Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI

Kāsaragod, India

Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI

Kāsaragod, India
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Patil J.,National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources NBAIR | Rajkumar,Central Plantation Crops Research institute CPCRI | Subhaharan K.,National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources NBAIR
Indian Journal of Nematology | Year: 2016

Survival and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis indica were studied after passing the nematodes through the earthworm's, Eudrilus eugeniae gut. Infectivity was evaluated against first instar grubs of rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. Both the species of EPNs had no deleterious effects on earthworms. S. carpocapsae and H. indica were recovered from the casts of earthworms. Infective juveniles (IJs) of both the EPNs species were successfully transmitted by young and adults of E. eugeniae. More than 50% of IJs recovered from the earthworm casts were viable and pathogenic to first instar grubs of O. rhinoceros. Although entomopathogenic nematodes had no deleterious effects on earthworms, their passage through E. eugeniae gut affected their mobility but not their virulence. Combined application of earthworms with entomopathogenic nematodes may enhance levels of inundative or inoculative biocontrol. © 2016, Nematological Society of India. All rights reserved.

Maheswarappa H.P.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Srinivasan V.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Lal R.,Ohio State University
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2011

The agriculture sector, which accounts for about 52% of the total workforce despite a steady decline of its share in the gross domestic product (GDP), is still the largest economic sector that plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. Sustainability of agricultural production systems depends on their carbon (C) footprint and the C output-input ratio. Thus, the present study was conducted with the objectives to: (i) assess C emissions in relation to predominant agricultural systems in India; (ii) evaluate C-use efficiency of production systems; and (iii) determine the relative sustainability of agronomic production systems as determined by their C footprints. The data collated on C-based input into the soil for predominant agricultural and horticultural crops included the amounts of fertilizers (N, P, K), herbicides, and pesticides used for crops annually, cropland area, total production of each crop, water-management practices, energy used for different operations, and total number of livestock. These data were used to compute C equivalent (Ce) per hectare of input and output, and the relative sustainability indices as a measure of the C-production efficiency. Beginning with low C-based input of 69.7 Tg Ce/yr (1 Tg = teragram = 10 12g = 1 million ton) in 1960-61, input of fertilizers, pesticides, farm power, feed, fodder, and electricity increased to 281.2 Tg Ce/yr by 2008-09. The output in agriculture increased from 578.6 Tg Ce/yr in 1960-61 to 1239.1 Tg Ce/yr in 2008-09. The C-sustainability index was high in 1960, and was indicative of the minimum usage of inputs prior to the onset of the Green Revolution. Thereafter, the C-sustainability index decreased during 1970s and 1980s because of increased C-based inputs. There existed a linear relationship between C input and C output, indicating that an increase of 1 Tg Ce/yr of C input resulted in a corresponding increase in C output of ~21 Tg Ce/yr. Total food grain production in India increased from 89 million ton in 1960-61 to 262 million ton in 2008-09. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Niral V.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Devakumar K.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Devakumar K.,Central Agricultural Research Institute | Umamaheswari T.S.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2013

The morphological and molecular characterization of a large fruited coconut population was undertaken using twentythree morphological traits, six tender nut traits and eight fruit component traits. Fruit component analysis of the nuts of this accession indicated that they have low husk to nut weight ratio typical of the Niu vai type cultivated in South East Asia. The microsatellite analysis indicated that Vaibhavwadi coconut population (MAHT) is generally close to the South East Asian coconut accessions and has proximity with dwarf accessions in the conserved germplasm of India. Though, genetic assignment test did not identify this accession specifically with any particular cultivar in the microsatellite database, the probable origin of this type could be identified as Borneo Tall (60% similarity) a cultivar which is known to produce large coconuts. It is suggested to conserve the MAHT in the National Coconut Gene Bank of India for its utilization in the breeding programme.

Devakumar K.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Niral V.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Jerard B.A.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Jayabose C.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The Lakshadweep group of islands, located in the south-western part of India in the Indian Ocean is considered unique for its coconut populations owing to its geographic isolation and assumed introgression with mainland coconut populations along west coast of mainland India. A wide range of variability was noticed for morphological characters of Lakshadweep coconut populations. A total of nine accessions were collected from Agatti and Kavaratti Islands of Lakshadweep as part of a germplasm enrichment programme for island coconut populations of India. This includes three Laccadive Micro types, four types of Laccadive Ordinary Tall differing in nut bearing habit, fruit shape and size, one each of sweet husked Kaithathali tall and dwarf type. The microsatellite analysis of the 9 coconut populations with 8 primers revealed a total of 37 alleles. The highest number of eight alleles was detected for the CAC8 primer and the lowest number of three alleles for the CAC10, CAC13 and CnCIRG11 primers. The estimate of heterozygosity was highest (>0.5) for the two Laccadive Micro Tall (LMT02 and LMT03) and the Laccadive Small Tall (LCT02) populations and was lowest (0.24) for the Laccadive Micro Tall (LMT01). The sporadic occurrence of Laccadive Micro Tall is discussed in the context of high outcrossing and inbreeding depression. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Srinivasan V.,Ohio State University | Maheswarappa H.P.,Ohio State University | Maheswarappa H.P.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Lal R.,Ohio State University
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2012

