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PubMed | University of Latvia, St Petersburg Pasteur Institute, Ural Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2016

Currently, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates of Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM) family may be detected far beyond the geographic areas that coined its name 15years ago. Here, we established the framework phylogeny of this geographically intriguing and pathobiologically important mycobacterial lineage and hypothesized how human demographics and migration influenced its phylogeography. Phylogenetic analysis of LAM isolates from all continents based on 24 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) loci and other markers identified three global sublineages with certain geographic affinities and defined by large deletions RD115, RD174, and by spoligotype SIT33. One minor sublineage (spoligotype SIT388) appears endemic in Japan. One-locus VNTR signatures were established for sublineages and served for their search in published literature and geographic mapping. We suggest that the LAM family originated in the Western Mediterranean region. The most widespread RD115 sublineage seems the most ancient and encompasses genetically and geographically distant branches, including extremely drug resistant KZN in South Africa and LAM-RUS recently widespread across Northern Eurasia. The RD174 sublineage likely started its active spread in Brazil; its earlier branch is relatively dominated by isolates from South America and the derived one is dominated by Portuguese and South/Southeastern African isolates. The relatively most recent SIT33-sublineage is marked with enigmatic gaps and peaks across the Americas and includes South African clade F11/RD761, which likely emerged within the SIT33 subpopulation after its arrival to Africa. In addition to SIT388-sublineage, other deeply rooted, endemic LAM sublineages may exist that remain to be discovered. As a general conclusion, human mass migration appears to be the major factor that shaped the M. tuberculosis phylogeography over large time-spans.


PubMed | Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Laboratorie Of Virologic B1568 University Gamal Abdel Nasser Of Conakry and Russian Research Anti Plague Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of virological methods | Year: 2016

In early February 2014, an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease caused by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) occurred in Guinea; cases were also recorded in other West African countries with a combined population of approximately 25 million. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detecting EBOV is needed to effectively control such outbreak. Here, we report a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for Z. ebolavirus detection used by the Specialized Anti-epidemic Team of the Russian Federation during the Ebola virus disease prevention mission in the Republic of Guinea. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 5 10(2) viral particles per ml, and high specificity is demonstrated using representative sampling of viral, bacterial and human nucleic acids. This assay can be applied successfully for detecting the West African strains of Z. ebolavirus as well as on strains isolated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014.


Neverov A.D.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Kryazhimskiy S.,Harvard University | Plotkin J.B.,University of Pennsylvania | Bazykin G.A.,Russian National Research Medical University
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

The surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of human influenza A virus evolve under selection pressures to escape adaptive immune responses and antiviral drug treatments. In addition to these external selection pressures, some mutations in HA are known to affect the adaptive landscape of NA, and vice versa, because these two proteins are physiologically interlinked. However, the extent to which evolution of one protein affects the evolution of the other one is unknown. Here we develop a novel phylogenetic method for detecting the signatures of such genetic interactions between mutations in different genes – that is, inter-gene epistasis. Using this method, we show that influenza surface proteins evolve in a coordinated way, with mutations in HA affecting subsequent spread of mutations in NA and vice versa, at many sites. Of particular interest is our finding that the oseltamivir-resistance mutations in NA in subtype H1N1 were likely facilitated by prior mutations in HA. Our results illustrate that the adaptive landscape of a viral protein is remarkably sensitive to its genomic context and, more generally, that the evolution of any single protein must be understood within the context of the entire evolving genome. © 2015 Neverov et al.


PubMed | Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Russian National Research Medical University, University of Pennsylvania and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS genetics | Year: 2015

The surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of human influenza A virus evolve under selection pressures to escape adaptive immune responses and antiviral drug treatments. In addition to these external selection pressures, some mutations in HA are known to affect the adaptive landscape of NA, and vice versa, because these two proteins are physiologically interlinked. However, the extent to which evolution of one protein affects the evolution of the other one is unknown. Here we develop a novel phylogenetic method for detecting the signatures of such genetic interactions between mutations in different genes - that is, inter-gene epistasis. Using this method, we show that influenza surface proteins evolve in a coordinated way, with mutations in HA affecting subsequent spread of mutations in NA and vice versa, at many sites. Of particular interest is our finding that the oseltamivir-resistance mutations in NA in subtype H1N1 were likely facilitated by prior mutations in HA. Our results illustrate that the adaptive landscape of a viral protein is remarkably sensitive to its genomic context and, more generally, that the evolution of any single protein must be understood within the context of the entire evolving genome.


