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Kaur R.P.,Central Potato Research Station
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding | Year: 2017

The present study was undertaken to evaluate advanced generation potato clones comprised 183 genotypes obtained from true potato seed, for early bulking towards high yields and associated characters for development of new varieties and selection of promising lines for different traits using augmented design. This approach provides a very efficient means of screening test entries with replicated controls, at early stages of breeding when propagating material is restricted. Based on the analysis H23 was identified to have a significantly larger number of leaves per stem. Number of stems per plant was observed to be significantly high in H14, H172 and H175. Significantly, lesser undersized tubers were observed for lines H98, H167, H28, H54 and H34. The lines H37 and H162 were identified to be significantly superior giving a marketable yield of more than 1.16 kg/ plant. These lines with significantly high yield are considered for release as varieties after conducting replicated evaluation and based on the desirable characters may be suitably considered as parents in succeeding crossing programmes.

Arora R.K.,Central Potato Research Station | Sharma S.,Central Potato Research Institute | Singh B.P.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2014

Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most dreaded diseases of potato worldwide and cause significant loss in production. The pathogen is highly variable and adapt to the newly bred varieties and fungicides. Population of P. infestans in most of the countries has changed dramatically and original A1 has almost been displaced by more virulent A2 strain. In India, A2 mating type was recorded in 1990s and now it has displaced the A1 in temperate highlands while in sub-tropical plains still A1 is dominating. Virulence to all major resistance genes has been recorded and in India the racial complexity has reached to its zenith resulting in breakdown of many disease resistant varieties. Indiscriminate use of metalaxyl based fungicides has led to the development of metalaxyl resistance world over including India, which has necessitated the use of additional systemic molecules for the management of this disease. The population of P. infestans characterized using molecular markers has led to better understanding of pathogen at molecular level. Mitochondrial DNA haplotyping of P. infestans has revealed that mt Ia is displacing the other haplotypes globally at a faster rate including India. Relationship between P. infestans and the weather is well understood and has been utilized for developing disease forecasting models and decision support systems across the globe including India. An increasing severity of late blight in many potato growing areas, a shift in pathogen population toward increased specific virulence and an increasing tolerance to the most effective late blight specific fungicides suggests a need to develop an appropriate disease management strategy based on information technology.

Kumar R.,Central Potato Research Station
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Six Tuberosum and five Andigena parents were used to generate 23 Tuberosum × Andigena direct and 23 reciprocal progenies. These progenies were evaluated for total yield, marketable yield, tuber number, average tuber weight and per cent tuber dry matter in second and third clonal generations. Evaluation of progenies in field was done in Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot taking direction of cross (Andigena versus Tuberosum as female) as sub-plot and parental combination as main-plot. Significant variation was recorded in progenies for the characters studied. Results revealed that that reciprocal cross differences in inter group crosses were in general not significant for all the characters. The lack of reciprocal cross differences in short-day length environment in Indian plains shows that crosses can be attempted in either direction while breeding cultivars for Indian plains. © 2014, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Kumar M.,Central Potato Research Institute | Trehan S.P.,Central Potato Research Station
Potato Journal | Year: 2012

The field experiment was conducted to quantify the contribution of different organic amendments to N nutrition to potato cultivars of varying efficiency during winter season of 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Central Potato Research Station, Patna, India. All possible combinations of two varieties viz., Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Pukhraj, four nitrogen levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha) and five organic amendments (control, rice straw @ 10 t/ha, farm yard manure @ 10 t/ha and 20 t/ ha and in situ green manuring with Sesbania aculeata) were replicated thrice in factorial randomized block design. Kufri Pukhraj was better yielder, agronomically more efficient, required less N to produce a given fixed yield in the presence of different organic amendments and derived higher per cent of its N nutrition from organic amendments. This cultivar also showed higher optimum yield level in the presence of all organic amendments and was more eco-friendly with respect to fertilizer N. Green manure added highest amount of N and showed highest efficiency. Kufri Pukhraj utilized more N from green manure and FYM and showed better efficiency than Kufri Jyoti. N equivalent of different organic amendments varied with tuber yield level and it was highest for green manure followed by FYM in both the cultivars. Optimum yield level, net return and benefit cost ratio were also higher for green manure followed by FYM.

Singh S.K.,Central Potato Research Station | Lal S.S.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2012

A field trail was conducted during winter season of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at Central Potato Research station, Patna on sandy loam soil under irrigated condition to find suitable dose of potassium for potato cultivar Kufri Pukhraj for optimum yield, quality and nutrient use efficiency under different nitrogen levels. There was significant positive interaction between N and K. At each level of N, increasing levels of K application increased the tuber yield, N and K uptake by potato at harvest. Potassium and N application improved tuber size by increasing the large and medium grade yield and decreasing the small and very small sized tuber. Maximum yield of 39.83 t /ha was obtained when N and K was applied @ 225 kg/ ha and 150 kg K2O/ ha against a tuber yield of only 14.36 t/ ha without N and K application. The recovery efficiencies of K and N fertilizer on potato increased at 100 kg K2O and 150 kg N/ ha. There was less weight loss and rottage of tubers with potassium application whereas with increase in nitrogen levels there was increase in weight loss due to tuber rottage.

