Central Potato Research Institute CPRI

Himachal Pradesh, India

Central Potato Research Institute CPRI

Himachal Pradesh, India
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Biswas S.,Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. | Jagyasi B.,Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. | Singh B.P.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Lal M.,Central Potato Research Institute Campus CPRIC
2014 IEEE Canada International Humanitarian Technology Conference, IHTC 2014 | Year: 2014

Plant disease management is an important factor in agriculture as it causes a significant yield loss in crops. Late Blight is the most devastating disease for Potato in most of the potato growing regions in the world. For optimum use of pesticide and to minimize the yield loss, the identification of disease severity is essential. The key contribution here is an algorithm to determine the severity of Potato Late Blight disease using image processing techniques and neural network. The proposed system takes images of a group of potato leaves with complex background as input which are captured under uncontrolled environment. In this proposed approach decorrelation stretching is used to enhance the color differences in the input images. Then Fuzzy C-mean clustering is applied to segment the disease affected area which also include background with same color characteristics. Finally we propose to use the neural network based approach to classify the disease affected regions from the similar color textured background. The proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of 93% for 27 images captured in different light condition, from different distances and at different orientations along with complex background. © 2014 IEEE.


Tiwari J.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar P.D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar P.D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Pandey S.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2010

Interspecific potato somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum L. (di)haploid C-13 and 1 endosperm balance number non-tuberous wild species S. etuberosum Lindl. were produced by protoplasts electrofusion. The objective was to transfer virus resistance from this wild species into the cultivated potatoes. Post-fusion products were cultured in VKM medium followed by regeneration of calli in MS 13 K medium at 20°C under a 16-h photoperiod, and regenerants were multiplied on MS medium. Twenty-one somatic hybrids were confirmed by RAPD, SSR and cytoplasm (chloroplast/mitochondria) type analysis possessing species-specific diagnostic bands of corresponding parents. Tetraploid nature of these somatic hybrids was determined through flow cytometry analysis. Somatic hybrids showed intermediate phenotypes (plant, leaves and floral morphology) to their parents in glass-house grown plants. All the somatic hybrids were male-fertile. ELISA assay of somatic hybrids after artificial inoculation of Potato virus Y (PVY) infection reveals high PVY resistance. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Paul V.,Central Potato Research Institute Campus | Paul V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ezekiel R.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Pandey R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

World over, potatoes are being stored at 8–12 °C (85–90 % RH). This is the most common way of long-term (up to 6 to 9 months) storage of potatoes. The benefit of storing the potatoes within the temperature range of 8–12 °C is minimum accumulation of sugars in stored potato tubers. In sub-temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries of the world, short-term (3 to 4 months) storage of potatoes is being done by non-refrigerated traditional/on-farm methods. These short- and long-term storage methods keep the stored potatoes suitable not only for table purpose but also for processing. However, once the natural dormancy period of potato is over, the prevailing temperatures in these storage methods favour sprouting and sprout growth. Therefore, use of some sprout suppressant to check the sprout growth becomes essential under these methods of potato storage. CIPC [Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate] is the most wide spread and commonly used sprout suppressant on potatoes. CIPC has been in use for more than 50 years and research carried out over such a long period use of CIPC has not only enhanced our understanding of its properties and chemistry but also about the production and toxicological status of its metabolites/degradation products. Today, various safety issues and concerns have surfaced primarily due to continuous and long-term use of CIPC. This review presents an appraisal on CIPC and explains the reasons for the long-time dependence on this chemical as a potato sprout suppressant. Issues like maximum residue limit and acceptable daily intake limit are being discussed for CIPC. This article brings an update on practical aspects of potato storage, residue levels of CIPC, efficacy of CIPC as sprout suppressant and health and environmental safety issues linked with CIPC and its metabolites. The aim of this article is to find possible solutions, way outs and future plans that can make the sprout suppression of potatoes safer and more risk free. © 2015, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Watpade S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Raigond B.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Thakur P.D.,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry | Handa A.,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2012

Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV; family Betaflexiviridae genus Trichovirus) is one of the economically important latent virus infecting apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures were used to amplify coat protein gene of ACLSV. Among 5 primer sets used, two primer sets (1F1R and 1F2R) amplified fragments of expected size (432 bp). Products visible on agarose gel were produced using templates extracted from apple leaves. The results were further validated by sequencing fragment of 432 bp which was amplified from leaf of apple by using primer set 1F 1R. Comparisons with published sequences indicated that the isolate have very high 91 % identity values to the corresponding region of ACLSV isolate from apple. Selected primer pair (1F1R) was further used for screening 42 elite mother plants collected from apple growing areas of Himachal Pradesh, India, where in 17 were found free from ACLSV. Use of NAD5 gene in mitochondrial mRNA of the apple as an internal control, reduced the risk of false negative results that may occur with routine RT-PCR assays. © 2012 Indian Virological Society.


