Central Michigan University is a public research university located in Mount Pleasant in the U.S. state of Michigan. Established in 1892, Central Michigan University is one of the nation's 100 largest public universities with more than 20,000 students on its Mount Pleasant campus and another 7,000 enrolled online and at more than 60 locations worldwide. CMU offers 200 academic programs at the undergraduate, master's, specialist and doctoral levels, including nationally recognized programs in entrepreneurship, journalism, music, audiology, teacher education, psychology and physician assistant. CMU has also established a College of Medicine, which opened in fall 2013. CMU competes in the NCAA Division I Mid-American Conference in seven men's and nine women's sports. Wikipedia.
Michigan Molecular Institute and Central Michigan University | Date: 2015-02-23
The present invention provides a sustained release composition having hyperbranched polymers that are polyesters that are biobased and biodegradable, and that have at least one active ingredient, which composition delivers the active ingredient over time. These active ingredients can be a wide variety of compounds so long as they can covalently bind to the polymer or be encapsulated in the polymer in a manner that is released at the point of delivery, usually by acid hydrolysis or enzymatic bond scission.
Tomalia D.A.,Central Michigan University
Soft Matter | Year: 2010
It was A. Lavoisier's original thinking in Traite Elementaire de Chemie (1789) followed by J. Dalton's seminal "atom/molecular hypothesis" (i.e., New System of Chemical Philosophy, 1808) that defined "first principles" for much of our contemporary small molecule chemistry. Dalton's concept, advocating atom-based (elemental) building blocks (0.1-0.6 nm) for the synthesis of well defined small molecules, has emerged as a fundamental theme over the past 200 years. It initiated fundamental concepts such as well defined mass combining ratios, stoichiometries, valency and compound formation which have defined the "central dogma" and underpinned the traditional fields of both organic/polymer and inorganic sciences. As such, these historical examples portend the significant role that similar well defined, quantized soft nano-matter, modules such as dendrons and dendrimers (1.0-20 nm) might be expected to play in the emerging science of nano-syntheses. Dendrimers are well defined collections of atoms that may be viewed as core-shell type atom mimics (i.e., soft nano-element like modules). More than 12,000 published references in the dendrimer field have clearly demonstrated the ability to structure control important Critical Nanoscale Design Parameters (CNDPs) such as: (a) size, (b) shape, (c) surface chemistry, (d) flexibility and (e) architecture over a wide range of structures and compositions. These are features shared with elemental atoms and account for unique atom-like combining properties exhibited by dendrimers to yield well defined nano-module stoichiometries. We report first steps, including many literature examples that demonstrate the construction of well defined soft-soft and soft-hard matter nano-compounds. A variety of dendrimer surface reactions or guest-host assemblies have been shown to produce stoichiometric nano-compounds such as: (a) dendrimer-dendrimer, (b) dendrimer-protein (c) dendrimer-fullerene and dendrimer-metal nanocluster structures, to mention a few. These literature examples provide compelling evidence for the emergence of an active dendron and dendrimer module based synthetic nano-chemistry platform. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha and Central Michigan University | Date: 2016-02-24
A method and apparatus for determining an inattentive state of an operator of a vehicle and for providing information to the operator of the vehicle by obtaining face images of the operator of the vehicle, obtaining images of an environment of the vehicle, determining one or more areas of interest in the environment of the vehicle based on the images of the environment, obtaining, from a relevance and priority database, relevance and priority values corresponding to the one or more areas of interest, determining a probability of attention of the operator of the vehicle to the one or more areas of interest based on the images of the environment and the relevance and priority values, determining an attention deficiency based on the determined probability of attention and the face images, and providing the information to the operator of the vehicle based on the determined attention deficiency.
