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Michael Gomez S.,Texas A&M University | Manikanda Boopathi N.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Satheesh Kumar S.,Kansas State University | Ramasubramanian T.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | And 4 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2010

Drought is a major limitation for rice production in rainfed ecosystems. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to drought resistance provides opportunity to breed high yielding rice varieties suitable for drought-prone areas. Although considerable efforts were made in mapping QTLs associated with drought-resistance traits in rice, most of the studies involved indica × japonica crosses and hence, the drought-resistance alleles were contributed mostly by japonica ecotypes. It is desirable to look for genetic variation within indica ecotypes adapted to target environment (TE) as the alleles from japonica ecotype may not be expressed under lowland conditions. A subset of 250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of F8 generation derived from two indica rice lines (IR20 and Nootripathu) with contrasting drought-resistance traits were used to map the QTLs for morpho-physiological and plant production traits under drought stress in the field in TE. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 101 polymorphic PCR-based markers distributed over the 12 chromosomes covering a total length of 1,529 cM in 17 linkage groups with an average distance of 15.1 cM. Composite interval mapping analysis identified 22 QTLs, which individually explained 4.8-32.2% of the phenotypic variation. Consistent QTLs for drought-resistance traits were detected using locally adapted indica ecotypes, which may be useful for rainfed rice improvement. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology.

Das M.,Ch Charan Singh University | Banerjee S.,Ch Charan Singh University | Dhariwal R.,Ch Charan Singh University | Vyas S.,The Interdisciplinary Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2012

Jute is an important natural fibre crop, which is only second to cotton in its importance at the global level. It is mostly grown in Indian subcontinent and has been recently used for the development of genomics resources. We recently initiated a programme to develop simple sequence repeat markers and reported a set of 2469 SSR that were developed using four SSR-enriched libraries (Mir et al. 2009). In this communication, we report an additional set of 607 novel SSR in 393 SSR containing sequences. However, primers could be designed for only 417 potentially useful SSR. Polymorphism survey was carried out for 374 primer pairs using two parental genotypes (JRO 524 and PPO4) of a mapping population developed for fibre fineness; only 66 SSR were polymorphic. Owing to a low level of polymorphism between the parental genotypes and a high degree of segregation distortion in recombinant inbred lines, genotypic data of only 53 polymorphic SSR on the mapping population consisting of 120 RIL could be used for the construction of a linkage map; 36 SSR loci were mapped on six linkage groups that covered a total genetic distance of 784. 3 cM. Hopefully, this map will be enriched with more SSR loci in future and will prove useful for identification of quantitative trait loci/genes for molecular breeding involving improvement of fibre fineness and other related traits in jute. © 2012 Indian Academy of Sciences.

Begum T.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Dasgupta T.,Marie Curie International Fellow
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

An investigation was carried out to study the nature and magnitude of induced genetic variability in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Seeds of three sesame genotypes, Rama, SI 1666 and IC 21706 were treated with three doses of Γ-rays (200 Gy, 400 Gy and 600 Gy) and four concentrations of ethyl methane sulphonate (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%), separately. Mutant generations from Mto Mwere raised to study the extent of variability, heritability and genetic advance in mutant populations. Mutations surpassed the magnitude of variability over control population in both the generations. Genotypic and phenotypic variances were higher for sterility% and 1000-seed weight in both Mand Mgenerations. With regardless of the genotype, Mgeneration professed maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variability (GCV and PCV) for number of seeds per capsule. On the contrary, in Mgeneration induced populations of all the three genotypes engendered maximum GCV and PCV for seed yield per plant. High heritability for sterility percentage and 1000-seed weight coupled with high genetic advance inferred that additive gene effects were important in determining these characters and could be improved through mass selection.

