Liebig M.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Fernandez A.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia |
Blubaum-Gronau E.,Federal Institute of Hydrology |
Boxall A.,Central Science Laboratory CSL |
And 25 more authors.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2010
The veterinary parasiticide ivermectin was selected as a case study compound within the project ERAPharm (Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals). Based on experimental data generated within ERAPharm and additional literature data, an environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed mainly according to international and European guidelines. For the environmental compartments surface water, sediment, and dung, a risk was indicated at all levels of the tiered assessment approach. Only for soil was no risk indicated after the lower tier assessment. However, the use of effects data from additional 2-species and multispecies studies resulted in a risk indication for collembolans. Although previously performed ERAs for ivermectin revealed no concern for the aquatic compartment, and transient effects on dung-insect populations were not considered as relevant, the present ERA clearly demonstrates unacceptable risks for all investigated environmental compartments and hence suggests the necessity of reassessing ivermectin-containing products. Based on this case study, several gaps in the existing guidelines for ERA of pharmaceuticals were shown and improvements have been suggested. The action limit at the start of the ERA, for example, is not protective for substances such as ivermectin when used on intensively reared animals. Furthermore, initial predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of ivermectin in soil were estimated to be lower than refined PECs, indicating that the currently used tiered approach for exposure assessment is not appropriate for substances with potential for accumulation in soil. In addition, guidance is lacking for the assessment of effects at higher tiers of the ERA, e.g., for field studies or a tiered effects assessment in the dung compartment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2010;6:567587. © 2010 SETAC.
Forster B.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Boxall A.,Central Science Laboratory CSL |
Coors A.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Jensen J.,National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark |
And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2011
The effect of ivermectin on soil organisms was assessed in Terrestrial Model Ecosystems (TMEs). Intact soil cores were extracted from a pasture in England and kept for up to 14 weeks in the laboratory. Ivermectin was applied to the soil surface via spiked cow dung slurry at seven concentration rates ranging from 0.25 to 180 mg/TME, referring to concentrations of 0.19-227 mg ivermectin/kg soil dry weight in the uppermost (0-1 cm) soil layer. After 7, 28 and 96 days following the application soil cores were destructively sampled to determine ivermectin residues in soil and to assess possible effects on microbial biomass, nematodes, enchytraeids, earthworms, micro-arthropods, and bait-lamina feeding activity. No significant effect of ivermectin was found for microbial respiration and numbers of nematodes and mites. Due to a lack of dose-response patterns no effect concentrations could be determined for the endpoints enchytraeid and collembolan numbers as well as total earthworm biomass. In contrast, EC50 values for the endpoint feeding rate could be calculated as 0.46, 4.31 and 15.1 mg ivermectin/kg soil dry weight in three soil layers (0-1, 0-5 and 0-8 cm, respectively). The multivariate Principal Response Curve (PRC) was used to calculate the NOECcommunity, based on earthworm, enchytraeid and collembolan abundance data, as 0.33 and 0.78 mg ivermectin/kg soil dw for day 7 and day 96, respectively. The results shown here are in line with laboratory data, indicating in general low to moderate effects of ivermectin on soil organisms. As shown by the results of the bait-lamina tests, semi-field methods such as TMEs are useful extensions of the battery of potential test methods since complex and ecologically relevant endpoints can be included. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Laube I.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr |
Hird H.,Central Science Laboratory CSL |
Brodmann P.,Biolytix AG |
Ullmann S.,Qiagen |
And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
An objective of workpackage 3 within the European Research Project "TRACE" was the identification of PCR markers for the detection of plant species related to honey. Within the project "Miel de Corse", a protected designation of origin (PDO) honey and "Miel de Galicia", a protected geographical indication (PGI) honey as well as German and English honeys were analysed. Beside the development of plant species specific real-time PCR systems a method has been established for the detection of DNA derived from plant species in general. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.