Singh S.K.,Central Potato Research Station | Lal S.S.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2011

A field experiment was conducted at Patna from 2005-06 to 2007-08 on clay loam soil under Trans Gangetic plain to evaluate the effect of four fertility management schedules viz. application of recommended dose of fertilizer to all the crops in the system either alone or in combination with in situ crop residue incorporation in all the crops in the system, in situ green manuring with Sesbania in rice and FYM @ 10 t /ha applied only to winter crop of potato, on productivity and resource use efficiency in three potato based cropping systems viz. potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) - greengram (Vigna radiata L) - rice (Oryza sativa L.), potato-maize (Zea mays L)-rice and potato-onion (Allium cepa L)-rice. Maximum production (60.24 t/ ha), net returns (98,990/ha), B:C ratio (1.13), production efficiency (190.99 kg/ha/day) and monetary return efficiency (313.6/ ha/day) were recorded in potato-onion-rice cropping system. Potato-greengram-rice cropping system recorded highest value of sustainable yield index, organic C, available N and P in the soil. Green manuring of Sesbania in the cropping system resulted in maximum production, land use efficiency, organic C, available N, P and K in soil, while application of FYM @ 10 t/ha to potato crop in the system resulted in highest net returns, B:C ratio, production efficiency, monetary return efficiency and sustainable yield index.

Kushwah V.S.,Central Potato Research Station | Singh S.P.,Central Potato Research Station
Potato Journal | Year: 2011

A field experiment was conducted at Central Potato Research Station, Gwalior, MP during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to compare low input and high input technology for potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. The data revealed that tuber yield (9%), cost of cultivation (27%), gross return (5.9%) and total number of tubers (14%) were higher with high input technology as compared to the low input technology. Whereas the rate of multiplication by weight (10%), net return (21%) and net return per rupee spent (45%) were higher with the low input technology. It was interesting to note that most of the economic parameters were in favour of low input technology. By adopting low input technology using low seed @ 1.6 t/ha having small size tubers (10-20g), farmers can save on initial investment upto Rs. 15000/ha. Hence, low input technology may prove boon to small and marginal farmers who are not capable to make high initial investments particularly on seed as seed cost has highest impact on cost of potato cultivation which accounts for about 50% of total cost of cultivation.

Sharma A.K.,Central Potato Research Station | Venkatasalam E.P.,Central Potato Research Institute | Kumar V.,Central Potato Research Station
Potato Journal | Year: 2013

In view of the advantages of seed potato production through micro-propagation, the conventional system of breeder seed production involving clonal multiplication is being replaced in a phased manner by micro-propagation techniques at Central Potato Research Institute of India. For the successful and faster introduction of the new system, attempts were made for the production of mini-tubers during main/kharif season (April to August) as well as during autumn/off season (September - January) in the high hills of north-western Himalaya. After washing and slight trimming of root portion, micro-plants were planted at 30 x 10 cm spacing in the poly-houses. The results revealed that mini-tubers can be produced successfully during both the seasons in all the potato cultivars of hills, however, significant differences were observed between seasons as well as among the cultivars in respect of plant growth and mini-tuber production behaviour. The vigour of the plants in respect of height, number of shoots, compound leaves and haulms weight was much higher during the main/kharif crop season than the autumn (off) season. Number and yield of mini-tubers were also more (177.4 and 1.90 kg/m2 respectively) with more number of large sized (>3g) mini-tubers during the main season than the off season (155.5 and 1.59 kg/m2).

Arora R.K.,Central Potato Research Station
Potato Journal | Year: 2013

Black scurf of potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani is an important disease of potato throughout the world. Disease infected seed tubers are the major source of infection. Boric acid and pencycuron are the two chemicals which are frequently used by Indian farmers to control the disease. Application of boric acid to seed tubers is recommended as dip seed treatment prior to cold storage where as pencycuron can be applied to the sprouted tubers at planting. Since many farmers apply seed treatment to the sprouted tubers after its removal from cold stores prior to their planting in field, a comparison of efficacy and cost of seed treatment with boric acid and pencycuron applied by different methods to the sprouted tubers at planting, was carried out in field trials during 2009-10 and 2010-11. The study revealed that seed tuber treatment with pencycuron @ 0.057% a.i. or boric acid (3%) as spray on the seed tubers prior to planting could control the disease effectively without affecting crop emergence and thus were efficient and economical options available for control of black scurf.

Mehta A.,Central Potato Research Station | Ezekiel R.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2010

In India, 90 percent of potatoes are harvested in the northern plains in January-February at the beginning of hot summer. Seasonal production patterns, inadequate cold storage capacity, low domestic utilization, limited alternative market outlets (e.g., processing and export) often result in market gluts and poor prices at harvest resulting in economic loss to the farmers. Potato prices start increasing in April-May and in July-August are almost double the prices at harvest. Commercial facilities for long term storage at 8-12°C are not well developed and potatoes are usually stored at 2-4°C under refrigeration, which spoils their culinary properties. The infrastructure for refrigerated storage is also inadequate, unevenly distributed and too expensive for small and marginal farmers. Farmers use indigenous storage practices to hold some of their produce for a few months to get higher prices although the tubers must be desprouted before marketing. Losses due to sprouting and rotting are usually very high (10-40%) under these on-farm storage methods. Development of low cost non-refrigerated storage structures and refinement of commonly used traditional methods are attractive propositions. Beginning in the mid-1980's, scientists started investigating evaporatively cooled storage structures to lower temperatures and increase humidity inside the stores. Stores using passive evaporative cooling (ECS) were designed, developed and recommended for short-term storage of potatoes in North Indian plains where the temperatures are high and humidity is low during the storage period. Reduced losses in potatoes in ECS compared to ambient storage and suitability of the stored potatoes for processing suggested that short-term storage of table and processing potatoes under non-refrigerated improvised structures could be feasible. Use of sprout inhibitors like isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (CIPC) alone and in combination with maleic hydrazide (MH) helped to further extend the shelf life of potatoes stored in ECS. Storage in ECS was, however, not economical for the farmers due to high initial cost. This review deliberates upon the potato production and storage scenario in India, the developments in the field of non-refrigerated storage structures including ECS, heaps and pits, losses under the non-refrigerated storages, application of CIPC to potatoes before storage, economics of storage and demonostration of improved storage of farmers' locations.

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