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Metal contamination in a river has often been assessed based on total metal ion concentrations without relating them with the amount of suspended solids. This approach masks lot of important dynamics of metal ions in water. This is first time in India, a study has been undertaken to present how the level of metal ions in river water is influenced by suspended solids in response to spatial and seasonal conditions in Hugli estuary, India and to focus necessity of harmonizing science and policy. This study presented extent of metal pollution and distribution pattern over the stations, seasons, tides and depth. Major fraction of metal ions is associated with suspended sediments and discharges into the largest alluvial fan, Bengal fan, in the world. Enrichment factors indicated that major source of metal contamination is large influx of sediment due to strong natural activities and moderate anthropogenic activities over the years strong seasonal change, variable tidal energy level and irregular estuarine geometry play crucial role in maintaining metal concentrations in water column. Findings of this study would help to refine existing monitoring practice and to understand its importance in water quality management. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Gargava P.,Central Pollution Control Board | Rajagopalan V.,Ministry of Environment
Environmental Development | Year: 2015

Particulate matter (PM) is a major air quality concern in Indian cities. Besides health risks, it is associated with climate change impacts. The nature and extent of these impacts depend on the chemical composition of PM. The carbonaceous fraction is especially linked to adverse health impacts and possible global warming. PM10 inventory and source emission profiles were used to estimate elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and total carbon (TC) emissions in six Indian cities. Thirty source groups were considered. TC emissions in the cities of Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai and Pune are ~20.5, 2.4, 28.8, 3.3, 16.7 and 6.7 TPD, respectively. EC emissions in Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai and Pune are 7577, 6436, 2737 and 1662kg day-1, respectively. In Chennai (371kg day-1) and Kanpur (600kg day-1), these are comparatively low. Vehicles, road dust and cooking using solid fuel are the key urban sources. Within the vehicle group, heavy duty diesel vehicles are the largest contributors. EC, mostly in the fine size mode, can have larger health implications. Diesel particulates are known to be carcinogenic and also have high EC to OC ratio that signifies their global warming potential. PM emission control from the identified urban sources will offer the twin benefits of reducing health risks and global warming. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dutta A.,Peking University | Dutta A.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Roychoudhury S.,Central Pollution Control Board | Chowdhury S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Ray M.R.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

To perform sputum analysis for verification of pulmonary changes in premenopausal rural Indian women chronically exposed to biomass smoke during cooking.Three consecutive morning sputum samples were collected from 196 women (median age 34 years) cooking with biomass and 149 age-matched control women cooking with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Smears made on slides were stained with Papanicolaou and Perl's Prussian blue. Airway oxidative stress was estimated as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (by flow cytometry) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level (by spectrophotometry) in sputum cells. Airway inflammation was measured as sputum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α). Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 (PM10) was measured using laser photometer while benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by HPLC-UV. Compared with control, sputum of biomass users contained more neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, alveolar macrophages, and showed presence of ciliocytophthoria, Charcot-Leyden crystals, Curschmann's spiral. ROS generation was increased by 2-fold while SOD was depleted by 31% in biomass users. They also had higher sputum levels of IL-6, -8 and TNF-α. Levels of PM10 and t,t-MA were 2.9- and 5.8-times higher in biomass-using women. PM10 and t,t-MA levels were positively associated with cellular changes in the sputum, markers of airway inflammation, and oxidative stress. Cooking with biomass alters sputum cytology, and increases airway inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in further amplification of the tissue damaging cascade in women chronically exposed to biomass smoke. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Tamma Rao G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Gurunadha Rao V.V.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ranganathan K.,Central Pollution Control Board
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2013

One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2+), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6+ and Fe2+, which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process. © Indian Academy of Sciences. Source

Trivedi R.C.,Central Pollution Control Board
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management | Year: 2010

The Ganga is not only a holy river, but also a lifeline of a large population of India, as it covers more than 26% of the country's area in its basin in the north and drains 25% of the annual run-off. Fast urbanization, industrialization and steep demand for water have led to serious problems of water quality degradation. Water quality monitoring indicated that the river is polluted in some of the segments, the worst affected lying between Kannauj and Allahabad, approximately 350 km long. About 12,222 million litres per day (mld) of domestic and 2500 mld of industrial wastewater is generated in the entire basin, out of which about 2573 mld of wastewater is generated along its bank. Many of its tributaries are heavily polluted and the main water quality issues are, organic pollution indicated by BOD and pathogens indicated by coliform count. There is a fluctuating trend of water quality attributed to the flow conditions in the river which depend on rainfall and water abstraction. In view of water scarcity in the basin, it is very important that no wastewater be discharged into the river. There is an urgent need to augment water availability in the basin by rainwater collection, water conservation and environmental flow determination in various segments of the river affected by water abstraction. © 2010 AEHMS. Source

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