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Gupta R.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Saini V.K.,Forest Research Institute | Bhatt R.P.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Thapliyal B.P.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Naithani S.,Forest Research Institute
Cellulose Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2013

In the biological pulping process, the removal of lignin can be achieved through treatment of lignocellulosic materials with white rot fungi. The main biological challenge in biopulping is that fungal hyphae are not able to penetrate in the core of the chips and only a surface phenomenon occurs. Therefore, the surface area of eucalyptus wood chips was increased by passing through an impressafiner. An impressafiner compresses the chips and converts them into spongy material. In the present study, biological pretreatment of eucalyptus non-destructured (chips) and destructured samples (spongy) was carried out with Trametes versicolor. During the study, it was found that the lignin loss was approximately 8.90% higher in the destructured samples, compared to the non-destructured samples, within 21 days under optimum conditions. The fungal pretreatment decreased the kappa number of the treated destructured samples by as much as 10.29 points, compared to the untreated non-destructured samples. Thus, the study has provided an insight into economically feasible conditions to reduce pollution load.

Tyagi S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Mishra N.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Ray A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Paper Industry is one of the major industries which discharge some wastes that can produce many valuable by-products. These are black liquor, steam and electrical energy, wood/ bark wastes, sawdust/ bamboo dust, solid wastes like lime mud, grits, dregs, ETP sludges and silica. These wastes can be converted to many value added chemicals, such as activated carbon from black liquor, sawdust, bamboo dust, broken chips and partly pulverized bark. Black liquor /sulphite liquor produces ligno sulphones from rice straw, wheat straw, bagasse, bamboo, sarkanda and hardwood. It has diversified uses e.g. as a base for industrial detergents(washing powder and liquid soaps), oil-well drilling mud, cement and concrete additives, dispersants for a variety of chemicals, emulsifiers and stabilizers, brightening agents for electrolytic refining during electroplating, binders and adhesives for pellets and briquettes chemicals such as clay, calcium carbonate and titanium di-oxide resin ingredients, lignin-phenol-formaldehyde mixtures as adhesives for ply wood and other wood based panels, rubber additives, adsorbent/desorbent, micronutrient for agricultural applications, asphalt emulsions. Besides black liquor can also be converted to lignin-poly isocyanate foam, lignin reinforced polymers, lignin adducts, chlorobrominated lignins as effective fire retarding agents, composites of alkali lignin and biologically active agents such as fungicides, insecticides, nematocides, herbicides etc. ,activated carbon by coking or gasification of black liquor, hydrolytic degradation of ligno-cellulosic waste to sugars such as xylose and xylitol used as food stuff as sweeteners, synthetic fuel using solar furnace, silica from straw black liquor, hydrogen gas by electrolysis, vanillin, DMSO, methanol, acetate, formate, actate, saccharinic acids, lactones, turpentine and tall oil, alkali lignin, guaiacol, pyrocatechol, acetoguaiacone, biogas(methane) etc. Cellulosic wastes can also produce cellulosic bio-ethanol using thermophilic bacterial species like Clostridium thermocellum. In the similar manner, the sludge can produce glucose by treatment with cellulase enzymes. Syngas from gasification of pith of some nonwood based plants can also be produced. From straw soda black liquor, silica can be precipitated for industrial applications such as amorphous silica (for high quality synthetic pigments as paper fillers which can replace soap stone and TiO2), filler, retention aid and as flocculating agent, for production of ceramics. The later can be employed for household china, fine earthen ware, concrete block, electric porcelain, silica light weight brick, clay brick, calcium silicate thermal insulating materials, reinforcement in rubber, in paint manufacture, adsorbent, grease thickener, insecticide and cosmetic industry. An attempt has been made in this paper to review the existing status of Indian industry to examine up to what extent they are able to exploit the potential of aforesaid cellulose and lignin by-products. Further exploratory investigations were made to look into the feasibility of their manufacture in plant practice in India for its sustainability.

Thapliyal B.P.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Mathur R.M.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute
IPPTA: Quarterly Journal of Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association | Year: 2014

IPPTA has developed an exhaustive e-library of the articles published since 1965. By using IPPTA e-library the abstracts of publications can be accessed/searched based on keywords, categories (Pulping, Bleaching, Energy, Raw material, Recycle Fibre, Stock Preparation, Testing. Effluent Treatment etc.), Year of publication, author's name, address and reference etc. The abstracts can be accessed by all whereas the detailed articles in PDF format can be downloaded by IPPTA members after registration in the website. The process for registration in the website and guidelines are presented in this article.

Anupam K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Sharma A.K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Lal P.S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Dutta S.,Indian School of Mines | Maity S.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Energy | Year: 2016

Biochar fuel (CH0.50O0.19N0.06) was prepared from Leucaena leucocephala bark (CH2.80O0.53N0.03) through the slow pyrolysis process adopting design of experiments technique. Modelling and optimization of the slow pyrolysis process was respectively carried out implementing five level central composite design and numerical technique under response surface methodology. Pyrolysis temperature and time were taken as independent parameters while biochar fuel yield, bulk density, higher heating value, energy density and energy yield were chosen as dependent parameters. The optimal pyrolysis temperature and time were estimated to be 367.47 °C and 135.38 min respectively. These optimum values of temperature and time gave biochar yield 47.29%, bulk density 319.73 kg/m3, higher heating value 23.30 MJ/kg, energy density 1.21, and energy yield 56.55%. The developed quadratic models were checked using ANOVA (analysis of variance) technique for their validity and degree of fitness. The high values of 'Adequate precision',R2 and its negligible difference with 'AdjustedR2' as well as 'PredictedR2' for each model indicated that the fitted empirical models can be used for prediction with reasonable precision. The quadratic models revealed strong interaction between pyrolysis temperature and time towards preparation of biochar fuel. It was further observed that desirability of pyrolysis temperature (0.91) is more than pyrolysis time (0.63). Comparison of Van Krevelen diagram of present biochar fuel with several other biochar fuels and coals showed that prepared biochar has better fuel properties in comparison to raw bark. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Sharma A.,University of Delhi | Thakur V.V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Shrivastava A.,University of Delhi | Jain R.K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

In present study, xylanase and laccase were produced in a cost-effective manner up to 10kg substrate level and evaluated in elemental chlorine free bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Compared to the pulp pre-bleached with xylanase (15%) or laccase (25%) individually, the ClO2 savings were higher with sequential treatment of xylanase followed by laccase (35%) at laboratory scale. The sequential enzyme treatment when applied at pilot scale (50kg pulp), resulted in improved pulp properties (50% reduced post color number, 15.71% increased tear index) and reduced AOX levels (34%) in bleach effluents. The decreased AOX level in effluents will help to meet AOX discharge limits, while improved pulp properties will be value addition to the paper. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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