Central Potato Research Institute

Shimla, India

Central Potato Research Institute

Shimla, India
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Bandana,Central Potato Research Institute
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2017

A field experiment was conducted for consecutive two years to study the effect of glyphosate on biochemical attributes of tea. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) consisted of four treatments viz. glyphosate 2.0 kg ha-1, glyphosate 1.0 kg ha-1, glyphosate 0.5 kg ha-1 and control. Tea samples were collected from the laid out experiment at fortnightly interval from imposed treatments for biochemical studies. Glyphosate at three levels of application i.e. 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kg ha-1 decreased the values of all biochemical constituents i.e. total amino acids, amino acid profile, comprising six groups viz. aspartic acid, methionine, phenylalanine, leucine, theanine and glutamic acid, in tea leaves at zero day after application except shikimic acid content in tea leaves. The values of shikimic acid in tea leaves increased significantly on glyphosate application. In general, all biochemical constituents were influenced significantly upto 15 days after herbicide application except shikimic acid in tea leaves which were affected significantly upto 30 days after herbicide application. However, thereafter no significant effect was observed in any of biochemical constituents under study during both years. © 2017, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.

Arora R.K.,Central Potato Research Station | Sharma S.,Central Potato Research Institute | Singh B.P.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2014

Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most dreaded diseases of potato worldwide and cause significant loss in production. The pathogen is highly variable and adapt to the newly bred varieties and fungicides. Population of P. infestans in most of the countries has changed dramatically and original A1 has almost been displaced by more virulent A2 strain. In India, A2 mating type was recorded in 1990s and now it has displaced the A1 in temperate highlands while in sub-tropical plains still A1 is dominating. Virulence to all major resistance genes has been recorded and in India the racial complexity has reached to its zenith resulting in breakdown of many disease resistant varieties. Indiscriminate use of metalaxyl based fungicides has led to the development of metalaxyl resistance world over including India, which has necessitated the use of additional systemic molecules for the management of this disease. The population of P. infestans characterized using molecular markers has led to better understanding of pathogen at molecular level. Mitochondrial DNA haplotyping of P. infestans has revealed that mt Ia is displacing the other haplotypes globally at a faster rate including India. Relationship between P. infestans and the weather is well understood and has been utilized for developing disease forecasting models and decision support systems across the globe including India. An increasing severity of late blight in many potato growing areas, a shift in pathogen population toward increased specific virulence and an increasing tolerance to the most effective late blight specific fungicides suggests a need to develop an appropriate disease management strategy based on information technology.

Kumar M.,Central Potato Research Institute | Trehan S.P.,Central Potato Research Station
Potato Journal | Year: 2012

The field experiment was conducted to quantify the contribution of different organic amendments to N nutrition to potato cultivars of varying efficiency during winter season of 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Central Potato Research Station, Patna, India. All possible combinations of two varieties viz., Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Pukhraj, four nitrogen levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha) and five organic amendments (control, rice straw @ 10 t/ha, farm yard manure @ 10 t/ha and 20 t/ ha and in situ green manuring with Sesbania aculeata) were replicated thrice in factorial randomized block design. Kufri Pukhraj was better yielder, agronomically more efficient, required less N to produce a given fixed yield in the presence of different organic amendments and derived higher per cent of its N nutrition from organic amendments. This cultivar also showed higher optimum yield level in the presence of all organic amendments and was more eco-friendly with respect to fertilizer N. Green manure added highest amount of N and showed highest efficiency. Kufri Pukhraj utilized more N from green manure and FYM and showed better efficiency than Kufri Jyoti. N equivalent of different organic amendments varied with tuber yield level and it was highest for green manure followed by FYM in both the cultivars. Optimum yield level, net return and benefit cost ratio were also higher for green manure followed by FYM.

Sharma A.K.,Central Potato Research Station | Venkatasalam E.P.,Central Potato Research Institute | Kumar V.,Central Potato Research Station
Potato Journal | Year: 2013

In view of the advantages of seed potato production through micro-propagation, the conventional system of breeder seed production involving clonal multiplication is being replaced in a phased manner by micro-propagation techniques at Central Potato Research Institute of India. For the successful and faster introduction of the new system, attempts were made for the production of mini-tubers during main/kharif season (April to August) as well as during autumn/off season (September - January) in the high hills of north-western Himalaya. After washing and slight trimming of root portion, micro-plants were planted at 30 x 10 cm spacing in the poly-houses. The results revealed that mini-tubers can be produced successfully during both the seasons in all the potato cultivars of hills, however, significant differences were observed between seasons as well as among the cultivars in respect of plant growth and mini-tuber production behaviour. The vigour of the plants in respect of height, number of shoots, compound leaves and haulms weight was much higher during the main/kharif crop season than the autumn (off) season. Number and yield of mini-tubers were also more (177.4 and 1.90 kg/m2 respectively) with more number of large sized (>3g) mini-tubers during the main season than the off season (155.5 and 1.59 kg/m2).

