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Himantharaj M.T.,Research Extension Center | Vindhya G.S.,Central Scricultural Research and Training Institute
Indian Journal of Sericulture

Mulberry leaf is the exclusive food for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The growth and development as well as the quality of cocoons are largely dependent on the nutritional status of the mulberry leaves (Bhuyian, 1981; Ito and Arai., 1963). Mulberry leaf quality is influenced by factors like variety, climate, fertilizers, water management and cultural practices (Krishnaswami et al., 1970). Ë number of practices are employed to assess the quality of mulberry leaves. These include thickness, weight per unit leaf area, stiffness, specific gravity as well as percentage of intercellular cell sap and its concentration (Mallikarjuna et al., 2000). Also, the'leaf quality can be evaluated by chemo assay and bioassay (Yoshida, 1955). Assessment of leaf quality through bioassay, considering silkworm rearing performance and cocoon quality as yardsticks, is understood to be one of the straight and accurate methods. However, the method is laborious, time consuming and difficult to conduct full rearing if a large number of varieties or treatments are to be evaluated. In India, to tide over this problem, moulting test is adopted to shortlist the mulberry varieties or treatments (Benchamin and Anantha Raman, 1989; Bongale and Chaluvachari, 1993). In sericulturally advanced countries, different methods viz., fasting test in China (Takeuchi; 1961; Ting Zingetal, 1994) and Keburui test in Japan (Anonymous, 1997) are employed for understanding the mulberry leaf quality. As these tests have so for not been tried in India, attempts have been made in the present study to document the efficacy of Keburui test as an alternative to the conventional moulting test for understanding the quality of the mulberry leaves. Source

Gunasekhar V.,Central Scricultural Research and Training Institute | Nagaraj B.,Central Scricultural Research and Training Institute | Thippc Swamy T.,Central Scricultural Research and Training Institute | Qadri S.M.H.,Central Scricultural Research and Training Institute
Indian Journal of Sericulture

This review presents the comprehensive analysis of the application of plant growth promoting rhi/obacteria (PGI'R) for the improvement of mulberry growth and leaf yield. Apart from the plant growth improvement, the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhi/ae (VΛM) in reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, nutrient up take and improvement in soil fertility has also been reviewed. Further, the approach to induce para nodulation in mulberry roots by inoculation of N fixers, P solubili/.ing bacteria and development of multispecies microbial consortium for mulberry growth and leaf yield improvement has been discussed. Source

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