Rockhampton, Australia

Central Queensland University
Rockhampton, Australia

Central Queensland University is an Australian dual sector university based in Queensland. Its main campus is in North Rockhampton, Queensland. However, it also has campuses in Rockhampton City, Bundaberg, Emerald, Gladstone City, Gladstone Marina, Mackay Ooralea, Mackay City and Noosa, as well as delivery sites in Cairns, Cannonvale, Townsville, Charters Towers, Yeppoon, Biloela, Geraldton, Karratha and Perth. On 31 October 2014, CQUniversity announced that it would open a full campus in the Townsville CBD in 2015. It has metropolitan campuses in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Brisbane. As of 2012 the metropolitan campuses hosted both international and domestic students. Wikipedia.

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Holland A.,Central Queensland University | Kinnear S.,Central Queensland University
Marine Drugs | Year: 2013

To date, most research on freshwater cyanotoxin(s) has focused on understanding the dynamics of toxin production and decomposition, as well as evaluating the environmental conditions that trigger toxin production, all with the objective of informing management strategies and options for risk reduction. Comparatively few research studies have considered how this information can be used to understand the broader ecological role of cyanotoxin(s), and the possible applications of this knowledge to the management of toxic blooms. This paper explores the ecological, toxicological, and genetic evidence for cyanotoxin production in natural environments. The possible evolutionary advantages of toxin production are grouped into two main themes: That of "competitive advantage" or "physiological aide". The first grouping illustrates how compounds produced by cyanobacteria may have originated from the need for a cellular defence mechanism, in response to grazing pressure and/or resource competition. The second grouping considers the contribution that secondary metabolites make to improved cellular physiology, through benefits to homeostasis, photosynthetic efficiencies, and accelerated growth rates. The discussion also includes other factors in the debate about possible evolutionary roles for toxins, such as different modes of exposures and effects on non-target (i.e., non-competitive) species. The paper demonstrates that complex and multiple factors are at play in driving evolutionary processes in aquatic environments. This information may provide a fresh perspective on managing toxic blooms, including the need to use a "systems approach" to understand how physico-chemical conditions, as well biological stressors, interact to trigger toxin production. © 1996-2013 MDPI AG.

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 508.27K | Year: 2012

Many different factors influence the health of individuals, be they domestic animals or humans. These factors can broadly be categorised as either genetic or environmental. Thus the genes inherited from parents and the environments encountered during life are paramount in determining health status as one ages. These factors may also interact, such that individuals with one genetic make-up may react well to a particular environment, whereas a different genetic make-up may react badly. Where a substantial proportion of the genetic and environmental factors can be identified it is possible to provide accurate predictions of individuals health as they age. Using such genetic information in prediction has great potential as it can be measured early in life and is unchanging throughout life. So there is the potential to be aware in advance of the environmental conditions that will optimise the future health of individuals. Such prediction is potentially a powerful tool to promote healthy ageing and wellbeing in both humans and companion animals, as it allows increasing efficiency of interventions, such as recommended diets or even drug treatments, and the targeting interventions towards those individuals who will most benefit. Combining genetic and environmental information is therefore the natural way to proceed when predicting how animals or humans will age and this project is concerned with developing accurate mathematical and statistical models to do this. Research in animals and humans has started the process of identifying genes affecting the traits associated with healthy ageing such as obesity or bone strength. However it has become clear that traits associated with healthy ageing are generally controlled by large numbers of genes with small effects. To unequivocally find such genes and accurately estimate their effects requires very large studies and relatively few genes have as yet been identified. Thus the amount of variation explained jointly by all the genes found in studies so far is usually much less than 10%, even though genetic variation in total may explain as much as 80% of the overall variation. Alongside genetic information, factors such as age, gender, diet and other lifestyle characteristics are often major contributors to how individuals develop. In addition, it is often known that metabolic or predisposing traits like glucose or lipid concentration in blood may correlate with health. Such traits may be more amenable to measurement or may be measured earlier than overall health status and may be used as indicators or predictors of future health. Thus information can also be combined across traits to improve the accuracy of prediction, and to allow prediction of (unmeasured) correlated traits. With this background we propose to develop mathematical methods which make best use of available genomic information and to combine this information with environmental data and across multiple traits. We will use several different approaches and compare them in their ability to accurately predict performance and how they may be extended to account for data from many traits and environments. We plan to apply and extend methods currently used in animal breeding for the related task of identifying genetically superior animals for breeding. These will be compared with machine learning methods from computer science. We plan to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods applied to the analysis of data from human populations on body mass index - a proxy for obesity - and blood glucose levels, and will also include in the analyses environmental variables like smoking, diet and exercise. The data are currently available from human studies and methods and results will be relevant to this species. In due course, the methods developed will be directly applicable to companion animals as data become available.