Mandal K.G.,Opp. Rail Vihar | Kundu D.K.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Thakur A.K.,Opp. Rail Vihar | Kannan K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute ICAR | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Rice production in aerobic conditions holds promise in Asia especially in the era of increasing irrigation water scarcity. Field experiments were conduceted on aerobic rice systems at the research farm of the Directorate of Water Management (ICAR), Bhubaneswar, India, during dry seasons of 2007-2008 to 2009-2010 to evaluate different irrigation regimes and water saving potential in aerobic rice compared to traditional flooded rice, varietal performance and fertilizer N-rates. Results revealed that the rice varieties viz. 'Surendra', 'Apo' and 'Lalat' showed the highest yield potential between 3.9 to 4.6 t ha-1 under aerobic conditions with soil moisture at 80-90% of field capacity throughout the growing season. These varieties were suitable for growing under aerobic condition because of favorable physiological characteristics and crop yield. Water input as a pre-sowing irrigation was estimated as 54-62 mm for aerobic rice, and 362-401 mm for wet land preparation for traditional flooded rice. On average, water input during crop growth stage was 506 mm for aerobic rice and 882 mm for traditional flooded rice. In total, saving potential of water input was 42-60% with aerobic rice when compared to traditional flooded rice. The grain yield was 2.39-3.36 t ha-1 under aerobic irrigation regimes, with the highest being with irrigation at 80-90% of field capacity of soils. Results showed a reduction in yield under aerobic conditions as compared to traditional flooded. This yield reduction was 16% with irrigation at 80-90% of field capacity. However, estimated water productivity, with respect to rainfall and irrigation water input, increased in aerobic rice (4.71 kg grain ha-1 mm-1) compared to traditional one (3.04 kg grain ha-1 mm-1). Studies on irrigation x N interaction revealed that a highest grain yield of 4.4 t ha-1 was obtained with N rate of 120 kg ha-1 receiving 780 mm irrigation for rice variety 'Surendra'. The next best combination viz. N rate of 80 kg ha-1 with 780 mm irrigation (3.84 t ha-1) and N rate of 120 kg ha-1 and 660 mm irrigation (3.61 t ha-1) were statistically similar. Hence, based on availability of irrigation water, N rate needs to be decided. The study on varietal (viz. 'Apo', 'Lalat' and 'Surendra') response to N rates showed that, irrespective of variety, aerobic rice with 120 N kg ha-1 with 780 mm irrigation gave the highest grain and straw yield of 4.24 and 6.63 t ha-1 with grain and straw N-uptake of 52.17 and 52.63 kg ha-1, respectively.

Das M.,Ch Charan Singh University | Banerjee S.,Ch Charan Singh University | Topdar N.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Kundu A.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | And 5 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2012

In jute (Corchorus olitorius), quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted to study the genetics of eight fibre yield traits and two fibre quality traits. For this purpose, we used a mapping population consisting of 120 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and also used a linkage map consisting of 36 SSR markers that was developed by us earlier (Das et al. 2011). The RIL population was derived from the cross JRO 524 (coarse fibre) × PPO4 (fine fibre) following single seed descent. Using single-locus analysis involving composite interval mapping, a total of 21 QTLs were identified for eight fibre yield traits whereas for fibre quality (fibre fineness), only one QTL was detected. The QTL for fibre fineness explained 8.31-10.56% of the phenotypic variation and was detected in two out of three environments. Using two-locus analysis involving QTLNetwork, as many as 11 M-QTLs were identified for seven fibre yield traits (excluding top diameter) and one M-QTL was identified for fibre fineness which accounted for 4.57% of the phenotypic variation. For six fibre yield traits, we detected 16 E-QTLs involved in nine QQ epistatic interactions. For fibre fineness, four E-QTLs involved in two QQ epistatic interactions and for fibre strength, six E-QTLs involved in three QQ epistatic interactions were identified. Eight out of the 11 M-QTLs observed for the fibre yield traits were also involved in QE interactions; for fibre fineness and fibre strength, no QE interactions were observed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Das M.,Ch Charan Singh University | Banerjee S.,Ch Charan Singh University | Topdar N.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Kundu A.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was conducted to investigate the level of polymorphism in four jute genotypes including two genotypes (JRC 321 and CMU 010) of Corchorus capsularis (the white jute) and two genotypes (JRO 524 and PPO4) of Corchorus olitorius (the tossa jute). Out of 1024 primer combinations that were tried, as many as 281 combinations of selective primers (13 EcoRI and 64 MseI) were selected, which produced a total of 9092 amplicons, including 752 (8. 3%) polymorphic bands in C. capsularis and a total of 8856 amplicons including 1477 (16. 7%) polymorphic bands in C. olitorius. The average number of bands/primer combination was 32. 3 for C. capsularis and 31. 5 for C. olitorius. For C. capsularis, highest polymorphism of 56. 6% was shown by primer combination E35M50, while for C. olitorius highest polymorphism of 50% was shown by E41M91. In C. olitorius, 30-50% polymorphism was observed with 27 primer combinations, but in C. capsularis only 3 primer combinations gave this level of polymorphism. Similarly, in C. capsularis <10% polymorphism was detected by 115 primer combinations while in C. olitorius, <10% polymorphism was shown by only 56 primer combinations. These results indicate a higher level of polymorphism in C. olitorius relative to that in C. capsularis. The occurrence of such a large number of polymorphic AFLP markers will facilitate preparation of molecular maps and QTL analysis in jute. © 2011 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.

