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Beser N.,Trakya University | Surek H.,Trakya Agricultural Research Institute | Sahin M.,Central Research Institute for Field Crops
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin

The objective of this study was to determine which resistance genes to the rice blast pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea ) were effective in the field in Turkey in 2011 and 2013, in order to determine the most promising genes for use in resistance breeding program. In 2011,21 monogenic lines in the genetic background of 'Lijiangxintuanheigu' (LTH) targeting 16 different resistant genes, 1 line harbouring Pi40 gene together with susceptible checks 'LTH ', 'C039', and local susceptible checks 'Diyarbakir yerli' and 'Sariçeltik', and additional some cultivars were tested in 10 locations. In 2013,29 monogenic LTH lines targeting 24 blast resistant genes and 2 lines harbouring the Pi40 gene were tested in 2 locations. We observed that, Pil, Pi7, Pi9, Pil2, Pi20, Pi40, Pib, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, and Piz-5 genes provided resistance in all rice locations tested. Moreover, Pi5(t), Pita, Pita-2, Pit, and Pi-z provided moderate resistance in Turkey. Pi7, Pi9, PU2, Pi20, Pi40, Pi-b, Pik-h, Pikm, Pik-p, and Piz-5 genes can be used alone or in different combinations. To obtain durable resistance to rice blast in Turkey, we recommend breeding cultivars containing different stacked combinations of afore mentioned genes. Pil, Pi5(t), Pita, Pita-2, Pit, and Piz genes, when added to such stacks, could further improve blast resistance in rice cultivars for Turkey. Source

Gurbuz B.,Ankara University | Bagdat R.B.,Central Research Institute for Field Crops | Uyanik M.,Ankara University | Rezaeieh K.A.P.,Igdir University
Industrial Crops and Products

The composition of 48 essential oil samples, obtained by steam distillation of rosemary (Rosmarinus oftiicinalis L.) originated from six different locations of southern Turkey (Izmir, Aydin, Antalya, Mersin, Adana and Hatay) has been analyzed by capillary GC/MS in combination with retention indices. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.35% to 2.08%. Wide variation was observed among the lines regarding their essential oil yield. The highest mean essential oil yield was determined from the Mersin lines with 0.94%. The maximum amount for plant height (16.2. cm), branch per plant (20.48), fresh herb yield (3.34. t/ha), fresh leaf yield and dry leaf yield (0.82. t/ha) was devoted to the lines provided from Antalya province. The essential oil composition of the lines changed from 14.3% to 17.5% camphor, 11.0-21.6% eucalyptol and 10.2-12.5% α-pinene. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Baysal O.,Mugla University | Lai D.,South China Agricultural University | Xu H.-H.,South China Agricultural University | Siragusa M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 4 more authors.

Beneficial microorganisms (also known as biopesticides) are considered to be one of the most promising methods for more rational and safe crop management practices. We used Bacillus strains EU07, QST713 and FZB24, and investigated their inhibitory effect on Fusarium. Bacterial cell cultures, cell-free supernatants and volatiles displayed varying degrees of suppressive effect. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from EU07 and FZB24 revealed the presence of lytic enzymes, cellulases, proteases, 1,4-β-glucanase and hydrolases, all of which contribute to degradation of the pathogen cell wall. Further proteomic investigations showed that proteins involved in metabolism, protein folding, protein degradation, translation, recognition and signal transduction cascade play an important role in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Our findings provide new knowledge on the mechanism of action of Bacillus species and insight into biocontrol mechanisms. © 2013 Baysal et al. Source

Altinozlu H.,Hacettepe University | Karagoz A.,Aksaray University | Polat T.,Central Research Institute for Field Crops | Unver I.,Ankara University
Turkish Journal of Botany

Natural plants in Turkish serpentine soils were surveyed to determine their Ni accumulation capability. Geographic distribution and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable nickel contents of the western Anatolian serpentine soils and their vegetative contents were studied to find the possible relationships between the phytoavailable Ni amount in the soil and the Ni content of potential accumulator plants. Over half of the surface area of Turkey was targeted in the study. Aboveground parts of 413 herbaceous plants and the surface soil (0-15 cm) of 192 serpentine samples were collected. A digital elevation model and ANUSPLIN and ArcGIS 8.1 soft ware packages were employed for generation of climatic surfaces and analysis in preparation of comparative maps. Scientiflcally approved Ni hyperaccumulator plant taxa as well as readily emerging species were tested under greenhouse and climate chamber conditions. Thevarying magnitude of nickel determined in the aboveground parts of the test plants indicated that the resistance or vulnerability and Ni requirements of a plant species were species-speciflc and were more eff ective than the Ni amount in the soil on the uptake of the element. Signiflcant diff erences were found between the amount of DTPAextractable Ni in the soil and the Nlcontent of hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae plants grown in the same soil bodies. Isatis pinnatiloba, which is endemic to Turkey, was introduced as a nickel hyperaccumulator species. Bottlenecks and drawbacks of phytoremediation techniques for commercialuse were discussed. © TÜBITAK. Source

Ozbek O.,Hitit University | Taskin B.G.,Mugla University | San S.K.,Central Research Institute for Field Crops | Eser V.,Central Research Institute for Field Crops | Arslan O.,Gazi University
Plant Systematics and Evolution

Gliadin polymorphism in 19 landrace populations of Turkish cultivated emmer wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] was assessed using the aluminum lactic acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) technique. Being a source of useful genes, landraces of wheat represent one of the most important genetic resources available to breeders for present and future genetic improvement of wheat. This is the first genetic characterization of these 19 Turkish emmer wheat landrace populations collected from their main cultivation areas. Considerably high amounts of variation were detected within and among the populations. A total of 27 alleles (n a) were identified among all analyzed populations, 10 of them being unique to populations C, D, H, K, L, M, and N. The highest allele number (n a = 7) was observed in populations A and L, whereas the lowest number of alleles (n a = 3) was observed in populations F, G, and U. The mean number of effective alleles (n ae) was 12.33, and the mean values of gene diversity, genetic differentiation, and gene flow between populations were H e = 0.92, F ST = 0.296, and N m = 0.60, respectively. Certain gliadins closely linked to dough quality, such as γ-45 and ω-35, were found in 13 and 18 of the populations, respectively. According to Pearson's correlation coefficient values, gene diversity estimates had strong positive correlation (r P = 0.510; p = 0.026 at <0.05%) with latitude. The rest of the genetic data (n a and n ae) obtained in the present study showed no correlation with geographic (altitude, latitude, and longitude) or climatic factors (temperature and annual rainfall). Principal component analysis was performed to explain spatial genetic variation, revealing 90.044% of total genetic variation in three components. Results obtained from this study can effectively be used in developing more efficient breeding programs to improve wheat genotypes, and to direct genetic resource conservation studies. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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