Hickie I.B.,University of Sydney | Rogers N.L.,University of Sydney | Rogers N.L.,Central Queensland University
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Major depression is one of the leading causes of premature death and disability. Although available drugs are effective, they also have substantial limitations. Recent advances in our understanding of the fundamental links between chronobiology and major mood disorders, as well as the development of new drugs that target the circadian system, have led to a renewed focus on this area. In this review, we summarise the associations between disrupted chronobiology and major depression and outline new antidepressant treatment strategies that target the circadian system. In particular, we highlight agomelatine, a melatonin-receptor agonist and selective serotonergic receptor subtype (ie, 5-HT 2C) antagonist that has chronobiotic, antidepressant, and anxiolytic effects. In the short-term, agomelatine has similar antidepressant efficacy to venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and sertraline and, in the longer term, fewer patients on agomelatine relapse (23·9) than do those receiving placebo (50·0). Patients with depression treated with agomelatine report improved sleep quality and reduced waking after sleep onset. As agomelatine does not raise serotonin levels, it has less potential for the common gastrointestinal, sexual, or metabolic side-effects that characterise many other antidepressant compounds. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Li W.,Central Queensland University
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering | Year: 2012

A major challenge of dynamic reconfiguration is Quality of Service (QoS) assurance, which is meant to reduce application disruption to the minimum for the system's transformation. However, this problem has not been well studied. This paper investigates the problem for component-based software systems from three points of view. First, the whole spectrum of QoS characteristics is defined. Second, the logical and physical requirements for QoS characteristics are analyzed and solutions to achieve them are proposed. Third, prior work is classified by QoS characteristics and then realized by abstract reconfiguration strategies. On this basis, quantitative evaluation of the QoS assurance abilities of existing work and our own approach is conducted through three steps. First, a proof-of-concept prototype called the reconfigurable component model is implemented to support the representation and testing of the reconfiguration strategies. Second, a reconfiguration benchmark is proposed to expose the whole spectrum of QoS problems. Third, each reconfiguration strategy is tested against the benchmark and the testing results are evaluated. The most important conclusion from our investigation is that the classified QoS characteristics can be fully achieved under some acceptable constraints. © 2012 IEEE.