Sarkar D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2010

Photoperiodic induction of tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Gp. Andigenum) under short days (SDs) is processed via miRNA (e. g. miR172)-mRNA (e. g. StBEL5) and gibberellin (GA) signaling pathways, with spatio-temporal activation of several transcription factors. There is good evidence that the photoreceptor phytochrome B (PHYB) inhibits tuberization under long days (LDs) by producing a graft-transmissible signal. Since it is mostly unknown how PHYB negatively regulates tuberization, the molecular identity of this PHYB-induced LD-inhibitory signal still continues to be elusive. A recent study reported PHYB-mediated photoperiodic regulation of GIGANTEA (GI), a flowering-control gene of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, in the leaves of a potato plant. Although GI is long assumed to be involved in the photoperiodic control of potato tuberization as an upstream gene of both CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T, its exact role could not be elucidated. Thus, its preferential PHYB-dependent upregulation under LDs compared to SDs concomitant with an upregulation of the gene ENT-KAURENOIC ACID OXIDASE (KAO) that controls an early step in the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway provides an upstream molecular basis for tuberization inhibition in potato by LDs. The results are likely to revisit the roles of several signal molecules that are putatively implicated in the photoperiodic inhibition of tuberization. Given that GI constitutes an evolutionary conserved species-specific LD response pathway in the family Solanaceae, this review argues for an evolutionary basis of tuberization inhibition in potato inherent in its flowering response pathway. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Sarkar D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Sharma S.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Chandel P.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Pandey S.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2010

Gametoclonal variation that occurs in gametic cells in culture and is recovered in their regenerated derivatives has not been reported in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Based on a set of 24 differentiating phenotypic traits, canonical variates analysis genetically distinguished the androgenic (di)haploid (2n = 2x = 24) D4 from its tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48) anther-derived sibs and anther donor JTH/C-107. Nuclear microsatellite analysis over six polymorphic loci indicated that meiotic rearrangements and mutant alleles were primarily associated with the release of gametoclonal variation. The incidence of null alleles in D4 at the loci STACCAS3 and STM0031 was also indicative of mutations occurring within the priming sequence. Microsatellite results were supported by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays that characterized a total of 567 loci (bins) representing 4,258 amplified fragments. Sixty-five new RAPDs that were absent in the anther donor and in either of its parents, viz., S. phureja Juz. & Buk. IVP-35 and S. tuberosum cv. Kufri Jyoti were present in D4, indicating the occurrence of extensive recombinational events. The results have been discussed in the context of microsatellite null alleles providing the most conclusive evidence for gametoclonal variation. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Sarkar D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Pandey S.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sharma S.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2010

The role of K+ in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization, based on the effects of K fertilizer and soil exchangeable K+, appears to be mostly contradictory. Here, we provide evidence that K+ at high concentrations is detrimental to tuber development in vitro once induction has taken place. An experimental system using in vitro-cultured single-node cuttings showed that K+ at ≥30.0 mM significantly reduced tuber fresh mass concomitant with a corresponding decline in starch content. However, high K+ did not affect tuber induction in terms of number of tubers developed per cutting. High K+-induced inhibitory effect on tuber development was attributed to a reduced rate of assimilate partitioning. 86Rb(K) transport to stolons, and tubers that acted as strong sinks in vitro were proportional to exogenous K+ levels; however, 86Rb accumulation and K+ deposition were markedly reduced in tubers as compared with that in stolons, especially at higher K+ levels. The results indicated a diminishing sink strength developed by tubers with increasing K nutrition. Highly significant negative correlations between 86Rb accumulation/K+ deposition in both the sink organs and tuber fresh mass reinforced the inhibitory effect of high K+ on tuber development. The rate of tuber K removal in vitro was similar to that of crop K removal reported in vivo, suggesting highly conserved K uptake and transport mechanisms during tuberization process. The results have been discussed in the context of possible effects of high K+ on impairing sucrose uptake and metabolism. © 2010 The Society for In Vitro Biology.