Guschin A.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Ryzhikh P.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Rumyantseva T.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Gomberg M.,Moscow Scientific and Practical Center for Dermatovenerology and Cosmetology | Unemo M.,Örebro University
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Azithromycin has been widely used for Mycoplasma genitalium treatment internationally. However, the eradication efficacy has substantially declined recent decade. In Russia, josamycin (another macrolide) is the recommended first-line treatment for M. genitalium infections, however, no data regarding treatment efficacy with josamycin and resistance in M. genitalium infections have been internationally published. We examined the M. genitalium prevalence in males attending an STI clinic in Moscow, Russia from December 2006 to January 2008, investigated treatment efficacy with josamycin in male urethritis, and monitored the M. genitalium DNA eradication dynamics and selection of macrolide resistance in M. genitalium during this treatment. Methods: Microscopy and real-time PCRs were used to diagnose urethritis and non-viral STIs, respectively, in males (n = 320). M. genitalium positive patients were treated with recommended josamycin regimen and treatment efficacy was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR. Macrolide resistance mutations were identified using sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene. Results: Forty-seven (14.7%) males were positive for M. genitalium only and most (85.1%) of these had symptoms and signs of urethritis. Forty-six (97.9%) males agreed to participate in the treatment efficacy monitoring. All the pre-treatment M. genitalium specimens had wild-type 23S rRNA. The elimination of M. genitalium DNA was substantially faster in patients with lower pre-treatment M. genitalium load, and the total eradication rate was 43/46 (93.5%). Of the six patients with high pre-treatment M. genitalium load, three (50%) remained positive post-treatment and these positive specimens contained macrolide resistance mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, i.e., A2059G (n = 2) and A2062G (n = 1). Conclusions: M. genitalium was a frequent cause of male urethritis in Moscow, Russia. The pre-treatment M. genitalium load might be an effective predictor of eradication efficacy with macrolides (and possibly additional antimicrobials) and selection of macrolide resistance. Additional in vivo and in vitro data are crucial to support the recommendation of using josamycin as first-line treatment for M. genitalium infections in Russia. It would be valuable to develop international M. genitalium management guidelines, and quantitative diagnostic PCRs determining also M. genitalium load and resistance mutations (for macrolides and ideally also moxifloxacin) should ideally be recommended. © 2015 Guschin et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, RAS D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology and Gabrichevsky Moscow Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology Rospotrebnadzor
Type: | Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Antiviral drugs are critical adjuncts to influenza vaccination. This study determined the in vitro susceptibilities of influenza A and B viruses isolated in the 2010-2011 season in Russia to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir and the hemagglutinin fusion inhibitor umifenovir and clinical efficacy of this antiviral drugs in this season.The antiviral potency of these drugs against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in mice was assessed. Importantly, the clinical effectiveness of oseltamivir and umifenovir was evaluated in a retrospective study conducted in 26 regions of Russia.All tested viruses (n=36) were susceptible to oseltamivir and umifenovir in vitro. Oseltamivir (10mg/kg/day) and umifenovir (60 mg/kg/day) significantly increased the survival of mice challenged with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1)pdm09 virus (p<0.05). Influenza infection was laboratory-confirmed in 442 patients among 1462 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections. The treatment of influenza-infected patients within 48h of symptom onset with oseltamivir and umifenovir was associated with a significant decrease in the duration of illness (2-3 days) and symptoms (p<0.001). Pneumonia was observed in none of the patients treated with oseltamivir and in 0.3% of the patients treated with umifenovir, compared to 23.7% of patients who did not receive antiviral therapy (p<0.001).This study provided experimental and clinical evidence of the efficacy of oseltamivir and umifenovir against influenza viruses, representatives of which have continued to circulate in post-pandemic seasons.


Rumyantseva T.A.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Bellen G.,Femicare Clinical Research for Women | Romanuk T.N.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Shipulina O.I.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease | Year: 2015

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Nugent score, wet mount microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test developed in Russia for bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred Caucasian women were enrolled in this study. Three vaginal samples were taken from each participant: 1 for PCR analysis, 1 for Nugent score evaluation, and 1 for wet mount microscopy. The smears for microscopy were air-dried and sent to Femicare, Tienen, Belgium, for blinded analysis by microscopy. Multiplex real-time PCR was performed using primers and probes targeting Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus species, and total quantity of bacterial DNA (16SrRNA gene). Results: Agreement among the 3 methods was 72 (73.5%) of 98 samples. Agreement between Nugent score and PCR results was 77 (78.6%) of 98 samples; between wet mount microscopy and PCR, 81 (82.65%) of 98 samples; between wet mount microscopy and Nugent score, 84 (85.7%) of 98 samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods studied were as follows: 75% (21/28) and 97.1% (68/70) for Nugent score, 96.4% (27/28) and 94.3% (66/70) for wet mount microscopy, 92.8% (26/28) and 85.7% (60/70) for PCR, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that wet mount microscopy is a superior method for BV diagnosis. The PCR test under study showed a high sensitivity and can be used for discrimination between normal flora and BV. © 2014, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.