Stanley D.,Central Queensland University
Nature Medicine | Year: 2016

Bacterial infection is highly prevalent in patients who have had a stroke. Despite the potential contribution of micro-aspiration in post-stroke pneumonia, we found that the majority of the microorganisms detected in the patients who developed infections after having a stroke were common commensal bacteria that normally reside in the intestinal tracts. In a mouse model of ischemic stroke, post-stroke infection was only observed in mice that were born and raised in specific-pathogen-free facilities; this was not seen in mice that were born and raised in germ-free facilities. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics analyses, we provide evidence demonstrating that the source of the bacteria forming the microbial community in the lungs of post-stroke mice was indeed the host small intestine. Additionally, stroke-induced gut barrier permeability and dysfunction preceded the dissemination of orally inoculated bacteria to peripheral tissues. This study identifies a novel pathway in which stroke promotes the translocation and dissemination of selective strains of bacteria that originated from the host gut microbiota. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Compared to females, males experience higher rates of chronic disease and mortality, yet few health promotion initiatives are specifically aimed at men. Therefore, the aim of the ManUp Study is to examine the effectiveness of an IT-based intervention to increase the physical activity and nutrition behaviour and literacy in middle-aged males (aged 35-54 years). The study design was a two-arm randomised controlled trial, having an IT-based (applying website and mobile phones) and a print-based intervention arm, to deliver intervention materials and to promote self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Participants (n = 317) were randomised on a 2:1 ratio in favour of the IT-based intervention arm. Both intervention arms completed assessments at baseline, 3, and 9 months. All participants completed self-report assessments of physical activity, sitting time, nutrition behaviours, physical activity and nutrition literacy, perceived health status and socio-demographic characteristics. A randomly selected sub-sample in the IT-based (n = 61) and print-based (n = 30) intervention arms completed objective measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and physical activity as measured by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X). The average age of participants in the IT-based and print-based intervention arm was 44.2 and 43.8 years respectively. The majority of participants were employed in professional occupations (IT-based 57.6%, Print-based 54.2%) and were overweight or obese (IT-based 90.8%, Print-based 87.3%). At baseline a lower proportion of participants in the IT-based (70.2%) group agreed that 30 minutes of physical activity each day is enough to improve health compared to the print-based (82.3%) group (p = .026). The IT-based group consumed a significantly lower number of serves of red meat in the previous week, compared to the print-based group (p = .017). No other significant between-group differences were observed at baseline. The ManUp Study will examine the effectiveness of an IT-based approach to improve physical activity and nutrition behaviour and literacy. Study outcomes will provide much needed information on the efficacy of this approach in middle aged males, which is important due to the large proportions of males at risk, and the potential reach of IT-based interventions. ACTRN12611000081910.

Stanton R.,Central Queensland University | Reaburn P.,Central Queensland University
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2014

Objectives: There is growing interest in the use of exercise in the treatment of depression. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated a reduction in depressive symptoms with both aerobic and non-aerobic exercise interventions. This has been supported in a number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. However, the heterogeneous nature of the exercise intervention trials makes determining the appropriate program variables (frequency, intensity, duration and type of exercise) difficult. Design: A systematic review was undertaken on all RCTs reporting a significant treatment effect of exercise in the treatment of depression. Methods: Studies were analyzed for exercise frequency, intensity, session duration, exercise type, exercise mode, intervention duration, delivery of exercise, level and quality of supervision and compliance. Study quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Results: Five RCTs published since 2007 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. Most programs were performed three times weekly and of moderate intensity. All included trials used aerobic exercise, either treadmill or outdoor walking, stationary cycle or elliptical cross trainer exercise. Intervention duration ranged from four to twelve weeks. Both group and individual programs were shown to be effective in lowering the symptoms of depression. Some level of supervision is recommended. Conclusions: There is evidence for the use supervised aerobic exercise, undertaken three times weekly at moderate intensity for a minimum of nine weeks in the treatment of depression. Further research on the manipulation of program variables is warranted. © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia.

Gyasi-Agyei Y.,Central Queensland University
Water Resources Research | Year: 2011

A daily rainfall disaggregation model, which uses a copula to model the dependence structure between total depth, total duration of wet periods, and the maximum proportional depth of a wet period, is presented. The wet(1)-dry(0) binary sequence is modeled by the nonrandomized Bartlett-Lewis model with diurnal effect incorporated before superimposing the AR(1) depth process submodel. Unlike previous studies, the model is structured such that all wet day data available are considered in the analysis, without the need to discard any good quality daily data embedded in a month having some missing data. This increased the data size, thus improving the modeling process. Further, the daily data are classified according to the total duration of wet periods duration within the day. In this way a large proportion of the model parameters become seasonal invariant, the overriding factor being the total duration of wet periods. The potential of the developed model has been demonstrated by disaggregating both the data set used in developing the model parameters and also a 12 year continuous rainfall data set not used in the model parameterization. Gross rainfall statistics of several aggregation levels down to 6 min have been very well reproduced by the disaggregation model. The copula dependence structure and the variation of the depth process submodel parameters with the total duration of wet periods are also very well captured by the presented model. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Zhang X.-M.,Central Queensland University | Han Q.-L.,Central Queensland University
Automatica | Year: 2013

