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Enan K.A.,Central Laboratory | El-Eragi A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | El Hussein A.R.M.,Central Laboratory | Elkhidir I.M.,University of Khartoum
Virology Journal

Background: This study was carried out to detect human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG and IgM antibodies using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in renal transplant patients in Khartoum state, Sudan and to improve the diagnosis of HCMV through the introduction of Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing. A total of 98 plasma samples were collected randomly from renal transplant patients at Ibin Sina Hospital and Salma Centre for Transplantation and Haemodialysis during the period from August to September 2006. Results: Among the 98 renal transplant patients, 65 were males and 33 females. The results revealed that HCMV IgG was present in all patients' plasma 98/98 (100%), while only 6/98 (6.1%) had IgM antibodies in their plasma. HCMV DNA viral loads were detected in 32 patients 32/98 (32.7%) using Real-time PCR. Conclusions: The HCMV IgG results indicate a high prevalence of past HCMV infection in all tested groups, while the finding of IgM may reflect a recent infection or reactivation. HCMV detection by real-time PCR in the present study indicated a high prevalence among renal transplant patients in Khartoum. In conclusion, the prevalence of HCMV in Khartoum State was documented through detection of HCMV-specific antibodies. Further study using various diagnostic methods should be considered to determine the prevalence of HCMV disease at the national level. © 2011 Enan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Elfahal A.M.,Central Laboratory | Zakia A.M.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | El-Hussien A.M.,Central Laboratory
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection of goats has a worldwide distribution and trade in live animals is considered the main reason for the widespread of the disease. The disease has not been previously recognized in the Sudan neither by serological nor molecular biological methods. The objective of this study was to investigate CAEV infection among the imported purebred goats and their crossbred lines in the Sudan, generate information about the disease and to establish methods for diagnosis of CAEV infections, as a base line for further epidemiological and virological studies. In this study, samples (273 serum and 173 whole blood) were collected from goats in different areas of Khartoum state, Sudan. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to detect CAEV-specific antibodies in serum and Polymerase Cham Reaction assay (PCR) was performed to detect CAEV nucleic acid in blood samples. Out of 273 animals tested, 20 (7.3%) were confirmed as CAEV infected by ELISA and nucleic acid of CAEV was detected in 41 (23.7%) out of 173 animals by PCR. ELISA failed to detect 24 samples that were positive by PCR, while PCR failed to detect only two samples that were positive by ELISA. In the present study, we reported for the first time the existence of CAEV infection, using ELISA and PCR in goats in Sudan. © Medwell Journals, 2010. Source

Elshafie E.I.,University Putra Malaysia | Elshafie E.I.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Sani R.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hassan L.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science

A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection among horses, using a total of 527 blood samples obtained from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors associated with T. evansi seroprevalence. The overall seroprevalence detected by card agglutination test for T. evansi (CATT/. T. evansi) was 13.90% (73/527, CI: 11.2-17.1%). Female and exogenous horses showed a higher risk in association with the disease seroprevalence compared to other groups. The majority of the horse owners were not familiar with surra (85.30%). However, most of them were very cautious with the health of their animals. In conclusion, this study showed that T. evansi occurred in low frequency among horses in Peninsular Malaysia, and the good management system adopted by horse owners was probably responsible for the low T. evansi occurrence. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Waggett B.E.,University of Edinburgh | McGorum B.C.,University of Edinburgh | Shaw D.J.,University of Edinburgh | Pirie R.S.,University of Edinburgh | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology

It has been proposed that synaptophysin, an abundant integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles, is an immunohistochemical marker for degenerating neurons in equine grass sickness (GS). In the present study, a statistically generated decision tree based on assessment of synaptophysin-immunolabelled ileal sections facilitated correct differentiation of all 20 cases of GS and 24 cases of non-GS disease (comprising eight horses with colic, six with neuroparalytic botulism and 10 controls). This technique also facilitated correct diagnosis of GS in all three cases that had been erroneously classified as having non-GS disease based on conventional interpretation of haematoxylin and eosin-stained cryostat sections of ileal surgical biopsies. Further prospective studies involving larger numbers of horses are required to fully validate this decision tree. In contrast to GS, botulism did not alter ileal neuron density or synaptophysin labelling, indicating that different mechanisms cause neuronal damage and/or dysfunction in GS and botulism. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ibrahim K.,Sinnar Veterinary Research Laboratories | Thomas R.,University of Hohenheim | Peter K.,University of Ulm | Omer R.A.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Omer R.A.,University of Leipzig
Chinese Medical Journal

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD). Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan. Methods: A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results: The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2 cm) respectively. The highest fertility rate was found in camel cysts with 85.4% (35/41) followed by cattle (50.0%, 32/64) and sheep (39.0%, 11/28). All examined cysts belonged to Echinococcus canadensis G6, which was confirmed to be the overwhelmingly predominant species in that area. Conclusion: The epidemiological situation in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state is characterized by intense transmission of Echinococcus canadensis G6, thereby closely resembling the situation in most other regions of Sudan. Source

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