Time filter

Source Type

PubMed | Durgapur Institute of Advanced Technology and Management, National Institute of Technology Durgapur and Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of advanced research | Year: 2017

The present investigation highlights the feasibility of a polymer grafting process to enhance the durability and flame retardancy of rice straw towards application as a low cost roofing material. The success of this grafting methodology was perceived to depend upon a bi-step pre-treatment process encompassing delignification and inorganic salts dispersion. Subsequently free radical polymer grafting of acrylonitrile onto rice straw was implemented by immersion mechanism initiated by oxalic acid-potassium permanganate initiator. The percentage of grafting, limiting oxygen index (LOI), biodegradability of the grafted rice straw and grafting yield percentage was estimated to be 57%, 27%, 0.02% and 136.67%, respectively. The weight loss of polymer grafted rice straw implied its less biodegradability over raw straw. Thus, the process of grafting contrived in the present analysis can be a promising and reliable technique for the efficient utilization of rice straw as an inexpensive roofing element through the augmentation of its durability and flame retardancy.


Anupam K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Sharma A.K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Lal P.S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Dutta S.,Indian School of Mines | Maity S.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Energy | Year: 2016

Biochar fuel (CH0.50O0.19N0.06) was prepared from Leucaena leucocephala bark (CH2.80O0.53N0.03) through the slow pyrolysis process adopting design of experiments technique. Modelling and optimization of the slow pyrolysis process was respectively carried out implementing five level central composite design and numerical technique under response surface methodology. Pyrolysis temperature and time were taken as independent parameters while biochar fuel yield, bulk density, higher heating value, energy density and energy yield were chosen as dependent parameters. The optimal pyrolysis temperature and time were estimated to be 367.47 °C and 135.38 min respectively. These optimum values of temperature and time gave biochar yield 47.29%, bulk density 319.73 kg/m3, higher heating value 23.30 MJ/kg, energy density 1.21, and energy yield 56.55%. The developed quadratic models were checked using ANOVA (analysis of variance) technique for their validity and degree of fitness. The high values of 'Adequate precision',R2 and its negligible difference with 'AdjustedR2' as well as 'PredictedR2' for each model indicated that the fitted empirical models can be used for prediction with reasonable precision. The quadratic models revealed strong interaction between pyrolysis temperature and time towards preparation of biochar fuel. It was further observed that desirability of pyrolysis temperature (0.91) is more than pyrolysis time (0.63). Comparison of Van Krevelen diagram of present biochar fuel with several other biochar fuels and coals showed that prepared biochar has better fuel properties in comparison to raw bark. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Singh Y.P.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Dhall P.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Mathur R.M.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Jain R.K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2011

Wastewaters from pulp and paper mills are highly toxic and around 250 xenobiotic compounds have been reported in the effluents. Tannic acid degrading bacterium, Enterobacter sp. was isolated from soil by tannic acid enrichment. This isolate was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluents. Parameters like temperature, agitation, inoculum size and treatment duration were optimized by using Qualiteck-4 software. Reduction in lignin 73% and colour up to 82% was also observed. Encouraging results were observed is reduction of COD, BOD with 16-h retention time in batch culture. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Sharma A.,University of Delhi | Thakur V.V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Shrivastava A.,University of Delhi | Jain R.K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

