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Sand Hutton, United Kingdom

Monteiro S.C.,University of York | Boxall A.B.A.,Central Science Laboratory
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Pharmaceuticals from a wide spectrum of therapeutic classes are used in human medicine worldwide. Pharmaceutically active compounds are defined as substances used for prevention, diagnosis or treatment of a disease and for restoring, correcting or modifying organic functions (Daughton and Ternes 1999). Pharmaceuticals include more than 4000 molecules with different physico-chemical and biological properties and distinct modes of biochemical action (Beausse 2004). Most medical substances are administrated orally. After administration, some drugs are metabolised, while others remain intact before being excreted. Therefore, a mixture of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites will enter municipal sewage and sewage treatment plants (STP; Kümmerer 2004). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Stenglein S.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Stenglein S.A.,CONICET | Rodriguero M.S.,University of Buenos Aires | Chandler E.,John Innes Center | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2010

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium poae isolates from South America (Argentina) and Europe (mainly England, Germany, Italy) was performed using 98 F. poae, four Fusarium culmorum, two Fusarium sporotrichioides and one Fusarium langsethiae isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using nuclear (translation elongation factor 1-alpha, EF-1α) and mitochondrial (mitochondrial small subunit rDNA, mtSSU) sequences. Partitioned (each dataset separately) and combined (EF-1α+. mtSSU) analyses did not reveal any clear correlations from the inferred branching topology, between the distribution of observed haplotypes and the geographic origin and/or host species. Results from the present study confirmed that isolates from F. poae form a monophyletic group, and the low variability within isolates from a broad geographic range suggests a common lineage history. Among F. poae isolates from Argentina, however, some were found to possess an insert within mtSSU with structural similarities to group IC2 introns. F. poae isolates differing by the presence/absence of a mtSSU insertion were characterized further by analysis of a portion of the Tri5 gene, but this sequence was unable to reveal variability. The presence of this insert only within isolates from Argentina suggests that evolutionary events (insertions/deletions) are probably taking place within the Argentinian F. poae isolates, and that the acquisition of this insert occurred after geographic isolation of the Argentinian and European populations. © 2009 The British Mycological Society. Source

Wales A.D.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Carrique-Mas J.J.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Rankin M.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Bell B.,ADAS | And 2 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2010

This systematic review considers the relationship between arthropods commonly found in and around livestock premises and zoonotic bacteria. The principal focus is upon insects and arachnids on poultry units, where houses, litter and manure provide good conditions for the growth, multiplication and protection of flies, beetles and mites, and where zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter are prevalent. Other members of the Enterobacteriaceae and the taxa Clostridium, Helicobacter, Erysipelas and Chlamydiaceae are also discussed. Salmonella is widely distributed in the flies of affected livestock units and is detectable to a lesser degree in beetles and mites. Persistent carriage appears to be common and there is some field and experimental evidence to support arthropod-mediated transmission between poultry flocks, particularly carry-over from one flock to the next. Campylobacter may readily be isolated from arthropods in contact with affected poultry flocks, although carriage is short-lived. There appears to be a role for flies, at least, in the breaching of biosecurity around Campylobacter-negative flocks. The carriage of other zoonotic bacteria by arthropods has been documented, but the duration and significance of such associations remain uncertain in the context of livestock production. © 2009 Crown Copyright. Source

Rzezutka A.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Nichols R.A.B.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory | Connelly L.,Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory | Kaupke A.,National Veterinary Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Samples of fresh vegetables and soft fruit were collected from farmers' markets in the Lublin Area of Poland during 2006-2007; the produce was grown in areas of high to moderate livestock production. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were eluted from food surfaces, separated from residual food materials by IMS and identified by immunofluorescence and Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in 6 of 128 vegetable samples (range 1-47 oocysts), but not in any of 35 fruit samples. Both empty and intact oocysts were detected. Species identity of oocyst-positive samples was performed by molecular analysis at four genetic loci. One of two 18S rRNA loci amplified DNA from 5 of the 6 oocyst-positive samples, but insufficient DNA for RFLP or sequencing analysis was available from 4 of these samples. An oocyst-positive celery sample generated an RFLP pattern consistent with C. parvum at two loci, but insufficient DNA was available for subtyping (GP60 sequencing) this isolate. Oocyst-contaminated foods originated from districts with the highest numbers of homesteads possessing cattle herds and no contaminated produce was detected from districts containing lower numbers of cattle-owning homesteads, strengthening the assumption that the origin of the contamination was livestock. The results of this study strengthen the evidence for the potential for zoonotic foodborne transmission of Cryptosporidium. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Anderson O.R.J.,Queens University of Belfast | Phillips R.A.,British Antarctic Survey | Shore R.F.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | McGill R.A.R.,Scottish Enterprise | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

We investigated the concentrations of 22 essential and non-essential elements among a community of Procellariiformes (and their prey) to identify the extent to which trophic position and foraging range governed element accumulation. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) was used to characterise trophic (δ15N) and spatial patterns (δ13C) among species. Few consistent patterns were observed in element distributions among species and diet appeared to be highly influential in some instances. Arsenic levels in seabird red blood cells correlated with δ15N and δ13C, demonstrating the importance of trophic position and foraging range for arsenic distribution. Arsenic concentrations in prey varied significantly across taxa, and in the strength of association with δ15N values (trophic level). In most instances, element patterns in Procellariiformes showed the clearest separation among species, indicating that a combination of prey selection and other complex species-specific characteristics (e.g. moult patterns) were generally more important determining factors than trophic level per se. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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