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Burchart-Korol D.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Metalurgija | Year: 2011

The following paper contains importance of LCA in the iron and steel industry. The metallurgy sector is highly energy intensive and the production of crude steel is associated with significant CO2 emissions. ULCOS (Ultra Low CO2 Steelmaking) is the world's initiative to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 50 % by 2 050 compared with today's best routes from steel production by developing new breakthrough technologies. A new environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method has been undertaken in ULCOS as the most holistic approach of assessing environmental impact and selecting new technologies. Usage of LCA enables to compare alternative metallurgical technologies.

Kapusta K.,Central Mining Institute of Poland | Stanczyk K.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Fuel | Year: 2011

Groundwater pollution is considered the most serious potential environmental risk related to the underground coal gasification technology (UCG). A variety of hazardous water-born contaminants have been identified during different UCG operations conducted so far, and in some locations long-term groundwater contaminations were observed. Characteristic organic UCG-related pollutions are mostly the phenols, benzene with its derivatives, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocycles. In the inorganic array, ammonia, cyanides, sulphates, and heavy metals are usually identified. Although the fact that the coal rank affects the contaminants' formation and release processes during the UCG is known, the information is still scarce. The main goal of the study presented in the paper is the comparison of the processes of formation and release of water contaminants produced during UCG simulations on hard coal and lignite. Significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative description of the contamination profiles were identified for both types of coal. From the analysis it follows that the formation of contaminants is the function of coal rank, the elemental composition of coal, and the gasification temperature. In case of hard coal gasification, the total load of inorganic and organic pollutants in the process water is substantially higher in comparison to lignite. It has been identified that the reaction pH is the parameter affecting concentrations of heavy metals in process waters. The macromolecular structure of coal and temperature were recognized as the main factors governing the distribution of organic compounds. The highly aromatised structure of hard coal becomes the source of substantial quantities of aromatic compounds; still the contribution of smaller species (one or two rings) is high. For lignite, the relative contributions of higher aromatics are greater as compared to hard coal. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Howaniec N.,Central Mining Institute of Poland | Smolinski A.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

Development of clean coal technologies is the answer to increasing energy demand and environmental concerns related to conventional coal processing technologies. The technologies of fossil fuel gasification are technically proven and commercially available. Attempts of utilization of waste materials and renewable energy resources in gasification-based energy generation systems has been made, but wide application of such systems is still hindered by issues inherently combined with the characteristics of the materials. These include discontinuous supplies of a fuel of limited resources and varying composition resulting in poor economy of small-scale systems and operating problems related to tars formation and corrosion, especially when biomass utilization is considered. In the light of the above co-gasification seems to offer several advantages through mitigation of undesired effects of both carbon-intensive utilization of coal and low efficient and troublesome operation of biomass/waste-fed gasification systems. The experimental results presented in the paper address the issues of determination of potential synergy effects resulting from the utilization of fuel blends composed of materials of various physical and chemical characteristics, which are still insufficiently discussed in the literature, especially when hydrogen-rich gas production in co-gasification is concerned. The results of reactivity tests of fuel blends of coal and energy crops biomass in the process of steam co-gasification in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 700, 800 and 900 C are given proving the synergy effect in co-gasification reflected in increased reactivity of fuel blends when compared to coal and biomass chars reactivity under similar process conditions. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.

Burchart-Korol D.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

The goal of this study is to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of steel production through the integrated steel production and electric arc furnace routes in Poland. The study defines the major sources of environmental impacts and proposes pollution prevention methods for the most pollutive steelmaking processes. The LCA methodology based on the ISO 14044 standard is used with SimaPro 7.3.3 software and the Ecoinvent database. The life cycle inventory shows data averaged from the existing steel plants in Poland, and the impact assessment results indicate that the production of pig iron in blast furnaces has the highest impact on greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the national integrated steel production route, while the iron ore sintering process, which is the largest contributor to dust and gas emissions in the national iron and steel industry, uses the most minerals and depletes the most metal. Electricity consumption has the highest impact on greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the national electric arc furnace route. Therefore, this article presents the results of an LCA of alternative fuel consumption in a national iron ore sinter plant. The study concludes that pollution prevention methods related to raw material substitutions in iron-making processes should be used to reduce environmental impacts in the iron and steel industry. The results of this study can be used as the first step in performing a full cradle-to-grave steel LCA that includes all phases of the steel life cycle. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bukowska M.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Journal of Mining Science | Year: 2012

Coal mining realised in Upper Silesian Coal Basin is the main course of occurrence of bumps and rock-bumps. Geodynamical phenomena described as the rock-bumps occur in the area of GZW from the end of the 19th century. The mechanism of the rock-bumps phenomenon, due to the complexity, didn't allow elaborating the completely effective method of its forecasting. However, increasing amount and the scale of rock-bumps, due to the development of mining, have extorted the scientific circles to perform works devoted to the elaborating newer and newer and better and better methods of the assessment of liability to rock-bumps, likewise methods of rock-bumps hazard assessment. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Korol J.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

