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Lee J.-H.,Chonbuk National University | Kwon Y.-B.,Institute for Medical Science | Kim D.-K.,Chonbuk National University | Kim D.-S.,Central Research and Development | Jo H.-K.,Central Research and Development
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Traditional herbs, such as Lonicera japonica, Arctii Fructus, and Scutellariae Radix have been used as traditional drug due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of extract mixture (YG-1) in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammation in both macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells and Sprague-Dawley rats. YG-1 did not show specific cellular toxicity in RAW 264.7 cells until a concentration of 100 μg/mL. YG-1 reduced various markers related to inflammation such as IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS caused by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. Consistent with these results, YG-1 exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects in an acute inflammation rat model. Acute fever and high concentration of IL-1β in serum induced by LPS were significantly reduced by YG-1. These results were similar to flubiprofen, a commercial anti-inflammatory and anti-febrile drug. Therefore, these results indicate that YG-1 has beneficial effects on LPS-induced acute inflammation and suggest that YG-1 can serve as an effective anti-inflammatory and anti-febrile drug. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


News Article | November 13, 2015
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Joule and Red Rock Biofuels intend to merge; solar fuels plus biomass F-T | Main | Two years in, BMW i3 is the best-selling EV in Germany and the 3rd top seller worldwide; 80% of buyers new to BMW » Researchers led by Ashley Weaver, assistant professor at the Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for Injury Biomechanics, have developed a method to compute crash injury metrics and risks as functions of precrash occupant position. The process allows for quantification of the sensitivity and uncertainty of the injury risk predictions based on occupant position to understand further important factors that lead to more severe motor vehicle crash injuries. The modeling results provide details not available from using crash test dummies (anthropomorphic test devices, or ATDs). More than 33,000 Americans die in motor vehicle crashes annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Modern restraint systems save lives, but some deaths and injuries remain, and restraints themselves can cause some injuries. Although crash-test dummies help engineers design safer cars, they provide only limited information about forces the body experiences during impact. Computer models of vehicle crashes, on the other hand, can provide more sophisticated information on how to improve restraints and other safety systems. The models also help researchers simulate the effects of thousands of variables that would be far too slow to test in physical crash tests. The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) has created a database of real-world vehicle crashes for researchers to test with computer models. Working with Joel Stitzel and graduate students and staff from the Center for Injury Biomechanics, Weaver developed a 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal CIREN cases. The researchers used the NSF-supported Blacklight supercomputer at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center and the DEAC Cluster at Wake Forest University to run thousands of simulations drawn from hundreds of cases. The simulations used virtual versions of the Toyota Camry and Chevrolet Cobalt. Weaver worked with members of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) Extended Collaborative Support Service team—staff with expertise in many areas of advanced computing—who helped set up the cyberinfrastructure and workflows needed to run the simulations. Supported by a five-year, $121-million NSF grant, XSEDE provides a collection of integrated digital resources that scientists can use to access advanced computing resources, data and expertise. Using the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS), developed by Toyota Central Research and Development Labs, Weaver and her team showed that simulations can reproduce real-world injury patterns and predict details crash-test dummies can’t provide. Along the way, they demonstrated how injury-causing stress moves from the foot to the lower leg as a driver’s head comes forward into a frontal airbag, and that more reclined seating positions can lead to a higher risk of head and chest injuries. Weaver and her colleagues published their findings in an open-access paper in Traffic Injury Prevention. The reconstruction process allows for quantification of the sensitivity and uncertainty of the injury risk predictions based on occupant position, which is often uncertain in real-world MVCs. This study provides perspective on the injury risk sensitivity of precrash occupant positioning within the vehicle compartment. By studying a variety of potential occupant positions, we can understand important factors that lead to more severe injuries and potentially mitigate these injuries with advanced safety systems to protect occupants in more dangerous positions. Evaluating additional cases in further detail will allow for development of new injury metrics and risk functions from real-world crash data to assess the effectiveness of restraint systems to prevent and mitigate injuries that are not easily studied using postmortem human subjects or ATDs.


