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Jose M.D.,Menzies Research Institute | Johnson D.W.,University of Queensland | Mudge D.W.,University of Queensland | TranaAeus A.,Baxter Healthcare Asia Pacific | And 3 more authors.
Nephrology | Year: 2011

Peritoneal dialysis technique survival in Australia and New Zealand is lower than in other parts of the world. More than two-thirds of technique failures are related to infective complications (predominantly peritonitis) and 'social reasons'. Practice patterns vary widely and more than one-third of peritoneal dialysis units do not meet the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis minimum accepted peritonitis rate. In many cases, poor peritonitis outcomes reflect significant deviations from international guidelines. In this paper we propose a series of practical recommendations to improve outcomes in peritoneal dialysis patients through appropriate patient selection, prophylaxis and treatment of infectious complications, investigation of social causes of technique failure and a greater focus on patient education and clinical governance. This manuscript addresses the reasons why the peritoneal dialysis technique survival time is lower in Australia and New Zealand compared with many other parts of the world. The authors propose a series of practical recommendations to improve the outcomes in PD through appropriate patient selection, prevention and treatment of infectious complications, examining the causes of 'social' technique failure and addressing the need for a greater focus on patient education and clinical governance. © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology. Source

Viecelli A.K.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Lim W.H.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Lim W.H.,University of Western Australia | Macaskill P.,University of Sydney | And 10 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2015

Background. For dialysis patients with a cancer history, a period of surveillance is generally recommended before listing for transplantation. However, the outcomes of patients with cancer recurrence and/or a second primary cancer after transplantation are unknown. Aim. To determine the prognosis of kidney transplant recipients who developed cancer after transplantation and whether this varied with cancer types (first cancer, recurrence, second primary cancer).Methods. Using data from the Australian and NewZealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we compared the cancer-specific and all-cause mortality among recipients with different cancer types using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Of the 21, 415 recipients transplanted between 1965 and 2012, 3%(651 of 21, 415) had a previous cancer history. A total of 2840 (13%) recipients developed cancer after the first transplant, of whom 2760 (97.2%) developed a first cancer, 23 (0.8%) experienced cancer recurrence, and 57 (2%) developed a second primary cancer. There were no significant differences in the risks of cancer-specific and all-cause mortality between recipients who developed their first cancer after transplant, those with cancer recurrence (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-1.67; P = 0.54 and aHRs, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.45-1.66; P = 0.66, respectively) and recipients who developed a second primary cancer after transplantation (aHRs, 1.01; 95%CI, 0.63-1.62; P = 0.95 and aHRs, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.79-1.69; P = 0.45, respectively). Conclusion.Among patients with a previous history ofmalignancy, recurrent and second primary cancers are infrequent after renal transplantation. A history of previous malignancy does not have an additive effect on the cancer-specific and overall survival of kidney transplant recipients who develop cancer. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Yu R.W.,The Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Faull R.J.,Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service | Coates P.T.H.,Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service | Coates P.S.,Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science
Clinical Transplantation | Year: 2012

Aim: Bone loss in renal transplant (RT) patients is a problem that begins during end-stage kidney disease and persists after transplantation. Suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) may decrease bone loss and improve fracture rate. Methods: A single-group prospective intervention study involving 30 patients was performed at a large RT unit. Investigations included dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry scan, vertebral X-ray, calcium absorption test, 24-h urinary calcium and serum measurements of total and ionized calcium, PTH, C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Patients were given 500mg elemental calcium daily for sevend, and serum measurements were repeated. Results: Two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed significant decreases in PTH (p<0.01) and CTX (p<0.01) after calcium load. Dietary calcium, mean calcium absorption, and urinary calcium excretion were below desirable levels. Mean 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was low, but levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were normal. Calcium absorption significantly correlated with change in PTH (p<0.001), baseline 25(OH)D (p<0.001), and mycophenolate dose (p=0.024). Conclusions: Calcium malabsorption is prevalent in RT recipients, contributing to bone destruction and compounded by poor dietary intake and low 25(OH)D. Calcium supplementation appears to help overcome this deficiency and acutely suppress PTH. Calcium may be an effective and inexpensive therapy for bone loss in RT recipients. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Hanf W.,Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service | Bonder C.S.,Center for Cancer Biology | Bonder C.S.,University of Adelaide | Coates P.T.H.,Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2014

Transplant glomerulopathy (TG) is a major cause of chronic graft dysfunction without effective therapy. Although the histological definition of TG is well characterized, the pathophysiological pathways leading to TG development are still poorly understood. Electron microscopy suggests an earlier appearance of TG and suggests that endothelial cell injury is the first sign of the disease. The pathogenic role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in endothelial cells has been described in acute vascular and humoral rejection. However the mechanisms and pathways of endothelial cell injury by HLA antibodies remain unclear. Despite the description of different causes of the morphological lesion of TG (hepatitis, thrombotic microangiopathy), the strong link between TG and chronic antibody mediated rejection suggests a major role for HLA antibodies in TG formation. In this review, we describe the effect of classes I or II HLA-antibodies in TG and especially the implication of donor specific antibodies (DSA). We update recent studies about endothelial cells and try to explain the different signals and intracellular pathways involved in the progression of TG. © 2014 William Hanf et al. Source

Johnson D.W.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | Johnson D.W.,University of Queensland | Brown F.G.,Monash Medical Center | Clarke M.,Fresenius Medical Care | And 13 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2012

BackgroundThe balANZ trial recently reported that neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (biocompatible) peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions significantly delayed anuria and reduced peritonitis rates compared with conventional solutions. This article reports a secondary outcome analysis of the balANZ trial with respect to peritoneal membrane function.MethodsAdult, incident PD patients with residual renal function were randomized to receive either biocompatible or conventional (control) PD solutions for 2 years. Peritoneal equilibration tests were performed at 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Peritoneal small solute clearances and ultra-filtration (UF) were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months.ResultsOf the 185 patients recruited into the trial, 85 patients in the Balance group and 82 patients in the control group had peritoneal membrane function evaluated. Mean 4-h dialysate:plasma creatinine ratios (D:P Cr 4h) at 1 month were significantly higher in the Balance group compared with controls (0.67 ± 0.10 versus 0.62 ± 0.10, P = 0.002). Over the 2-year study period, mean D:P Cr 4 h measurements remained stable in the Balance group but increased significantly in controls [difference-0.004 per month, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)-0.005 to-0.002, P < 0.001]. Similar results were obtained for dialysate glucose ratios (D/D0 glucose). Peritoneal UF was significantly lower in the Balance group than in controls at 3 and 6 months. Over the 2-year study period, peritoneal UF increased significantly in the Balance group but remained stable in controls (difference 24 mL/day/month, 95% CI 9-39, P = 0.002). No differences in peritoneal small solute clearances, prescribed dialysate fill volumes or peritoneal glucose exposure were observed between the two groups. ConclusionsBiocompatible and conventional PD solutions exert differential effects on peritoneal small solute transport rate and UF over time. Adequately powered trials assessing the impact of these differential membrane effects on PD technique and patient survival rates are warranted. © 2012 The Author. Source

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