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Sarkar T.S.,University of Calcutta | Sarkar T.S.,Jadavpur University | Biswas P.,University of Calcutta | Ghosh S.K.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Ghosh S.,University of Calcutta
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-29,79-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. © 2014 Sarkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Saha P.,University of Calcutta | Sarkar D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Kundu A.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Majumder S.,University of Calcutta | And 2 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014

Here, we report the karyotypes and mean haploid idiograms of the ten Asian Corchorus species (2n = 2x = 14). Chromosomes were small, with a mean chromosome length of 2.30 μm. The largest chromosome was recorded in C. pseudo-olitorius (3.50 μm) and the shortest in C. pseudocapsularis (1.60 μm). The karyotypes of the two cultivated species (C. capsularis and C. olitorius) and C. pseudo-olitorius were the most diverse and specialized, whereas those of C. depressus and C. trilocularis were the least diverse. C. fascicularis had the most asymmetrical and C. urticifolius the most symmetrical karyotypes. An increase in genome size was accompanied by increasing karyotype diversity in terms of morphologically distinct chromosome types and interchromosomal asymmetry, with uneven distribution of additional DNA throughout the karyotype. A positive correlation between interchromosomal asymmetry and dispersion index suggested that size differences between chromosomes were mainly associated with karyotype asymmetry. Karyotypes of the Corchorus species became progressively asymmetrical in the course of evolution. Relationships among the ten Corchorus species were defined by using a neighbor-joining tree inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat data. C. fascicularis and C. pseudocapsularis, with shorter karyotypes and smaller genomes, were closely related to C. pseudo-olitorius and C. capsularis, respectively, which were characterized by relatively longer karyotypes and larger genomes. However, the two cultivated species with different levels of interchromosomal asymmetries, dispersion indices and genome sizes were distantly related. Taking this molecular evidence into consideration, we have discussed chromosomal evolution in relation to karyological data including genome size. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tiwari J.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar P.D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar P.D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Pandey S.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2010

Interspecific potato somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum L. (di)haploid C-13 and 1 endosperm balance number non-tuberous wild species S. etuberosum Lindl. were produced by protoplasts electrofusion. The objective was to transfer virus resistance from this wild species into the cultivated potatoes. Post-fusion products were cultured in VKM medium followed by regeneration of calli in MS 13 K medium at 20°C under a 16-h photoperiod, and regenerants were multiplied on MS medium. Twenty-one somatic hybrids were confirmed by RAPD, SSR and cytoplasm (chloroplast/mitochondria) type analysis possessing species-specific diagnostic bands of corresponding parents. Tetraploid nature of these somatic hybrids was determined through flow cytometry analysis. Somatic hybrids showed intermediate phenotypes (plant, leaves and floral morphology) to their parents in glass-house grown plants. All the somatic hybrids were male-fertile. ELISA assay of somatic hybrids after artificial inoculation of Potato virus Y (PVY) infection reveals high PVY resistance. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Sarkar D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2010

Photoperiodic induction of tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Gp. Andigenum) under short days (SDs) is processed via miRNA (e. g. miR172)-mRNA (e. g. StBEL5) and gibberellin (GA) signaling pathways, with spatio-temporal activation of several transcription factors. There is good evidence that the photoreceptor phytochrome B (PHYB) inhibits tuberization under long days (LDs) by producing a graft-transmissible signal. Since it is mostly unknown how PHYB negatively regulates tuberization, the molecular identity of this PHYB-induced LD-inhibitory signal still continues to be elusive. A recent study reported PHYB-mediated photoperiodic regulation of GIGANTEA (GI), a flowering-control gene of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, in the leaves of a potato plant. Although GI is long assumed to be involved in the photoperiodic control of potato tuberization as an upstream gene of both CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T, its exact role could not be elucidated. Thus, its preferential PHYB-dependent upregulation under LDs compared to SDs concomitant with an upregulation of the gene ENT-KAURENOIC ACID OXIDASE (KAO) that controls an early step in the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway provides an upstream molecular basis for tuberization inhibition in potato by LDs. The results are likely to revisit the roles of several signal molecules that are putatively implicated in the photoperiodic inhibition of tuberization. Given that GI constitutes an evolutionary conserved species-specific LD response pathway in the family Solanaceae, this review argues for an evolutionary basis of tuberization inhibition in potato inherent in its flowering response pathway. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Biswas C.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Dey P.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Satpathy S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Satya P.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Mahapatra B.S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2013

Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), an entomopathogenic fungus, was introduced through seed inoculation with spore suspension as an endophyte in white jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), a bast fiber crop. Out of nine B. bassiana strains, seven, viz., ITCC 6063, ITCC 4512, ITCC 4563, ITCC 5562, ITCC 4796, ITCC 5408 and ITCC 4705, became established as endophytes. The endophytic colonization was initially detected by cultivation on selective medium. Colonization was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Endophytic B. bassiana strains colonized in leaves of all the plants grown from treated seeds. However, the colonization frequency varied among the strains. The highest colonization frequency (70.09%) was recorded in ITCC 6063 followed by ITCC 5562 (67.67%) and ITCC 5408 (64.17%); ITCC 4512 exhibited the lowest (42.54%) colonization. ITCC 4925 and ITCC 4644 did not show any colonization. Endophytic colonization of B. bassiana reduced stem weevil infestation under pot culture. ITCC 5408 and ITCC 6063 were found most efficient, with only 10.44% and 14.06% infested plants, respectively. © 2012 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.


Biswas C.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Dey P.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Gotyal B.S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Satpathy S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana is a promising biocontrol agent for many pests. Some B. bassiana strains have been found effective against jute pests. To monitor the survival of field released B. bassiana a rapid and efficient detection technique is essential. Conventional methods such as plating method or direct culture method which are based on cultivation on selective media followed by microscopy are time consuming and not so sensitive. PCR based methods are rapid, sensitive and reliable. A single primer PCR may fail to amplify some of the strains. However, multiplex PCR increases the possibility of detection as it uses multiple primers. Therefore, in the present investigation a multiplex PCR protocol was developed by multiplexing three primers SCA 14, SCA 15 and SCB 9 to detect field released B. bassiana strains from soil as well as foliage of jute field. Using our multiplex PCR protocol all the five B. bassiana strains could be detected from soil and three strains viz., ITCC 6063, ITCC 4563 and ITCC 4796 could be detected even from the crop foliage after 45 days of spray. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Biswas C.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Dey P.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Karmakar P.G.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Satpathy S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

A RIL population of jute was developed by crossing one resistant accession CIM 036 and a susceptible variety JRC 412. Two cDNA libraries were constructed using pool of mRNA from healthy as well as infected seedlings from all the 177 RIL lines. A significant number of defense genes involved in the defense-response were identified viz. cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), hormone signaling, hypersensitive response (HR) and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. Furthermore, microRNA analysis revealed that Trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) negatively regulate these target transcripts and are characterized by siRNAs spaced in 21-nucleotide (nt) "phased" intervals. We identified highly abundant 22-nt miRNA families that target conserved domains in these SA/JA/ABA precursors and trigger the production of trans-acting siRNAs. SA and JA1 transcripts were found to be cleaved by these 22-nt miRNA generating phasiRNA, suggesting silencing pathogenicity pathway of Macrophomina phaseolina. Gene function annotation was studied in jute-. M. phaseolina interaction in each of the 177 lines of a RIL population. tasiRNA based SAR regulation demonstrated master regulator of a large gene family. It is the first report of studying resistance mechanism in jute against M. phaseolina in a RIL population through transcript and miRNA analysis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kundu A.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Sarkar D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Bhattacharjee A.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Topdar N.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | And 2 more authors.
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A simple Miniprep based on early elimination of highly acidic and proteinaceous mucilages through ethanol washing of the tissue homogenates has been developed for the extraction of genomic DNA from mature leaves and seeds of Corchorus spp. As compared to high cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-NaCl DNA extraction followed by ethanol-based removal of remnant mucilages from the DNA pellet, this simple miniprep consistently and reproducibly recovers high amounts of DNA with good spectral qualities at A 260/A 280 and A 260/A 230. The purified DNA is efficiently digested by restriction endonucleases, and is suitable for PCR amplification of nuclear microsatellites with expected allele sizes. © 2011 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.


Topdar N.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF
T{combining double inverted breve}Sitologii{combining double inverted breve}a i genetika | Year: 2013

We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute.


PubMed | Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: World journal of microbiology & biotechnology | Year: 2015

The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana is a promising biocontrol agent for many pests. Some B. bassiana strains have been found effective against jute pests. To monitor the survival of field released B. bassiana a rapid and efficient detection technique is essential. Conventional methods such as plating method or direct culture method which are based on cultivation on selective media followed by microscopy are time consuming and not so sensitive. PCR based methods are rapid, sensitive and reliable. A single primer PCR may fail to amplify some of the strains. However, multiplex PCR increases the possibility of detection as it uses multiple primers. Therefore, in the present investigation a multiplex PCR protocol was developed by multiplexing three primers SCA 14, SCA 15 and SCB 9 to detect field released B. bassiana strains from soil as well as foliage of jute field. Using our multiplex PCR protocol all the five B. bassiana strains could be detected from soil and three strains viz., ITCC 6063, ITCC 4563 and ITCC 4796 could be detected even from the crop foliage after 45days of spray.

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