News Article | November 13, 2015
Site: www.scientificcomputing.com

More than 33,000 Americans die in motor vehicle crashes annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Modern restraint systems save lives, but some deaths and injuries remain — and restraints themselves can cause some injuries. "Crash-test dummies" help engineers design safer cars, but provide only limited information about forces the body experiences during impact. Computer models of vehicle crashes, on the other hand, provide more sophisticated information on how to improve restraints and other safety systems. The models also help researchers simulate the effects of thousands of variables that would be far too slow to test in physical crash tests. "There's really limited information you can get from a crash-test dummy — you get only about 20 data points," says Ashley A. Weaver, an assistant professor at the Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for Injury Biomechanics and a former National Science Foundation (NSF) graduate research fellow. "The human body model gives us much more, predicting injuries in organs that aren't in that dummy, such as lung contusions." The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) has created a database of real-world vehicle crashes for researchers to test with computer models. Working with Joel Stitzel and graduate students and staff from the Center for Injury Biomechanics, Weaver used the NSF-supported Blacklight supercomputer at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center and the DEAC Cluster at Wake Forest University, to run thousands of simulations drawn from hundreds of cases. The simulations used virtual versions of the Toyota Camry and Chevrolet Cobalt. Weaver worked with members of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) Extended Collaborative Support Service team — staff with expertise in many areas of advanced computing — who helped set up the cyberinfrastructure and workflows needed to run the simulations. Supported by a five-year, $121 million NSF grant, XSEDE provides a collection of integrated digital resources that scientists can use to access advanced computing resources, data and expertise. Using the Total Human Model for Safety, developed by Toyota Central Research and Development Labs, Weaver and her team showed that simulations can reproduce real-world injury patterns and predict details crash-test dummies can't provide. Along the way, they demonstrated how injury-causing stress moves from the foot to the lower leg as a driver's head comes forward into a frontal airbag, and that more reclined seating positions can lead to a higher risk of head and chest injuries. Weaver and her colleagues published their findings in Traffic Injury Prevention in October 2015. The simulations allowed the researchers to quantify the sensitivity and uncertainty of the injury risk predictions based on occupant position, which is difficult to determine in real-world motor vehicle crashes. "By studying a variety of potential occupant positions," the team concluded, "we can understand important factors that lead to more severe injuries and potentially mitigate these injuries with advanced safety systems to protect occupants in more dangerous positions."


Arakawa T.,Central Research and Development
Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) | Year: 2010

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is used as a construction material for artificial supplementation of enamel tooth surfaces to improve oral hygiene. This study examined in vitro HA interactions with mutans streptococci (MS) and bacterial adherence to small (nanosize) crystal form of HA beads having a protean hexagonal structure. The adsorption and physical effects of HA employed in vivo is also described. [3H-thymidine]-labeled streptococci were incubated with HA noncoated or coated with salivary components or salivary agglutinin peptide (SRCRP2), a receptor for streptococcal surface proteins. Bacterial adhesion activities on HA were measured by uptake of [3H-thymidine]. Application of HA paste in an individual tray was tried on the tooth surface, and its effects on the colony ratio of MS/total streptococci (TS) in saliva were analyzed by culture technique. The adhesion assay showed that the binding of streptococci to HA was inhibited by coating with salivary components, whereas coating with SRCRP2 had nearly no influence on binding with or without Ca+. Further, treatment with HA decreased the adherence of Streptococci mutans to roughened enamel surfaces by one-third. In vivo application of a HA dentifrice to individual teeth demonstrated that the colony number ratio of MS/TS slowly decreased. MS adhesion to HA was restricted by both salivary components, except for SRCRP2, and the physical effects of HA; in addition, the material itself has a unique effect for removing MS from the oral cavity.


Tiemeijer L.F.,Central Research and Development | Pijper R.M.T.,Central Research and Development | Andrei C.,Central Research and Development
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2013

A few important design choices for a low-loss scalable on-chip transformer are discussed, the most important one being that the capacitive and inductive couplings should be aligned to minimize insertion loss. The importance of these design choices is illustrated both theoretically as well as experimentally. In particular, for the first time the performance of these on-chip transformers is verified with four-port -parameter measurements taken up to 67 GHz. With that, an insertion loss of only 0.6 dB up to 30 GHz is demonstrated. To facilitate the use of these low-loss on-chip transformers in the RF integrated-circuit design flow, a scalable compact equivalent-circuit model suitable for all pre-layout circuit simulations is described, which accurately predicts transformation ratios, transmission efficiencies and balun amplitude and phase imbalances. © 2013 IEEE.

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