and varieties, such as Mysore Local, Bilidevalaya, and Kajali had lobed leaves, while V-1 and RFS-175 had unlobed leaves. The yield potential of V-1 and S36 were significantly higher than that of local varieties.

Qadri S.M.H.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Indian Silk | Year: 2011

Significant research and development (R&D) efforts at CSRTI, Mysore, India, played a key role in evolving high yielding mulberry varieties for stress conditions, silkworm breeds and hybrids, practices for cultivation, and rearing, disease management supported with mechanization in different activities besides engineering genetic characteristics for improving quality parameters. These R&D efforts at the institute led to significant achievement in production and helped in sustaining the industry despite several challenges. Kanva-2 or M5 was the first improved mulberry variety released by the institute during 1970s, which was an open pollinated hybrid variety selected from Mysore Local yielded about 30-35 MT/ha per year. This was followed by MR2, a powdery mildew resistant variety, which gained popularity in Tamil Nadu. The breeding efforts at the institute also achieved improvement in the nutritive quality of leaves apart from higher leaf yield.

Maji M.D.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2011

The disease response and magnitude of genetic variability of 85 mulberry genotypes of different agroclimatic origin was studied against powdery mildew caused by Phyllactinia corylea. It was observed that there was a wide variation of disease severity among the test genotypes. Australian and France originating genotypes were found to be highly resistant to mildew followed by of Thai and Italian origin. Genotype wise, the lowest mildew disease severity was recorded in Thailand [lobed]) followed by M. malticaulis, M. australis and Italian. Genetic analysis of disease severity revealed that the estimate of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were high and that PCV was greater than GCV. High estimate of heritability coupled with high genetic advance showed that the mildew disease resistant trait is governed by an additive gene action. Hence the highly resistant mulberry genotypes identified may be exploited through hybridisation followed by selection under epiphytotic conditions for the improvement of disease resistant traits in mulberry. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Maji M.D.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2011

Disease response of 30 mulberry genotypes to Myrothecium leaf spot (Myrothecium roridum) was studied under inoculated condition. It was observed that 10 genotypes were resistant, 16 genotypes moderately resistant and 4 genotypes moderately susceptible to the disease. Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and apparent infection rate was found significantly lower in the resistant genotypes. Correlation study revealed that percent disease index (PDI) has significant positive correlation with AUDPC and apparent infection rate. Genetic analysis of disease-resistant traits (PDI and mean AUDPC) revealed that phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for both PDI and AUDPC, and GCV/PCV ratio was also found high which indicated that disease-resistant traits to Myrothecium leaf spot were not much influenced by environment. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance indicated that the disease-resistant traits are due to additive gene effect thereby indicating the amenability of disease-resistant in the selection process. Hence disease-resistant mulberry genotypes viz. C-763, S-34, Jodhpur, Cyprus, Australian and Hungarian may be used as source of resistance to Myrothecium leaf spot for future breeding programme. Besides, high yielding genotypes viz. Tr-10, C-763 and S-34 may be recommended for commercial exploitation. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

The mouthparts and antennae of the second and third instar larvae of Spilosoma obliqua Wlk., were studied using scanning electron microscope. The three segmented antenna bears sensory structures which are olfactory in function. The labrum and mandibles are also parts of the mouthparts and have their own function in selection and intake of food. Eight apical sensilla known to be olfactory are observed on the distal end of the maxillary palpus. The gustatory structures i.e., two sensory structures (ALP1 and ALP2), a fine sensory projection (STC), two sensory setae (SL1 and SL2) are observed on the maxillary palpi. A single pair of labial palpi, considered to be mechanoreceptors, is also observed. Further, the functional morphology of the sensory receptors on the head capsule of other lepidopterous larvae have also been discubed.

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