Bandyopadhyay S.,Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University | Gotyal B.S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Satpathy S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Selvaraj K.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | And 2 more authors.
Biopesticides International | Year: 2014

The commercial formulation Delfin® containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) serotype 3A, 3B, SA11 (WG) and Margo Econeem™ Plus (EC) based botanical insecticide containing azadirachtin 1% (10,000 ppm) were evaluated alone and in different sublethal combinations against 3rd instars of Spilarctia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) under laboratory conditions. Leaf dip method was used for Btk whereas topical application for azadirachtin. The studies revealed that the LC50 value of azadirachtin after 72 h post-treatment was 0.153% whereas, for Btk it was 0.145%. No synergistic effect was observed when treatment was given at LC20 level of Btk (0.021%) and LC30 level of azadirachtin (0.06%) up to 72 h post-treatment. However, synergistic effect was evident from the combinations at LC25 level of Btk (0.003%) + LC25 level of a zadirachtin (0.004%) and LC30 treatment level of Btk (0.044%) + LC20 level of azadirachtin (0.031%) after 72 h. The studies suggest that combination of botanicals with microbes could be strategized for utilization in integrated management of S. obliqua. © 2014 (KRF).

Datta S.N.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Chakraborty S.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Jaiswar A.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Ziauddin G.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

Comparative study has been done to examine the biodiversity and ecological status of the intertidal region of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bandstand and National Centre for Performing Arts (NCPA) rocky beaches in Mumbai, West coast of India. A total of 50 species of intertidal organisms were recorded from these shores. Shannon and Simpson's diversity index, Margalef's richness Index and Pielou's evenness index indicated different level'ot'ecological'stateot'theshorein different months. Dendrograms and 2-D non metric MDS ordination from Bray-Curtis similarity matrix of occurrence of intertidal organisms from these sites showed highest similarity and combination pattern of occurrence between Nerita oryzarum and Planaxlssulcatus in TIFR and Bandstand shore. Nerita oryzarum and Tactarius malaccanus at NCPA shore. Abundance/biomass comparison (ABC) method of determining level of disturbance also pointed towards the polluted status of these shores. Study concludes that though these beaches are highly disturbed due to anthropogenic activities, they still support a rich intertidal biodiversity which need immediate attention for protection and conservation. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

Majumdar B.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Venkatesh M.S.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research ICAR | Venkatesh M.S.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Tropical Agriculture | Year: 2011

Phosphorus adsorption behaviour of five land use systems viz. Livestock based land use (FS1), Forestry (FS2), Agriculture (FS3), Agri-horti-silvi- pastoral (FS4) and Natural fallow (FS5) regularly receiving/not receiving fertilizer P and manure was studied after 17 years of their establishment on an acid Alfisol on hilly slopes. The soils of various land use systems varied widely in their P sorption behaviour with variable P built up in different systems. The P sorption was higher in the soils of the natural fallow land use system and progressively decreased with the application of manures/P + manures in livestock, agri-horti-silvipastoral and agriculture land use. Phosphate sorption data fitted well to the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Different land use systems had no effect on adsorption maxima (b) while, bonding energy (k), maximum phosphate buffering capacity (MPBC) and standard P requirement (SPR) were highest for natural fallow followed by forestry land use. In contrast, livestock, agri-horti-silvipastoral and agriculture land use recorded lower values of these P adsorption parameters indicating higher P availability in these systems. The P fractionation before and after equilibrium with added P showed a wide variation in the build up of various forms of P in different land use systems. This is which reflected in the variable adsorption of P in these land use systems under study. © 2011 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).

Sarkar S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR | Majumdar B.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres ICAR
Journal of Tropical Agriculture | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 at Barrackpore on Gangetic alluvium soil to find out the effect of pre-emergence (trifluralin and S-metolachlor) and post-emergence (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, quizalofop ethyl and cyhalofop butyl) herbicides on weed management, growth and fibre yield of olitorius jute, nutrient removal by weeds and effect on soil microbes. The grass and sedges were the dominant weed flora present in the ratio 1: 0.76 on dry weight basis. Trifluralin controlled the grasses but the problem of sedge weeds occurred (97.9 g m-2) and the natural balance of grass:sedge weed complex shifted towards sedge weeds (grass:sedge 1:9). Like trifluralin, the post-emergence grass herbicides (quizalofop ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl) also allowed sedges to grow. The yield reduction in olitorius jute due to weeds was as high as 47.8%. The field was dominated by sedges (along with grass), so, application of S-metolachlor @ 0.50 kg ha-1 (PE) on soil surface just after jute sowing proved effective in controlling weeds (79.04%), supporting higher jute plant height (252 cm) and achieving higher fibre yield (2.41 Mg ha-1). Weeds in jute field at 45 DAS removed 16.59 kg N, 3.67 kg P2O5 and 33.88 kg K2O ha-1. Nutrient contents were much higher in sedge weeds (1.01% N, 0.34% P2O5 and 2.63% K2O) than the grasses (0.81% N, 0.09% P2O5 and 1.22% K2O). Application of pre and post emergence herbicides in jute affected the total bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi population in soil initially but the microbial population improved gradually and reached to normal level by harvest of jute.

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