Singh S.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Singh N.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Ezekiel R.,Central Potato Research Institute | Kaur A.,Guru Nanak Dev University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

Changes in granule morphology, structural, thermal, gel textural and rheological properties of starches separated from two potato cultivars (Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Chipsona-2) caused by gamma-irradiation (Co60, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 kGy) were studied. A complete disorganization of the crystalline structure and carboxyl content of 0.09-0.11% was observed in starches irradiated at 0.5 kGy. Irradiation of starch increased gelatinization temperatures (onset-, peak- and conclusion-temperature) measured using DSC. Peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity and gel hardness decreased while gel cohesiveness increased with the irradiation. Irradiation effect on gumminess, chewiness, adhesiveness and retrogradation of gels varied with the cultivar. Kufri Jyoti native and irradiated starches showed greater retrogradation as compared to Kufri Chipsona-2 native and irradiated starches. Difference in recrystallization of molecules as revealed from percent retrogradation and enthalpy of retrogradation amongst starch from two cultivars was also observed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gopal J.,Central Potato Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Endosperm Balance Number (EBN) is a genome-specific ploidy, which is not necessarily equivalent to the chromosome ploidy. The EBN is the 'effective ploidy' that determines crossability in Solanum species. It varies from 1 to 4 and the two Solanum species are crossable if they have the same EBN so that maternal to paternal ratio of EBN in the endosperm is 2:1. However, a number of significant exceptions to this rule have been observed in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). EBNs have been experimentally assigned to a number of Solanum species after crosses with standard species whose EBN was arbitrarily established. Neither specific genes nor the molecular basis of EBN have been established in potato, but 2-3 unlinked loci with equal additive effects are known to determine the EBN in Solanum species. EBN acts as a powerful isolating mechanism in the sexual reproduction of Solanum species. EBN incompatibility played an important role in the speciation of polyploids from diploids, complementing the role of 2n gametes in the polyploidy evolution of potato species. EBN has great predictive value for planning interpsecific crosses in potato. EBN of a species can be modified through sexual or somatic polyploidization. This has facilitated the transfer of useful disease and pest resistance genes from 1 EBN and 2EBN wild species to 4EBN cultivated potatoes. Besides direct, indirect gene transfer through bridge species from otherwise incompatible Solanum species has been accomplished for improving cultivated potatoes. The concept, inheritance and role of EBN in speciation, and its prospects in potato varietal improvement are reviewed in this paper. The problems associated in transfer of useful traits from wild species to cultivated potatoes due to EBN barriers are also highlighted.

Singh A.,Central Potato Research Institute
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Ribonuclease P is a ribozyme involved in tRNA processing that is present in all cells and organelles that synthesize tRNA. RNase P holoenzymes have been demonstrated to be ribonucleoprotein complexes of an essential RNA subunit and one or more protein components, varying from one in bacteria to at least four in archaea and nine to ten in eukarya. However, the catalytic activity resides with the RNA subunit in all the three domains of life. The increase in protein content is apparently a response to the increased complexity of the cellular environment in the more evolutionarily advanced organisms. The present review outlines the recent advances in our understanding of subunit composition in the three domains of life.

Rana R.K.,Central Potato Research Institute
Outlook on Agriculture | Year: 2011

India is the world's third largest potato-producing nation, although its potato-processing industry is still in its infancy. Per capita potato processing in India during 2007-08 was just 365 g (89.69% potato chips, or 'crisps', 9.28% potato powder/flakes and 1.03% French fries), using 1.475 kg potatoes per capita. This performance compares poorly with that of the leading potato-processing nations such as the UK, the USA, Canada, France and Germany. However, the industry is experiencing rapid growth in India, and multinational corporations (MNCs), such as PepsiCo, McCain and ITC, now have a conspicuous presence. This paper provides detailed analysis of the consumption patterns of the processed product in India relative to the world picture. The strengths, weaknesses and business opportunities of this industry are also discussed.

Ezekiel R.,Central Potato Research Institute | Singh N.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Sharma S.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Kaur A.,Guru Nanak Dev University
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Potato contains several phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, polyamines, and carotenoids, which are highly desirable in diet because of their beneficial effects on human health. The concentration and stability of these constituents are affected by several factors such as genotype, agronomic factors, postharvest storage, cooking and processing conditions. The advances in analytical techniques have made possible the identification and understanding the functions of phytochemicals, particularly their antioxidant properties. The potatoes are stored and processed into a variety of products before consumption. In the present review, phytochemicals present in potatoes, factors affecting their content, stability and health benefits are discussed. Processing the potatoes rich in phytochemicals can play an important role in promoting the health of a large segment of population in the countries where potatoes form a substantial part of daily diet. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gopal J.,Central Potato Research Institute | Chauhan N.S.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Research | Year: 2010

The efficacy of mannitol versus sorbitol for in vitro conservation of potato microplants at low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature was studied. Two concentrations of sucrose (20 and 40 g l-1) in combination with two concentrations (20 and 40 g l-1) of either mannitol or sorbitol in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were tested. Microplant survival, microplant condition, and root growth in three potato genotypes belonging to different maturity groups were studied up to 18 months of in vitro storage without sub-culturing. Best results were achieved with MS medium having 20 g l-1 sucrose plus 40 g l-1 sorbitol. After 18 months without sub-culturing, maximum survival (58.0%) coupled with a microplant condition good enough to provide suitable nodes for sub-culturing was observed with the use of this medium. The results showed that the in vitro storage period could be prolonged by reducing the root growth. The success of conservation was unaffected by the maturity group of the genotypes. © 2010 EAPR.

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