Sharma S.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Pandey S.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Chandel P.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Tiwari J.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The present study reports that protoplasts isolated from stoloniferous shoots (SS) of potato represent an efficient system for somatic cell genetic manipulations. SS were established from single-node cuttings on MS medium supplemented with either 0.1 or 0.2M sucrose (Suc), and protoplasts were isolated and cultured within the alginate strip, following an improved method. SS induced by 0.1M Suc yielded 8-22×10 5 protoplasts g -1 fresh mass, with a high morphogenic competence. However, 0.2M Suc-induced SS yielded protoplasts that contained large amounts of starch grains, resulting in their high degree of fragility, delayed cell division and poor morphogenic competence. For symmetric somatic hybridization (electrofusion) between Solanum tuberosum Gp. Tuberosum androgenic (di)haploid (2n=2x=24) 'C-13' and diploid (2n=2x=24) wild species S. pinnatisectum, protoplasts isolated from 0.1M Suc-induced SS were also found to be most responsive. Out of several putative somatic hybrids, there were two tetraploids and five diploids, with 48 and 24 chromosomes, respectively at all the three shoot layers (L 1-L 3). This precluded the occurrence of mixoploidy vis-à-vis chimaerism in regenerants, as common in somatic fusion involving mesophyll protoplasts of S. pinnatisectum. Nuclear microsatellite analyses based on the two single-locus nSSR loci (STM0037 and STM2030) confirmed that one of the tetraploids was a true nuclear hybrid (heterokaryon), while the other a homokaryon of the Tuberosum parent 'C-13'. The use of 0.2M Suc-induced SS protoplasts for fundamental studies on tissue- and/or cell type-specific transient gene expression underlying tuberization has been discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Sarkar D.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sarkar D.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres CRIJAF | Tiwari J.K.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | Sharma S.,Central Potato Research Institute CPRI | And 6 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2011

Interspecific somatic hybrids between the dihaploid Solanum tuberosum and the wild species S. pinnatisectum Dun. were produced via protoplast fusion. Protoplast isolation, electrofusion, culture of post-fusion products and regeneration of calli/shoots were undertaken following optimized protocols. Regenerants were characterized for hybridity, ploidy and resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bery, causal fungal pathogen of late blight disease. From a total of 126 regenerated macrocalli, 12 somatic hybrids were confirmed by possessing species-specific diagnostic bands of their corresponding parents as revealed by RAPD, SSRs and cytoplasmic-DNA analyses. Tetraploid status of the 12 hybrids was determined using flow cytometry analysis. Intermediate phenotypes for leaf, flower, and tuber characteristics and high male fertility were observed in field-grown hybrid plants. Hybrids were highly resistant to foliage late blight based on field assessment for two seasons. In contrast, moderate level of resistance to foliage blight was observed in hybrids based on the detached leaf assay under laboratory conditions. Overall, somatic hybrids with moderate levels of resistance to foliage blight were identified, and these will be useful for in situ hybridization in potato breeding efforts. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Central Potato Research Institute CPRI and Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

World over, potatoes are being stored at 8-12C (85-90% RH). This is the most common way of long-term (up to 6 to 9months) storage of potatoes. The benefit of storing the potatoes within the temperature range of 8-12C is minimum accumulation of sugars in stored potato tubers. In sub-temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries of the world, short-term (3 to 4months) storage of potatoes is being done by non-refrigerated traditional/on-farm methods. These short- and long-term storage methods keep the stored potatoes suitable not only for table purpose but also for processing. However, once the natural dormancy period of potato is over, the prevailing temperatures in these storage methods favour sprouting and sprout growth. Therefore, use of some sprout suppressant to check the sprout growth becomes essential under these methods of potato storage. CIPC [Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate] is the most wide spread and commonly used sprout suppressant on potatoes. CIPC has been in use for more than 50years and research carried out over such a long period use of CIPC has not only enhanced our understanding of its properties and chemistry but also about the production and toxicological status of its metabolites/degradation products. Today, various safety issues and concerns have surfaced primarily due to continuous and long-term use of CIPC. This review presents an appraisal on CIPC and explains the reasons for the long-time dependence on this chemical as a potato sprout suppressant. Issues like maximum residue limit and acceptable daily intake limit are being discussed for CIPC. This article brings an update on practical aspects of potato storage, residue levels of CIPC, efficacy of CIPC as sprout suppressant and health and environmental safety issues linked with CIPC and its metabolites. The aim of this article is to find possible solutions, way outs and future plans that can make the sprout suppression of potatoes safer and more risk free.

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