Rumyantseva T.A.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Bellen G.,Femicare Clinical Research for Women | Savochkina Y.A.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Guschin A.E.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2016

Purpose: To evaluate a real-time PCR-based technique to quantify bacteria associated with aerobic vaginitis (AV) as a potential test. Methods: Vaginal samples from 100 women were tested by wet-mount microscopy, gram stain and quantitative real-time PCR targeting Enterobacteriacea, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. aureus; Lactobacillus spp. AV diagnosis obtained by wet-mount microscopy was used as reference. Results: Some level of AV was diagnosed in 23 (23.7 %) cases. Various concentrations of Enterobacteriacea, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. were detected an all patients. Enterococcus spp. were detected in 76 (78.3 %) cases. Summarized concentrations of aerobes were tenfold higher in AV-positive compared to AV-negative cases [7.30lg vs 6.06lg (p = 0.02)]. Concentrations of aerobes in severe, moderate and light AV cases did not vary significantly (p = 0.14). Concentration of lactobacilli was 1000-fold lower in AV-positive cases compared to normal cases (5.3lg vs 8.3lg, p < 0.0001). Streptococcus spp. dominated in the majority of AV-positive cases [19/22 (86.4 %) samples]. The relation of high loads of aerobes to the low numbers of Lactobacilli are a reliable marker for the presence of AV and could substitute microscopy as a test. Conclusions: PCR may be a good standardized substitution for AV diagnosis in settings where well-trained microscopists are lacking. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Örebro University and Amsterdam Health Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica | Year: 2015

In this study, we performed an evaluation of the new CE-marked multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay compared to APTIMA tests, i.e., APTIMA COMBO 2assay, APTIMA Trichomonasvaginalis assay (FDA-approved), and two different APTIMA Mycoplasmagenitalium assays (research use only; one of them only used for discrepancy analysis). Vaginal swabs (n=209) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from females (n=498) and males (n=554), consecutive attendees (n=1261) at a dermatovenerological clinic in Sweden, were examined. The sensitivity of the AmpliSens PCR assay for detection of C.trachomatis (6.3% prevalence), M.genitalium (5.7% prevalence), N.gonorrhoeae (0.3% prevalence), and T.vaginalis (0.08% prevalence) was 97.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.2-99.6%), 81.9% (95% CI: 70.7-89.7%), 100% (95% CI: 40.2-100%) and 100% (95% CI: 16.5-100%), respectively. The specificity of the AmpliSens PCR assay was 100% (95% CI: 99.6-100%) for all agents. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for N.gonorrhoeae detection was excellent, i.e., 55 international gonococcal strains detected and 135 isolates of 13 non-gonococcal Neisseria species were negative. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay demonstrated high sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of C.trachomatis, N.gonorrhoeae, and T.vaginalis, and excellent specificity but suboptimal sensitivity for M.genitalium detection.


PubMed | Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Örebro University and Do Ott Research Institute Of Obstetrics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica | Year: 2016

Traditional microscopy-based methods for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are underutilized in many settings, and molecular techniques may provide opportunities for rapid, objective, and accurate BV diagnosis. This study evaluated the quantitative AmpliSens Florocenosis/Bacterial vaginosis-FRT multiplex real-time PCR (Florocenosis-BV) assay. Vaginal samples from a previous study including unselected female subjects (n = 163) and using Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for BV diagnosis were examined with the Florocenosis-BV test and additionally tested for the presence and quantity of Gardnerella vaginalis clades 3 and 4. The Florocenosis-BV assay demonstrated 100% and 98% sensitivity compared with the Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing, respectively, with 91% specificity. The modified Florocenosis-BV assay (detecting also G. vaginalis clades 3 and 4) resulted in 100% sensitivity vs the Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing with specificity of 86% and 88%, respectively. Further optimizations of thresholds for the quantitative parameters used in the kit resulted in 99-100% accuracy vs Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for selected parameters. The Florocenosis-BV assay is an objective, accurate, sensitive, and specific method for BV diagnosis; however, the performance of the test can be further improved with some minor optimizations.

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