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Lychkova A.E.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology | Pavone L.M.,University of Naples Federico II
Urology | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the role of different serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptor subtypes on urinary bladder contraction, pharmacologic analysis of electromotor activity (EMA) variation was performed using a rabbit bladder model. Materials and Methods: Measurements of EMA were performed on 3 urinary bladder portions: top, body, and trigone. The experiments were performed on 24 Shinshilla rabbits of both sexes, 5-6 months old, and weighing 2.5-4.0 kg. The bladder was isolated. Noninvasive electrodes were superimposed on the surface of the top, body, and trigone of the bladder. Contact between the electrode tips and the bladder surface was achieved. The bladder EMA was measured using bipolar silver electrodes for extracellular recordings. Results: The stimulation of the serotoninergic fibers and parasympathetic nerve resulted in increased bladder EMA frequency and amplitude (72% and 25%, respectively). The increase in bladder EMA was prevented by administration of selective inhibitors of serotonin receptor subtypes such as droperidol, spiperone, and sumatriptan. Exogenous serotonin administered to the rabbits after vagus nerve excitation increased the typical EMA of the bladder body smooth muscle. Conclusion: The serotoninergic system has been widely implicated in the control of urinary bladder function. In the present study, we have demonstrated that preganglionic fibers and ganglionic serotoninergic neurons, expressing the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, and the effector smooth muscle cells, expressing 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors, are actively involved in the regulation of the bladder contractile activity in rabbits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Parfenov A.I.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2011

Gluten-sensitive celiac disease (GSCD) belongs to systemic diseases one of manifestations of which may be various hematological disorders. Some patients with GSCD have blood changes, anemia in particular, which precede clinical symptoms of celiac disease. Anemia can arise as a result of disorders in iron, folic acid and/or vitamin B12 absorption. Celiac disease can be associated with thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, vein thrombosis, hyposplenism, immunoglobulin A deficiency. Patients with celiac disease have a high risk of lymphoma, especially of T-cell lymphoma associated with enteropathy, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Aglutenic diet, recovery of structure and function of the small intestine eliminate or attenuate hematological disorders associated with GSCD.


Parfenov A.I.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

In 1932, Burrill Bernard Crohn, Leon Ginzburg, and Gordon Oppenheimer published the paper Regional ileitis: A pathological and clinical entity first describing terminal ileitis that took further its name from B. Crohn. Crohn's disease (CD) is a recurring systemic inflammatory disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with extraintestinal manifestations and systemic immune disorders. Its etiology is unknown; the pathogenesis is associated with congenital impairments in the intestinal barrier and immune response to diversified symbiotic bacteria. The classification and the specific features of the natural history of CD are presented; the possibilities of new methods for its diagnosis and treatment are shown. Its new treatment goals are formulated; these are to achieve complete recovery of the involved bowel wall; to use confocal endoscopy, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and the biomarkers C-reactive protein, fecal calprotectin, and lactoferritin. Algorithms for CD diagnosis and treatment using anticytokine agents and mesenchymal stromal stem cells are given.


Belyaeva V.S.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

S.P. Botkin' works in gastroenterology are indicated. S.P. Botkin did especially many works on acute hepatitis and biliary colic.


Shcherbakov P.L.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

The paper deals with new endoscopic imaging techniques for evaluating the mucosa of deep intestinal segments, mainly the small bowel. It shows the history of an enteroscopic method and its technical capabilities. Some pathological conditions for which deep enteroscopic techniques are best suited are characterized.


Parfenov A.I.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

Gluten sensitivity may be a cause of gluten-sensitivity celiac disease (GCD). Some gluten-sensitive subjects may have symptoms of GCD, but lack its characteristic changes in the small bowel mucosa (SBM) and a gluten-free diet results in the disappearance of clinical symptoms of GCD. If there is no gluten allergy, the concept "gluten intolerance (Gl) unassociated with celiac disease" is applicable in these cases. There is an increase in the prevalence of GCD and Gl, which is associated with the use of gluten in food industry to improve the taste and energy density of foods and with the damaging effect of viruses and bacteria on enterocyte membranes, thereby facilitating the penetration of gluten through SBM. The paper gives an update on progress in the diagnosis of GCD and Gl and on prospects for designing gluten-free cereals.


Lychkova A.E.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Pacemaker cells of the upper portion of the digestive tract were studied by electromyography of various parts of the stomach and duodenum. Pacemaker cells of the stomach were located mainly at the interface between the lesser curvature and cardia and in the proximal part of the antrum and were characterized by high spontaneous slow-wave and spike activities. Antroduodenal coordination contributes to sequential motor activity of the stomach and duodenum. Pacemaker cells were characterized by a specific shape and a lesser number of myofibrils. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Lychkova A.E.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

The review deals with the serotoninergic regulation of colonic motor function. Serotonin (HT), its receptors and transporter, the enzymes of synthesis and degradation, play an important role in the regulation of colonic motor activity. Activation of 5-HT1, 5-HT2B, 5-HT3, and 5-HT4 receptors leads to increased colonic motor function. The elevation of serotonin levels determines the higher sensitivity of the colonic wall in irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin plays a pathogenetic role in the development of ulcerative colitis and colostasis.


Parfenov A.I.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2012

The investigations conducted in the past decade have offered better insight into the basic mechanisms of chronic constipation (CO, among other things, its association with large bowel (LB) transit and anorectal function. Intestinal dyskinesia, slow transit of the intestinal contents (inert LB), and impaired defecation due to pelvic floor dyssynergia play a leading role in the pathogenesis of primary constipation. Its treatment should be similar to that for CC. Motility regulators correcting LB dyskinesia are given to treat functional constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Enteral pro-kinetic agents are effective in treating the inert LB. The possibilities of biofeedback therapy should be used to treat dyssynergic defecation.


Parfenov A.I.,Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2014

Enteropathies (EP) are the common name for pathological (inflammatory, hemorrhagic, erosive-ulcerative, and atrophic) changes in the small bowel. The paper describes the nosological entities of EP and the significance of laboratory and instrumental methods used for their diagnosis. It outlines the principles of etiotropic and pathogenetic therapies.

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