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Savitskaya E.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Semenova E.,Rutgers University | Dedkov V.,Central Research Institute of Epidemiology | Metlitskaya A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
RNA Biology | Year: 2013

In Escherichia coli, the acquisition of new CRISPR spacers is strongly stimulated by a priming interaction between a spacer in CRISPR RNA and a protospacer in foreign DNA. Priming also leads to a pronounced bias in DNA strand from which new spacers are selected. Here, ca. 200,000 spacers acquired during E. coli type I-E CRISPR/Cas-driven plasmid elimination were analyzed. Analysis of positions of plasmid protospacers from which newly acquired spacers have been derived is inconsistent with spacer acquisition machinery sliding along the target DNA as the primary mechanism responsible for strand bias during primed spacer acquisition. Most protospacers that served as donors of newly acquired spacers during primed spacer acquisition had an AAG protospacer adjacent motif, PAM. Yet, the introduction of multiple AAG sequences in the target DNA had no effect on the choice of protospacers used for adaptation, which again is inconsistent with the sliding mechanism. Despite a strong preference for an AAG PAM during CRISPR adaptation, the AAG (and CTT) triplets do not appear to be avoided in known E. coli phages. Likewise, PAM sequences are not avoided in Streptococcus thermophilus phages, indicating that CRISPR/Cas systems may not have been a strong factor in shaping host-virus interactions. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Kravchenko A.V.,Central Research Institute of Epidemiology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2013

The paper gives the results of international trials of and guidelines for the use of maraviroc, the first CCR5 receptor antagonist, in treatment regimens for HIV-infected patients. The trials have convincingly shown that the maraviroc-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are highly effective and safe for R5-tropic HIV-infected patients regardless of previous ART, baseline HIV RNA levels, and CD4+ lymphocyte count. Maraviroc can be recommended for HIV-infected patients who have previously received ART and who have been found to have a R5-tropic virus. The changes in the ART regimen and inclusion of maraviroc may be associated with both an ineffective previous treatment regimen and therapy-induced adverse events. In 2012, Russia's first reagent kit for the determination of HIV tropism was put to tests and registered at the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare.

Sambri V.,University of Bologna | Sambri V.,Central Laboratory Area Vasta Romagna | Capobianchi M.,National Institute For Infectious Diseases Inmi L Spallanzani | Charrel R.,Aix - Marseille University | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2013

West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis antigenic group, has caused sporadic outbreaks in humans, horses and birds throughout many of the warmer regions of Europe for at least 20 years. Occasional cases of West Nile encephalitis have also been associated with infected blood transfusions and organ donations. Currently, WNV appears to be expanding its geographical range in Europe and causing increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks associated with human morbidity and mortality. This brief review reports on the current epidemic situation regarding WNV in Europe, highlighting the clinical, diagnostic and preventive measures available for controlling this apparently emerging human pathogen. © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Fokina E.G.,Central Research Institute of Epidemiology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2014

Aim: to establish the features of clinical and laboratory changes in facial erysipelas in relation to its form. Subjects and methods: Twenty-three patients (15 women and 8 men) aged 31 to 78 years who were diagnosed with moderate facial erysipelas, primary facial erysipelas being present in 91 % of cases were examined. The investigators studied the biochemical substrates and enzymes and composition of proteins in the serum by an electrophoretic method, the aggregation activity of red blood cells and platelets, plasma hemostasis (a coagulogram, levels of fibrinogen, antithrombin III, and D-dimer), and von Willebrand factor, a marker of vessel wall injury, on hospital admission at disease onset (days 1-3), over time (days A-6, 7-9), and in convalescence (days 10-12), by obligatorily using control materials. Conclusion: Bleeding disorders in facial erysipelas correspond to the vasculite purpuric type of hemorrhagic diathesis (according to the classification developed by Z.S. Barkagan) with the laboratory signs of evolving disseminated intravascular coagulation: impairments in erythrocyte hemostasis and blood vessel endothelium. The changes in the functional properties of red blood cells match with the suppression of metabolic processes. And if the neuraminidase effect of B-hemolytic streptococcus is shown at the level of the red blood cell membrane, the activity of NADase blocks processes in the entire macroenergetics. In the presence of a high fever reaction, the low levels of transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) and membrane enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, creatinine phosphokinase) decrease the detoxification capacities of serum and increase a load on blood albumin and erythrocyte barriers. Rapid normalization of C-reactive protein levels enables one to use this simple and highly sensitive test to monitor the involution of erysipelatous inflammation and the efficiency of treatment. The changes in the hemostatic system and metabolic tests are less pronounced in patients with facial erysipelas than in those with lower-extremity erysipelas.

Tkachenko L.I.,Stavropol State Medical University | Maleev V.V.,Central Research Institute of Epidemiology
Terapevticheskii Arkhiv | Year: 2014

Aim: To assess the relationship of different components of metabolic syndrome (MS), viral load, and HBeAg status to the risk for cirrhosis of the liver in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Subjects and methods: Fifty-three patients with CHB were examined according to the conventional criteria for patients with chronic hepatitis (the 2012 EASL guidelines). Analysis is made in relation to the degree of liver fibrosis (LF), the presence of MS, abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance (IR) Results: MS was detected in 22.6% of the patients with CHB. The duration of the latter in MS was noted to be longer; the patients with MS were accordingly older than those without MS. The patients of this category were significantly more frequently observed to have type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and IR, hepatic steatosis, and >3 METAVIR scores for LF, and elevated activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase). Marked LF was associated with a high viral load, obesity, DM2, patient age, and MS. The patients with MS showed a higher activity of hepatic enzymes than those with abdominal obesity without MS Conclusion: The percentage of CHB patients with MS increases with disease duration and patient age. High viral load, disease duration, MS, obesity, and DM2 are associated with score >3 METAVIR scores for significant LF © 2014.

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