Central Research Institute for the Field Crops

Ulus, Turkey

Central Research Institute for the Field Crops

Ulus, Turkey
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Firincioglu H.K.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Unal S.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Pank Z.,Agriculture Provincial Directorate | Beniwal S.P.S.,Agricultural Research
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

In order to investigate the growth and yield potential of narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.), to elucidate the possible associations of plant traits, to inquire the basics of responses shown by genotypes across years through examining of genotype × year interaction effect, and to extrapolate the nature of adaptation, 27 accessions were evaluated for yield and yield related characters over four subsequent cropping seasons (1994-98) in the central Turkey. Days to harvest, biomass, seed yield, and harvest index were measured, and the results were analyzed by multiple statistical procedures: principal component analysis, linear regression analysis, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and additive and multiplicative model analysis. Four year effects were grouped into three classes (good, fairly-good and poor). Seed yield was positively correlated with days to harvest in the first (p < 0.05) and fourth (p < 0.001) years, and with biomass in all years, which made them plastic and fixed traits respectively. For seed yield, the 27 genotypes were separated into four groups, and year and interaction effects were found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). Certain genotypes behaved differently; G25 and G11 were more suitable for specific adaptation, while G2, G4, G6 and G27 were best for broad adaptation. These selected genotypes could be used as a set of reference lines in the evaluation of narbon vetch germplasm for better yield and adaptation. The enhanced developmental flexibility through adjusting plant growth-longevity combined well with higher biomass and harvest index is the primary form of narbon vetch adaptation to the semi-arid central Turkey and similar environments in the Mediterranean area.

Firincioglu H.K.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Unal S.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Dogruyol L.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops
Journal of Central European Agriculture | Year: 2011

Hungarian vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz.) is an important forage crop in both central Turkey (CT) and central European countries. It can be grown in CT as winter crop, but frequent spring droughts cause yield losses. Our objectives were (I) to investigate agro-biological variation among populations, (II) to identify useful plant characters and (III) to develop selection strategies. Forty-five accessions of both var. pannonica and var. purpurascens were evaluated for the 11 plant characters in 2002/03 cropping season. Var. pannonica was late flowering, had more stems and seeds per pod, and longer stems and pods. Var. purpurascens had earlier flowering, more days to physiological maturity, more pods, greater plant biomass and heavier seeds. As var. purpurascens was early flowering, its longer seed-filling period is likely to contribute to greater seed size and weight. However, in var. pannonica, late flowering and ensuing delayed maturity caused strong negative associations between days-to-harvest and other characters. If the earliness, higher biomass and seed size from var. purpurascens, and the many long stems and long pods from var. pannonica could be incorporated into one or more genotypes through Mendelian crossings, seed and hay yields would be substantially increased.

Unal S.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Firincioglu H.K.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Mutlu Z.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is a spring crop and extensively grown in semiarid areas of Turkey. Its yield potential is strictly limited by short growing season in a year. This research was designed to improve winter hardiness of common vetch allowing autumn planting and early spring growth. Thereby, prolonging growing period and eliminating adverse effect of short growing period leads high yields of herbage and seed. All lines studied were screened for winter hardiness in nursery plots at the beginning of the research. The three promising lines determined were tested with check varieties in yield trials during the 2004/05, 2005/06, and 2006/07 cropping seasons. All genotypes were visually scored for winter hardiness (1–9 scale, from resistant to susceptible) and winter hardy index of the lines were categorized into resistant to winter conditions. Winter hardiness scores of the lines were 2.7 and 2.3 in the growing seasons of 2005/06 and 2006/07. Moreover, biological yield, seed yield, straw yield, thousand seed weight and harvest index were detected. Some morphological characters were also measured such as height and thickness of main stem, natural plant height, stem numbers per main stem, pod numbers of per plant, seed numbers per pod, pod length and pod wide. Lines biological, seed and straw yields ranged from 2555.72 to 3298.35 kg/ha; from 1180.17 to 1403.81 kg/ha and from 1813.12 to 1894.55 kg/ha, respectively. Biological, seed and straw yields of lines were also higher as 53.23%, 105.07% and 44.57% than those of check varieties, respectively. The results demonstrated that three lines (L-1500, L-1544, and L-581) were promising in terms of yield potential and winter hardiness. Principle component analysis (PCA) were used for the evaluation of measurements. In conclusion, three advanced common vetch lines can meet the farmers demand with satisfactory yield level and production amount for feeding their livestock in Central Anatolian Highland conditions of Turkey. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Firincioglu H.K.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Adiguzel N.,Gazi University | Bani B.,Gazi University | Sahin B.,Gazi University
Arid Land Research and Management | Year: 2010