This paper is concerned with the network-based H∞ filtering for a stochastic system, where data transmission from the stochastic system to a filter is completed via a communication network. Network-induced delays, packet dropouts and packet disorders are unavoidable due to the use of the network. First, a logic zero-order-hold (ZOH) is designed to discard the disordered packets actively. The network-induced delays and packet dropouts are modeled as an interval time-varying delay. By decomposing the delay interval into N subintervals uniformly, the filter to be designed is modeled as a Markov jumping filter with N modes governed by a Markov chain. In order to work out the transition rate from one mode to another, a logic jumping-like trigger is embedded into the logic ZOH to simulate the switching of the Markov process. Second, based on the Markov jumping filter model together with a new integral inequality in the stochastic setting, a novel bounded real lemma is presented to ensure that the resultant filtering error system is mean exponentially stable with a prescribed H∞ performance. Then, a sufficient condition on the existence of desired Markov jumping filters is provided in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an air vehicle system is employed to show effectiveness of the proposed design method. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vandelanotte C.,Central Queensland University
Journal of medical Internet research | Year: 2012

In randomized controlled trials, participants cannot choose their preferred intervention delivery mode and thus might refuse to participate or not engage fully if assigned to a nonpreferred group. This might underestimate the true effectiveness of behavior-change interventions. To examine whether receiving interventions either matched or mismatched with participants' preferred delivery mode would influence effectiveness of a Web-based physical activity intervention. Adults (n = 863), recruited via email, were randomly assigned to one of three intervention delivery modes (text based, video based, or combined) and received fully automated, Internet-delivered personal advice about physical activity. Personalized intervention content, based on the theory of planned behavior and stages of change concept, was identical across groups. Online, self-assessed questionnaires measuring physical activity were completed at baseline, 1 week, and 1 month. Physical activity advice acceptability and website usability were assessed at 1 week. Before randomization, participants were asked which delivery mode they preferred, to categorize them as matched or mismatched. Time spent on the website was measured throughout the intervention. We applied intention-to-treat, repeated-measures analyses of covariance to assess group differences. Attrition was high (575/863, 66.6%), though equal between groups (t(86) (3) =1.31, P =.19). At 1-month follow-up, 93 participants were categorized as matched and 195 as mismatched. They preferred text mode (493/803, 61.4%) over combined (216/803, 26.9%) and video modes (94/803, 11.7%). After the intervention, 20% (26/132) of matched-group participants and 34% (96/282) in the mismatched group changed their delivery mode preference. Time effects were significant for all physical activity outcomes (total physical activity: F(2,801) = 5.07, P = .009; number of activity sessions: F(2,801) = 7.52, P < .001; walking: F(2,801) = 8.32, P < .001; moderate physical activity: F(2,801) = 9.53, P < .001; and vigorous physical activity: F(2,801) = 6.04, P = .002), indicating that physical activity increased over time for both matched and mismatched groups. Matched-group participants improved physical activity outcomes slightly more than those in the mismatched group, but interaction effects were not significant. Physical activity advice acceptability (content scale: t(368) = .10, P = .92; layout scale: t(368) = 1.53, P = .12) and website usability (layout scale: t(426) = .05, P = .96; ease of use scale: t(426) = .21, P = .83) were generally high and did not differ between the matched and mismatched groups. The only significant difference (t(621) = 2.16, P = .03) was in relation to total time spent on the website: the mismatched group spent significantly more time on the website (14.4 minutes) than the matched group (12.1 minutes). Participants' preference regarding delivery mode may not significantly influence intervention outcomes. Consequently, allowing participants to choose their preferred delivery mode may not increase effectiveness of Web-based interventions.

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