The paper presents a polyethylene-based composites preparing, using keratin fiber obtained from waste chicken feathers. Keratin fibers were obtained with no chemical treatment. Keratin fibers were obtained by mechanical treatment of waste chicken feathers. Fibers have been extracted by all parts of the feathers, namely rachis, barb, afterfeather, hollow shaft, calamus. The fibers used in this research program are a combination of all parts of the feathers obtained from the poultry industry, which is a more practical way and economically justified, to produce composites filled by waste poultry feathers after suitable modification. Fibers of length from approximately 0.1 to 8 mm where introduced into the high density polyethylene matrix during the extrusion using two screws Leistritz extruder with ratio L/D = 44 (Leistriz MICRO 27/GL/GG-44D). Fibers where added into HDPE matrix with varying aspect ratio. Samples for mechanical testing where prepared by injection molding with use Arburg Allrounder injection molding (mold clamping force: 500 kN). In tensile testing the following properties of obtained composites where tested: tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation. The paper analyzes also influence of addition following additives: compatibilizer and regranulated LDPE obtained from waste stretch foil, on the mechanical properties of obtained composites. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.

Smolinski A.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

The fuel's reactivity can be defined as a parameter determining its processability in thermochemical processes applied to convert them into energy and/or energy carriers. It depends on many factors, like chemical composition and physical properties of a fuel as well as process parameters. As such it may provide important information on the process results in terms of product output and quality. In the paper the results of reactivity tests performed for Polish hard coals in the process of steam gasification in a fixed bed reactor system as well as the analysis of potential relationships between the reactivity and selected physical and chemical parameters of coal and products quality and quantity using chemometric method (principal component analysis) are presented. The analysis revealed a negative correlation between Rmax and the total volume of synthesis gas produced in the process. This regularity was confirmed in the tests of steam gasification of coal to hydrogen-rich gas with CO2 capture under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of 700 °C. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dudzinska A.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2014

Acetylene is a mine air component in addition to other hydrocarbons: ethylene, propylene, propane and ethane. Increased acetylene concentrations in the mine atmosphere are associated with its emission from a coal deposit at elevated temperatures caused by the self-heating of coal. This study investigates the sorption capacity of hard coals with respect to acetylene, and the acetylene volume is related to the proportion between carbon and oxygen as well as to moisture and porosity levels. The largest amounts of acetylene are adsorbed by low-rank coals with high oxygen content, highly porous and characterized by large specific surface areas and high moisture content. Higher rank coals displaying lower porosity tend to adsorb significantly smaller amounts of acetylene. These coals have a compact structure, and their behavior is non-polar due to the presence of a layer of chain hydrocarbons surrounding the aromatic coal polymer. The analysis of desorption isotherms indicates that the process of acetylene adsorption is irreversible. Desorption isotherms do not coincide with adsorption isotherms, forming an open hysteresis loop. Certain amounts of acetylene held more firmly to the coal structure are likely to remain there, their actual quantities depending on the coal type. The adsorption of acetylene is a polar process, involving the electron-donor and electron-acceptor centers' interactions with dipolar molecules of acetylene. The heat of the adsorption of acetylene based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation ranges from 15 to 27. kJ/mol, depending on the type of coal and the degree of coverage. In the consequence of acetylene adsorption, its concentration in mine air is reduced, which undermines the reliability of the self-heating hazard assessments. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Howaniec N.,Central Mining Institute of Poland | Smolinski A.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Fuel | Year: 2014

Energy generation is predominantly based on fossil fuels. This is related to their high energy density and abundance of resources, as well as market availability and maturity of conversion technologies. Increasing awareness of environmental concerns reflected in relevant regulations regarding the allowable levels of emission of contaminants in energy sector on the one hand, and increasing energy demand on the other impose, however; the need for development of more environment friendly energy technologies and wider utilization of renewable energy resources. Since the latter still faces technological and efficiency problems reflected in unsatisfactory economic characteristics, the efforts could be made to combine the advantages of stable supplies of coal, availability of market-ready, highly efficient and environment friendly gasification technology and utilization of renewable energy resources, biomass. Production of hydrogen as a prospective, environmental friendly energy carrier in the process of co-gasification make this option even more attractive, especially if some synergy effects could be observed. In the paper the experimental results proving the influence of a fuel blend composition, in terms of biomass type and content, and process temperature on the total gas volume, gas composition, carbon conversion rate and process efficiency are presented. Synergy effects were reported in co-gasification of coal and biomass of selected energy crops under operating conditions adopted, including increase in the total gas and hydrogen yields when compared to the values observed in coal and biomass gasification. A correlation between ash composition and the synergy effects was also stated. The energy crops types and steam co-gasification operating parameters optimal in terms of hydrogen-rich gas production were also determined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bukowski P.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
Mine Water and the Environment | Year: 2011

Since 1976, there have been six inrushes of water into shaft mine workings in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland, with two of the more serious events occurring during the last 3 years. A safety assessment was conducted, considering inflow intensity, the amount of suspended material contained in the water flowing into the shaft, the proportion of water-bearing formations in the vertical profile, the condition of the shaft lining and safety pillar, and the history of the shaft. A risk assessment system is proposed to classify mine shafts with respect to the risk of a water hazard occurring, based on these factors. Each of the risk factors was assigned a weight, based on their relative significance, and then a method of evaluating each of these factors was developed. The proposed approach may be the basis for a more detailed, expert system for timely assessment of water hazard risk analysis. It may also be possible to adapt it to different geological and mining conditions. © 2011 The Author(s).

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