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Mokrousov I.,St Petersburg Pasteur Institute | Vyazovaya A.,St Petersburg Pasteur Institute | Iwamoto T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Skiba Y.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Currently, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates of Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM) family may be detected far beyond the geographic areas that coined its name 15 years ago. Here, we established the framework phylogeny of this geographically intriguing and pathobiologically important mycobacterial lineage and hypothesized how human demographics and migration influenced its phylogeography. Phylogenetic analysis of LAM isolates from all continents based on 24 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) loci and other markers identified three global sublineages with certain geographic affinities and defined by large deletions RD115, RD174, and by spoligotype SIT33. One minor sublineage (spoligotype SIT388) appears endemic in Japan. One-locus VNTR signatures were established for sublineages and served for their search in published literature and geographic mapping. We suggest that the LAM family originated in the Western Mediterranean region. The most widespread RD115 sublineage seems the most ancient and encompasses genetically and geographically distant branches, including extremely drug resistant KZN in South Africa and LAM-RUS recently widespread across Northern Eurasia. The RD174 sublineage likely started its active spread in Brazil; its earlier branch is relatively dominated by isolates from South America and the derived one is dominated by Portuguese and South/Southeastern African isolates. The relatively most recent SIT33-sublineage is marked with enigmatic gaps and peaks across the Americas and includes South African clade F11/RD761, which likely emerged within the SIT33 subpopulation after its arrival to Africa. In addition to SIT388-sublineage, other deeply rooted, endemic LAM sublineages may exist that remain to be discovered. As a general conclusion, human mass migration appears to be the major factor that shaped the M. tuberculosis phylogeography over large time-spans. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Rumyantseva T.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Golparian D.,Orebro University | Nilsson C.S.,Orebro University | Johansson E.,Orebro University | And 5 more authors.
APMIS | Year: 2015

In this study, we performed an evaluation of the new CE-marked multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay compared to APTIMA tests, i.e., APTIMA COMBO 2 assay, APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis assay (FDA-approved), and two different APTIMA Mycoplasma genitalium assays (research use only; one of them only used for discrepancy analysis). Vaginal swabs (n = 209) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from females (n = 498) and males (n = 554), consecutive attendees (n = 1261) at a dermatovenerological clinic in Sweden, were examined. The sensitivity of the AmpliSens PCR assay for detection of C. trachomatis (6.3% prevalence), M. genitalium (5.7% prevalence), N. gonorrhoeae (0.3% prevalence), and T. vaginalis (0.08% prevalence) was 97.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.2-99.6%), 81.9% (95% CI: 70.7-89.7%), 100% (95% CI: 40.2-100%) and 100% (95% CI: 16.5-100%), respectively. The specificity of the AmpliSens PCR assay was 100% (95% CI: 99.6-100%) for all agents. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for N. gonorrhoeae detection was excellent, i.e., 55 international gonococcal strains detected and 135 isolates of 13 non-gonococcal Neisseria species were negative. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay demonstrated high sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, and excellent specificity but suboptimal sensitivity for M. genitalium detection. © 2015 APMIS Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Leneva I.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Burtseva E.I.,RAS D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology | Yatsyshina S.B.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Fedyakina I.T.,RAS D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Antiviral drugs are critical adjuncts to influenza vaccination. This study determined the in vitro susceptibilities of influenza A and B viruses isolated in the 2010-2011 season in Russia to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir and the hemagglutinin fusion inhibitor umifenovir and clinical efficacy of this antiviral drugs in this season. Methods: The antiviral potency of these drugs against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in mice was assessed. Importantly, the clinical effectiveness of oseltamivir and umifenovir was evaluated in a retrospective study conducted in 26 regions of Russia. Results: All tested viruses (n= 36) were susceptible to oseltamivir and umifenovir in vitro. Oseltamivir (10. mg/kg/day) and umifenovir (60 mg/kg/day) significantly increased the survival of mice challenged with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1)pdm09 virus (p< 0.05). Influenza infection was laboratory-confirmed in 442 patients among 1462 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections. The treatment of influenza-infected patients within 48 h of symptom onset with oseltamivir and umifenovir was associated with a significant decrease in the duration of illness (2-3 days) and symptoms (p< 0.001). Pneumonia was observed in none of the patients treated with oseltamivir and in 0.3% of the patients treated with umifenovir, compared to 23.7% of patients who did not receive antiviral therapy (p< 0.001). Conclusions: This study provided experimental and clinical evidence of the efficacy of oseltamivir and umifenovir against influenza viruses, representatives of which have continued to circulate in post-pandemic seasons. © 2016 The Authors.

Neverov A.D.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Kryazhimskiy S.,Harvard University | Plotkin J.B.,University of Pennsylvania | Bazykin G.A.,Russian National Research Medical University
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

The surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of human influenza A virus evolve under selection pressures to escape adaptive immune responses and antiviral drug treatments. In addition to these external selection pressures, some mutations in HA are known to affect the adaptive landscape of NA, and vice versa, because these two proteins are physiologically interlinked. However, the extent to which evolution of one protein affects the evolution of the other one is unknown. Here we develop a novel phylogenetic method for detecting the signatures of such genetic interactions between mutations in different genes – that is, inter-gene epistasis. Using this method, we show that influenza surface proteins evolve in a coordinated way, with mutations in HA affecting subsequent spread of mutations in NA and vice versa, at many sites. Of particular interest is our finding that the oseltamivir-resistance mutations in NA in subtype H1N1 were likely facilitated by prior mutations in HA. Our results illustrate that the adaptive landscape of a viral protein is remarkably sensitive to its genomic context and, more generally, that the evolution of any single protein must be understood within the context of the entire evolving genome. © 2015 Neverov et al.

Rumyantseva T.A.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Bellen G.,Femicare Clinical Research for Women | Savochkina Y.A.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | Guschin A.E.,Central Research Institute for Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2016

Purpose: To evaluate a real-time PCR-based technique to quantify bacteria associated with aerobic vaginitis (AV) as a potential test. Methods: Vaginal samples from 100 women were tested by wet-mount microscopy, gram stain and quantitative real-time PCR targeting Enterobacteriacea, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. aureus; Lactobacillus spp. AV diagnosis obtained by wet-mount microscopy was used as reference. Results: Some level of AV was diagnosed in 23 (23.7 %) cases. Various concentrations of Enterobacteriacea, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. were detected an all patients. Enterococcus spp. were detected in 76 (78.3 %) cases. Summarized concentrations of aerobes were tenfold higher in AV-positive compared to AV-negative cases [7.30lg vs 6.06lg (p = 0.02)]. Concentrations of aerobes in severe, moderate and light AV cases did not vary significantly (p = 0.14). Concentration of lactobacilli was 1000-fold lower in AV-positive cases compared to normal cases (5.3lg vs 8.3lg, p < 0.0001). Streptococcus spp. dominated in the majority of AV-positive cases [19/22 (86.4 %) samples]. The relation of high loads of aerobes to the low numbers of Lactobacilli are a reliable marker for the presence of AV and could substitute microscopy as a test. Conclusions: PCR may be a good standardized substitution for AV diagnosis in settings where well-trained microscopists are lacking. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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