Topsoil removal to incremental depths (TSD) under field conditions is a useful technique to simulate erosion, and assess its on-site impacts on soil properties and agronomic productivity. As the sustained productivity of the soils of US Cornbelt is threatened by topsoil loss due to erosion, the artificial soil removal and addition methods can help in assessing the on-site impact of soil erosion under natural field conditions. Thus this study was conducted in an Alfisol at Waterman Farm of The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio with the objective to assess the impact of long-term (13 years) effects of TSD treatments (removal of 20cm topsoil, undisturbed soil and addition of 20cm of top soil) with two amendments (organic manures and synthetic fertilizer) on particulate C fractions, and C associated with different size fractions. Application of organic or inorganic amendments to the eroded soil improved bulk density (BD) (1.57Mgm 3), water stable aggregates (WSA) (87%) and mean weight diameter (MWD) (3.18mm) equivalent to undisturbed or soil addition treatments. However, the eroded soil had significantly lower total organic carbon (TOC) concentration (16.3gkg -1) compared to other treatments. A trend of higher TOC and nitrogen (TON) concentration was observed with manuring compared with the use of synthetic fertilizer. The lowest concentration (2.66gkg -1) of particulate organic carbon (POC) was measured in eroded soil, and it was 2.6 and 2.4 times lower than those of undisturbed and soil addition treatments, respectively. The sub-soil (15-30cm) accumulated significantly lower POC (3.6gkg -1) compared to the topsoil (0-15cm) (7.0gkg -1), with no difference among two amendments. The POC and N pools were also significantly lower in the eroded soil than in other treatments. The particulate organic C/N ratio was significantly larger in sub-soil (20.78) than surface soil (17.83), suggesting strong contribution of roots and root-derived products to POC. There was a positive correlation of macroaggregates C (>2mm and 0.25-2mm) with concentration of POC (0.58*, 0.41*) and PON (0.54**, 0.37*). The non particulate organic carbon (NPOC) pools increased with long term management, and were significantly correlated (R 2=0.74**) with the TOC concentration. Higher stratification ratio for total and non particulate C and N was observed in undisturbed and soil addition treatments. Higher ratios (>2) of POC and PON in eroded treatments indicated the buildup of uncomplexed coarse organic residues of intermediate decomposition with higher turnover rate, and their positive impact on restoring the structural properties with the long-term use of amendments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kalavathi S.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Krishnakumar V.P.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Thomas R.J.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | Thomas G.V.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute CPCRI | George M.L.,Cogent
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics | Year: 2010

This paper presents the impact of integrating interventions like nutrition gardening, livestock rearing, product diversification and allied income generation activities in small and marginal coconut homesteads along with nutrition education in improving the food and nutritional security as well as the income of the family members. The activities were carried out through registered Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in three locations in Kerala, India during 2005-2008. Data was collected before and after the project periods through interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire containing statements indicating the adequacy, quality and diversity of food materials. Fifty respondents each were randomly selected from the three communities, thereby resulting in a total sample size of 150. The data was analysed using SPSS by adopting statistical tools like frequency, average, percentage analysis, t - test and regression. Participatory planning and implementation of diverse interventions notably intercropping and off-farm activities along with nutrition education brought out significant improvements in the food and nutritional security, in terms of frequency and quantity of consumption as well as diet diversity. At the end of the project, 96% of the members became completely food secure and 72% nutritionally secure. The overall consumption of fruits, vegetables and milk by both children and adults and egg by children recorded increase over the project period. Consumption of fish was more than the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) level during pre and post project periods. Project interventions like nutrition gardening could bring in surplus consumption of vegetables (35%) and fruits (10%) than RDI. In spite of the increased consumption of green leafy vegetables and milk and milk products over the project period, the levels of consumption were still below the RDI levels. CBO-wise analysis of the consumption patterns revealed the need for location-specific interventions matching to the needs and preferences of the communities.

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