In present study, xylanase and laccase were produced in a cost-effective manner up to 10kg substrate level and evaluated in elemental chlorine free bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Compared to the pulp pre-bleached with xylanase (15%) or laccase (25%) individually, the ClO2 savings were higher with sequential treatment of xylanase followed by laccase (35%) at laboratory scale. The sequential enzyme treatment when applied at pilot scale (50kg pulp), resulted in improved pulp properties (50% reduced post color number, 15.71% increased tear index) and reduced AOX levels (34%) in bleach effluents. The decreased AOX level in effluents will help to meet AOX discharge limits, while improved pulp properties will be value addition to the paper. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sharma A.K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Anupam K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Swaroop V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Lal P.S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Bist V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Development of large scale commercial pulping and papermaking processes using agricultural solid residues as raw materials is ecologically and environmentally important. This paper reports pilot scale soda-anthraquinone pulping of palm oil empty fruit bunches and elemental chlorine free bleaching of resulting pulp using DEpD sequence. The physical and morphological properties of resulting bleached and unbleached pulp fibres along with yield have been determined. The pilot scale unbleached pulp exhibited brightness 31.4%, kappa number 18, viscosity 845 mL/g, tensile index 59 Nm/g, burst index 5 kN/g and tear index 7.8 mNm2/g with a yield of 48% and bleached pulp resulted in brightness 85%, viscosity 650 mL/g, tensile index 48 Nm/g, burst index 4.70 kN/g and tear index 9.1 mNm2/g. Comparison of these values with those obtained at lab scale by various researchers through different processes revealed that the operating conditions adopted in this study can be successfully implemented at a paper mill for commercial production of pulp and paper from palm oil empty fruit bunches. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ray A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Tyagi S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute
AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

Coating of any substrate such as paper is a multivariate problem. It is extremely difficult to quantify the parametric effect on the response and inter dependency of parameters. Coated paper and paper board are considered as layered constructions. The surface of the sheet is coated with a thin pigment layer which significantly improves its printing and properties like gloss, brightness, smoothness, opacity, specific scattering coefficient and surface strength. In this present study attempt have been made to carry out experiments in laboratory air knife coater for coating duplex board obtained from an Indian mill using statistical experimental design based on Plackett- Burman design methods. The development of regression estimation, optimization techniques and algorithms for application have also been made. The pigment, the binders and other ingredients used are China clay, precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), ground calcium carbonate (GCC), Latex, carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), starch and NaHMP (sodium hexa meta phosphate) with variable solid contents. Equipment variables studied were air pressure, number of passes through calender nips, knife angle, calendering pressure, knife angle and calendering pressure at fixed temperature. The output variables like brightness, gloss, smoothness, and surface strength (IGT) were studied and the corresponding regression equations were developed. The predicted properties for each model derived from statistical design are compared with the experimental data evaluated in the laboratory using standard tests as per TAPPI specifications. The predicted values are found to be with in acceptable range of accuracy allowed for engineering estimates. The regression obtained between observed and predicted values are also within reasonable limits.


Thapliyal B.P.,Central Pulp and paper Research Institute | Mathur R.M.,Central Pulp and paper Research Institute
IPPTA: Quarterly Journal of Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association | Year: 2014

IPPTA has developed an exhaustive e-library of the articles published since 1965. By using IPPTA e-library the abstracts of publications can be accessed/searched based on keywords, categories (Pulping, Bleaching, Energy, Raw material, Recycle Fibre, Stock Preparation, Testing. Effluent Treatment etc.), Year of publication, author's name, address and reference etc. The abstracts can be accessed by all whereas the detailed articles in PDF format can be downloaded by IPPTA members after registration in the website. The process for registration in the website and guidelines are presented in this article.


Anupam K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Swaroop V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Lal P.S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Bist V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

Soil applicable biochar has been prepared from bark of Leucaena leucocephala wood which is a waste generated during its pulping and papermaking process. The slow pyrolysis process adopted for this purpose has been modelled and optimized employing central composite design and desirability function under response surface methodology taking temperature (308-592. °C) and time (35-205. min) as independent variable while yield, loss on ignition, stable organic matter, oxidisable carbon and carbon liability index as dependent variable. L. leucocephala bark was characterized in terms of proximate analysis (moisture 4.90%, ash 7.20%, fixed carbon 18.10%, volatile matter 69.80%), elemental analysis (carbon 45.78%, hydrogen 10.67%, nitrogen 1.77%, oxygen 32.08%, sulphur 0.09%), lignocellulosic composition (holocellulose 45.86%, hemicellulose 15.01%, lignin 34.75%) and compared with a wide range of feedstocks to find its suitability towards biochar production. The optimum pyrolysis temperature and residence time were found to be 350. °C and 60. min respectively which gave biochar yield 53.16%, loss on ignition 88.17%, oxidisable carbon 28.82%, stable organic matter 38.48%, and carbon liability index 0.32. The biochar produced at optimum conditions were characterized by proximate analysis (moisture 0.65%, ash 11.83%, fixed carbon 40.2%, volatile matter 47.57%) and elemental analysis (carbon 62.91%, hydrogen 3.12%, nitrogen 2.65%, oxygen 20.74%, sulphur 0.05%). The O/C ratio of 0.25 and H/C ratio of 0.60 confirmed its life between 100-1000 years and appropriateness for soil application as well as carbon sequestration. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Anupam K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Lal P.S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Bist V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Sharma A.K.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Swaroop V.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute
Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2014

