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Maramag, Philippines

Central Mindanao University is a public research university located at the heart of Mindanao Island in the Philippines, specifically at University Town, Musuan , Maramag, Bukidnon. It is one of the only two state universities in the province Bukidnon along with Bukidnon State University. One of the top performing universities in the country, it ranked 8th in the CHED 2011 top universities in the Philippines ranking. Wikipedia.

Karger D.N.,University of Zurich | Lehtonen S.,University of Turku | Amoroso V.B.,Central Mindanao University | Kessler M.,University of Zurich

A new species of Lindsaea from the Philippines, Lindsaea hamiguitanensis is described. The phylogenetic relationships of L. hamiguitanensis were analysed by sequencing trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA intergenic spacer regions and performing a cladistic analysis of the Lindsaea section Schizoloma. Lindsaea hamiguitanensis groups together with L. bouillodii and L. cf. cambodgensis, from which it differs morphologically by the length of its petioles and the entire pinnules, as well as genetically by three apomorphic substitutions in the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, and by two apomorphic substitutions in trnH-psbA spacer region. © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Desquesnes M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Desquesnes M.,Kasetsart University | Holzmuller P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Lai D.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 3 more authors.
BioMed Research International

Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of "surra," is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies). It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras) and biological vectors (vampire bats). Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death), which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect. © 2013 Marc Desquesnes et al. Source

The sporophyte and gametophyte development of Platycerium coronarium and P. grande were compared through ex situ propagation using in vitro culture technique and under greenhouse and field conditions. The morphology of the sporophyte and gametophyte, type of spore germination and prothallial development of P. coronarium and P. grande were documented. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande were cultured in vitro using different media. The gametophytes were then transferred and potted in sterile chopped Cyathea spp. (anonotong) roots and garden soil for sporophyte formation. Sporophytes (plantlets) of the two Platycerium species were attached on the slabs of anonotong and on branches and trunks of Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) under greenhouse and field conditions. Sporophyte morphology of P. coronarium and P. grande varies but not their gametophyte morphology. P. coronarium and P. grande exhibited rapid spore germination and gametophyte development in both spore culture medium and Knudson C culture medium containing 2% glucose. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande transferred to potting medium produced more number of sporophytes while the gametophytes inside the culture media did not produce sporophytes. Sporophytes of P. grande attached on mahogany branches produced more number of leaves with bigger leaf area than those attached on anonotong slabs. Likewise, sporophytes of P. coronarium attached on mahogany branches and anonotong slabs did not develop new leaves during two weeks monitoring and are still in a period of adjustment to its environment. Sporophytes of P. grande grown or attached on the trunk of mahogany trees in the field and under shaded environment favored their growth. © 2009. Source

Karger D.N.,University of Zurich | Kluge J.,University of Zurich | Abrahamczyk S.,University of Zurich | Salazar L.,University of Gottingen | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Indicators

Climatic conditions are a prime candidate to explain local patterns of biodiversity and consequently there is great need of on-site climatic measurements. Among them, however, air humidity is notoriously difficult and time-consuming to measure, and it has been proposed that the epiphytic bryophyte cover can be used as an indicator of long-term air humidity conditions. Here we explore the utility of visually estimated epiphytic bryophyte cover on large canopy branches as a proxy for air humidity at 26 study sites in tropical forests where we measured microclimate for at least 12 months. Across all sites, bryophyte cover was weakly related to relative air humidity (R 2 = 0.17), but when we separated highland (1800-3500 m elevation) from lowland (<1800 m) sites, relative air humidity showed significant and distinct relations to bryophyte cover (R 2 = 0.36-0.62), whereas temperature was related to bryophyte cover only in the lowlands (R 2 = 0.36). We conclude that epiphytic bryophyte cover can be used as a proxy for air humidity if temperature and elevation are taken into account within a circumscribed study region, but might not be applicable for comparisons across extensive elevational gradients or wide differences in temperature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Marshall D.C.,5 N. Eagleville Rd. | Hill K.B.R.,5 N. Eagleville Rd. | Moulds M.,College Street | Vanderpool D.,5 N. Eagleville Rd. | And 4 more authors.
Systematic Biology

Dated phylogenetic trees are important for studying mechanisms of diversification, and molecular clocks are important tools for studies of organisms lacking good fossil records. However, studies have begun to identify problems in molecular clock dates caused by uncertainty of the modeled molecular substitution process. Here we explore Bayesian relaxed-clock molecular dating while studying the biogeography of ca. 200 species from the global cicada tribe Cicadettini. Because the available fossils are few and uninformative, we calibrate our trees in part with a cytochrome oxidase I (COI) clock prior encompassing a range of literature estimates for arthropods. We show that tribe-level analyses calibrated solely with the COI clock recover extremely old dates that conflict with published estimates for two well-studied New Zealand subclades within Cicadettini. Additional subclade analyses suggest that COI relaxed-clock rates and maximum-likelihood branch lengths become inflated relative to EF-1α intron and exon rates and branch lengths as clade age increases. We present corrected estimates derived from: (i) an extrapolated EF-1α exon clock derived from COI-calibrated analysis within the largest New Zealand subclade; (ii) post hoc scaling of the tribe-level chronogram using results from subclade analyses; and (iii) exploitation of a geological calibration point associated with New Caledonia. We caution that considerable uncertainty is generated due to dependence of substitution estimates on both the taxon sample and the choice of model, including gamma category number and the choice of empirical versus estimated base frequencies. Our results suggest that diversification of the tribe Cicadettini commenced in the early- to mid-Cenozoic and continued with the development of open, arid habitats in Australia and worldwide. We find that Cicadettini is a rare example of a global terrestrial animal group with an Australasian origin, with all non-Australasian genera belonging to two distal clades. Within Australia, we show that Cicadettini is more widely distributed than any other cicada tribe, diverse in temperate, arid and monsoonal habitats, and nearly absent from rainforests. We comment on the taxonomic implications of our findings for thirteen cicada genera. © 2015 The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source

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