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Wyld M.L.,University of Sydney | Wyld M.L.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Clayton P.A.,University of Sydney | Clayton P.A.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2013

Pregnancy outcomes in a transplant population have not been well documented. Data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) and the National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit (NPESU) were analyzed. We described pregnancy outcomes within the transplant population and compared these to outcomes for the general population. Six hundred ninety-two pregnancies in 447 transplant recipients were reported between 1971 and 2010 (ANZDATA); a corresponding 5 269 645 pregnancies were reported nationally in Australia between 1991 and 2010 (NPESU). At pregnancy transplant mothers had a median age of 31 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 27, 34), a median creatinine of 106 μmol/L (IQR: 88, 1103 μmol/L) and a functioning transplant for a median of 5 years (IQR: 3, 9). The mean gestational age at birth was 35 ± 5 weeks in transplant recipients, significantly shorter than the national average of 39 weeks (p < 0.0001). Mean live birth weight for transplant recipients was 873 g lower than the national average (2485 ± 783 g vs. 3358 ± 2 g); a significant difference remained after controlling for gestational age. There was lower perinatal survival rate in babies born to transplant recipients, 94% compared with 99% nationally (p < 0.001). Although transplant pregnancies are generally successful, outcomes differ from the general population, indicating these remain high-risk pregnancies despite good allograft function. This study shows that babies born to mothers with renal transplants are smaller and more premature but overall have good outcomes. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

Jesudason S.,Central and Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service | Jesudason S.,University of Adelaide | Grace B.S.,University of Adelaide | Grace B.S.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2014

Background and objectives Pregnancy in ESRD is rare and poses substantial risk for mother and baby. This study describes a large series of pregnancies in women undergoing long-term dialysis treatment and reviews maternal and fetal outcomes. Specifically, women who had conceived before and after starting long-term dialysis are compared. Design, setting, participants, & measurement All pregnancies reported to the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry from 2001 to 2011 (n=77), following the introduction of specific parenthood data collection, were analyzed. Results Between 2001 and 2011, there were 77 pregnancies among 73 women. Of these, 53 pregnancies were in women who conceived after long-term dialysis was established and 24 pregnancies occurred before dialysis began. The overall live birth rate (after exclusion of elective terminations) was 73%. In pregnancies reaching 20 weeks gestation, the live birth rate was 82%. Women who conceived before dialysis commenced had significantly higher live birth rates (91% versus 63%; P=0.03), but infants had similar birthweight and gestational age. This difference in live birth rate was primarily due to higher rates of early pregnancy loss before 20 weeks in women who conceived after dialysis was established. In pregnancies that reached 20 weeks or more, the live birth rate was higher in women with conception before dialysis commenced (91% versus 76%; P=0.28). Overall, the median gestational age was 33.8 weeks (interquartile range, 30.6-37.6 weeks) and median birthweight was 1750 g (interquartile range, 1130-2417 g). More than 40% of pregnancies reached >34 weeks' gestation; prematurity at <28 weeks was 11.4% and 28-day neonatal survival rate was 98%. Conclusions Women with kidney disease who start long-term dialysis after conception have superior live birth rates compared with those already established on dialysis at the time of conception, although these pregnancies remain high risk. © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Tait B.D.,Red Cross | Susal C.,University of Heidelberg | Gebel H.M.,Emory University | Nickerson P.W.,University of Manitoba | And 23 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The introduction of solid-phase immunoassay (SPI) technology for the detection and characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in transplantation while providing greater sensitivity than was obtainable by complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity (CDC) assays has resulted in a new paradigm with respect to the interpretation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Although the SPI assay performed on the Luminex instrument (hereafter referred to as the Luminex assay), in particular, has permitted the detection of antibodies not detectable by CDC, the clinical significance of these antibodies is incompletely understood. Nevertheless, the detection of these antibodies has led to changes in the clinical management of sensitized patients. In addition, SPI testing raises technical issues that require resolution and careful consideration when interpreting antibody results. METHODS: With this background, The Transplantation Society convened a group of laboratory and clinical experts in the field of transplantation to prepare a consensus report and make recommendations on the use of this new technology based on both published evidence and expert opinion. Three working groups were formed to address (a) the technical issues with respect to the use of this technology, (b) the interpretation of pretransplantation antibody testing in the context of various clinical settings and organ transplant types (kidney, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, intestinal, and islet cells), and (c) the application of antibody testing in the posttransplantation setting. The three groups were established in November 2011 and convened for a "Consensus Conference on Antibodies in Transplantation" in Rome, Italy, in May 2012. The deliberations of the three groups meeting independently and then together are the bases for this report. RESULTS: A comprehensive list of recommendations was prepared by each group. A summary of the key recommendations follows. Technical Group: (a) SPI must be used for the detection of pretransplantation HLA antibodies in solid organ transplant recipients and, in particular, the use of the single-antigen bead assay to detect antibodies to HLA loci, such as Cw, DQA, DPA, and DPB, which are not readily detected by other methods. (b) The use of SPI for antibody detection should be supplemented with cell-based assays to examine the correlations between the two types of assays and to establish the likelihood of a positive crossmatch (XM). (c) There must be an awareness of the technical factors that can influence the results and their clinical interpretation when using the Luminex bead technology, such as variation in antigen density and the presence of denatured antigen on the beads. Pretransplantation Group: (a) Risk categories should be established based on the antibody and the XM results obtained. (b) DSA detected by CDC and a positive XM should be avoided due to their strong association with antibody-mediated rejection and graft loss. (c) A renal transplantation can be performed in the absence of a prospective XM if single-antigen bead screening for antibodies to all class I and II HLA loci is negative. This decision, however, needs to be taken in agreement with local clinical programs and the relevant regulatory bodies. (d) The presence of DSA HLA antibodies should be avoided in heart and lung transplantation and considered a risk factor for liver, intestinal, and islet cell transplantation. Posttransplantation Group: (a) High-risk patients (i.e., desensitized or DSA positive/XM negative) should be monitored by measurement of DSA and protocol biopsies in the first 3 months after transplantation. (b) Intermediate-risk patients (history of DSA but currently negative) should be monitored for DSA within the first month. If DSA is present, a biopsy should be performed. (c) Low-risk patients (nonsensitized first transplantation) should be screened for DSA at least once 3 to 12 months after transplantation. If DSA is detected, a biopsy should be performed. In all three categories, the recommendations for subsequent treatment are based on the biopsy results. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive list of recommendations is provided covering the technical and pretransplantation and posttransplantation monitoring of HLA antibodies in solid organ transplantation. The recommendations are intended to provide state-of-the-art guidance in the use and clinical application of recently developed methods for HLA antibody detection when used in conjunction with traditional methods. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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