General approach for determining the suitability of a feedstock for pulping and papermaking includes chemical-morphological analysis, cooking experiments, pulp characterization, and physico-chemical properties evaluation. This work attempts to simplify this raw material selection problem using a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach exclusively on the basis of chemical- morphological analysis. Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) has been applied to the decision making unit comprising chemical and morphological characteristics of three Eucalyptus and Leucaena varieties to evaluate and rank them according to preference for pulping and papermaking. The applicability of the proposed methodology has been illustrated through three examples collected from literature. Results obtained in this investigation are in confirmation of the results published in literature. It reveals that the proposed method is practical, feasible, and easy to apply for pulp and paper based raw material selection. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Tyagi S.,Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Mishra N.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Ray A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Paper Industry is one of the major industries which discharge some wastes that can produce many valuable by-products. These are black liquor, steam and electrical energy, wood/ bark wastes, sawdust/ bamboo dust, solid wastes like lime mud, grits, dregs, ETP sludges and silica. These wastes can be converted to many value added chemicals, such as activated carbon from black liquor, sawdust, bamboo dust, broken chips and partly pulverized bark. Black liquor /sulphite liquor produces ligno sulphones from rice straw, wheat straw, bagasse, bamboo, sarkanda and hardwood. It has diversified uses e.g. as a base for industrial detergents(washing powder and liquid soaps), oil-well drilling mud, cement and concrete additives, dispersants for a variety of chemicals, emulsifiers and stabilizers, brightening agents for electrolytic refining during electroplating, binders and adhesives for pellets and briquettes chemicals such as clay, calcium carbonate and titanium di-oxide resin ingredients, lignin-phenol-formaldehyde mixtures as adhesives for ply wood and other wood based panels, rubber additives, adsorbent/desorbent, micronutrient for agricultural applications, asphalt emulsions. Besides black liquor can also be converted to lignin-poly isocyanate foam, lignin reinforced polymers, lignin adducts, chlorobrominated lignins as effective fire retarding agents, composites of alkali lignin and biologically active agents such as fungicides, insecticides, nematocides, herbicides etc. ,activated carbon by coking or gasification of black liquor, hydrolytic degradation of ligno-cellulosic waste to sugars such as xylose and xylitol used as food stuff as sweeteners, synthetic fuel using solar furnace, silica from straw black liquor, hydrogen gas by electrolysis, vanillin, DMSO, methanol, acetate, formate, actate, saccharinic acids, lactones, turpentine and tall oil, alkali lignin, guaiacol, pyrocatechol, acetoguaiacone, biogas(methane) etc. Cellulosic wastes can also produce cellulosic bio-ethanol using thermophilic bacterial species like Clostridium thermocellum. In the similar manner, the sludge can produce glucose by treatment with cellulase enzymes. Syngas from gasification of pith of some nonwood based plants can also be produced. From straw soda black liquor, silica can be precipitated for industrial applications such as amorphous silica (for high quality synthetic pigments as paper fillers which can replace soap stone and TiO2), filler, retention aid and as flocculating agent, for production of ceramics. The later can be employed for household china, fine earthen ware, concrete block, electric porcelain, silica light weight brick, clay brick, calcium silicate thermal insulating materials, reinforcement in rubber, in paint manufacture, adsorbent, grease thickener, insecticide and cosmetic industry. An attempt has been made in this paper to review the existing status of Indian industry to examine up to what extent they are able to exploit the potential of aforesaid cellulose and lignin by-products. Further exploratory investigations were made to look into the feasibility of their manufacture in plant practice in India for its sustainability.

Loading Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute collaborators
Loading Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute collaborators