In the central-southern Anatolian region of Turkey, vegetation of Mountain Bozoǧlan grasslands has severely deteriorated, and two sub-shrubs (Astragalus schottianus and Thymus sipyleus) have become dominant species. We hypothesized that the spatial distribution of these dominant shrubs is closely associated with a long history of grazing, and these species might cause alteration of the grassland plant community. Therefore, our objectives were to determine: (1) the patterns in grassland vegetation; (2) how the dominant species contribute to these patterns; and (3) the differences of patterns between ungrazed and protected grassland areas. Plant cover in ungrazed plots was 6% higher than that of grazed plots. Total sub-shrub cover did not differ significantly, but grazing considerably reduced forbs (5% less) and grass cover (5% less). Though A. schottianus and T. sipyleus did not change between the treatments, Festuca valesiaca had greater cover in ungrazed areas (6%) than in that of grazed plots (3%). Grazing effect, soil properties and bare ground appeared to account for most of the variation on the established gradients. Even after 23 years, grazing and protection had little influence on pattern formation, and grazing have expanded dwarf-shrubs at the expense of forbs and grasses. Grazing neither increased nor decreased spatial heterogeneity, so the patterns in both treatments are similar to one another, and relatively stable assemblages of species were likely derived by high grazing pressure experienced before the exclosure establishment. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Firincioglu H.K.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Unal S.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Erbektas E.,Central Research Institute for the Field Crops | Dogruyol L.,Agricultural Production Development General Directorate
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

In order to investigate the effect of two growing seasons on seed yield, to provide a hypothetical basis to demonstrate the relations of the main agronomic characters and their influences with vetch seed yield, 20 genotypes were grown at two sowing dates, replicated over two seasons at the Research Farm of the Central Research Institute for Field Crops near Ankara in 2001-2004. Fifteen plant characters were measured: seed yield, days to flowering, days to harvest, days to physiological maturity, stem length, number of stems, number of pods, pod length, number of seed per pod, 1000-seed weight, harvest index, biomass, biomass growth rate, seed growth rate and winter death. Results were analysed by multiple statistical analysis: analysis of variance, simple correlation, factor analysis, principle component analysis, path analysis and cluster analyses. Vetch growth and development were strongly affected by sowing in spring or autumn. Though seed-filling period and 1000-seed weight were significantly higher in autumn vetch than in spring vetch, spring vetch produced higher biomass and seed yield. Winter damage severely reduced yield in autumn vetch, and in the absence of winter hardy varieties spring planting must be preferred. The dependence of seed yield on days to harvest, biomass, and biomass and seed growth rates were common to both planting seasons. In spring-sown crops, seed yield also depended on days to physiological maturity, and in autumn-sown crops seed yield depended on harvest index. Faster seed filling had a stronger effect on seed yield than did early flowering. Therefore, early maturity, combined with rapid dry matter accumulation, was expressed as a high biomass, which laid the potential for a greater seed yield. In conclusion, the traits of most interest when selecting common vetch plants to improve seed yield under cold and drought stress conditions are early harvest with faster seed filling and high biomass with higher biomass growth rate. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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