Central Michigan University | Date: 2016-06-03
Methods and systems for generating a composite image. One method includes receiving a plurality of images and selecting a base image from the plurality of images, wherein the base image includes a base object. The method also includes generating a stack of images by layering a first image included in the plurality of images on top of the base image, the first image including a first object, aligning the first object with the base object, and adjusting a transparency parameter of at least one of the first image and the base image to make the base image viewable through the first image. The method further includes combining the base image and the first image to generate the composite image, wherein the composite image represents a view of the stack of images from a top of the stack of images to the base image.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCES | Award Amount: 145.09K | Year: 2017
Despite widespread dissemination of best-practice standards for conducting forensic interviews, many jurisdictions lack the expertise to skillfully investigate crimes involving child witnesses. An efficient way to ensure that all jurisdictions have access to highly trained child interviewers is to conduct remote (live-streaming video) forensic interviews. Remote interviewing could reduce investigative response time, spare investigative resources, and accelerate case disposition. However, the ability of remote interviewing to elicit eyewitness evidence from children has not been sufficiently tested and, therefore, will certainly prompt challenges regarding children?s testimonial reliability. The current project is a comprehensive and theoretically grounded evaluation of the effectiveness of remote interviewing of child witnesses. Results will be disseminated to scientists and forensic professionals through publications and presentations, thereby informing policies and guidelines for the use of remote forensic interviews with children. Because remote interviewing increases access to specialized expertise, project results will also impact how children are questioned by electronic means in non-forensic contexts. The project will provide research training to dozens of students at two research sites and promote greater awareness of evidence-based practice through outreach to practitioners who work with child witnesses.
Using an established paradigm that produces salient touching experiences, individual children at two sites (ages 4 to 8 years) will be told that a male assistant can no longer touch their skin when he delivers a germ education program. The assistant will touch each child once and realize an impending mistake before he completes a second touch. Afterward, children will hear a story from their parents that contains misinformation about the experience, including narrative about a nonexperienced touch. During interviews conducted in traditional face-to-face or remote formats, children will answer questions about the germ education event and answer a series of questions that tests their ability to distinguish experienced from suggested events. By comparing the completeness and accuracy of children?s testimonies across formats, this study will determine whether remote interviewing elicits testimony that is comparable in quality to the testimony elicited by face-to-face interviewing. Measures of behavioral inhibition and executive function will determine whether remote interviewing is beneficial for children who are behaviorally inhibited or contraindicated for typically-developing children who have poor cognitive control.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RES EXP FOR TEACHERS(RET)-SITE | Award Amount: 566.79K | Year: 2016
Within a coherent theme of Smart Vehicles, this collaborative Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Engineering and Computer Science Site at Central Michigan University (CMU) and Western Michigan University (WMU) will expose in-service and pre-service teachers, and community college faculty to leading research spanning mobile robotics, kinematics and kinetics, vehicle manufacturing robots, vehicular sensor networks, ergonomics, material science, and circuit design. The multidisciplinary nature of Smart Vehicles in engineering will provide a holistic ground for developing creative course modules in physics, chemistry, engineering, and technology that aligns well with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), Common Core State Standards (CCSS), and Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) Criteria for STEM curriculum. Engaging regionally automobile focused industrial advisors and university faculty with rural secondary school and community college teachers will serve as a model-platform, and provide rare best-practices-based professional development opportunities and experience. CMU, a regional comprehensive university, is located in the heart of central rural Michigan where it maintains a reputation as the university to which schools turn for access to newly educated teachers, and for professional development for their current teachers. This RET renewal site will focus on teachers in these rural areas, and support them as they lift the STEM knowledge base of their students, increasing their opportunities for employment and for becoming entrepreneurs. Engaging pre-service teachers in cutting-edge research ensures that they begin their careers well-equipped with research experience and confidence to take into their classrooms. Similarly, with nurtured NGSS-based curriculum design and implementation expertise these teachers will take on leadership roles in their employing schools, thereby multiplying the effect of this project. Overall, through partnership with K-12 schools, community colleges, and a public university, this RET site will provide a profound influence on the learning and career paths of young students in the rural Michigan area, with knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes which are in high demand, but who have traditionally been underrepresented in the STEM education and employment.
This Site will offer an intensive six-week summer research program for a total of 45 rural STEM teachers over three years with a focus on those serving groups that are underrepresented in science and engineering. RET participants will engage in cutting-edge research on Smart Vehicles, under the guidance of engineering faculty mentors who lead active research programs, and who serve the community through outreach activities. The engineering faculty mentors, curriculum development specialist, Instructional Coach from Science/Mathematics, Technology Center, and staff from CMUs Faculty Center for Innovative Teaching will coach participants as they design standards-compliant curriculum modules and conduct professional development activities for each participant group. Extensive follow-up activities through the academic year include on-site Instructional Coaching, Quarterly Team Meetings, engineering faculty involvement in secondary school and community college classrooms, and Cross Classroom Collaborations to ensure translation of research experience into practice. The annual CMU High-Impact STEM Teaching Symposium will share findings with regional educators, and the annual CMU STEM Day will engage more than 200 secondary school students in exploration of engineering disciplines on CMU campus. The Science and Mathematics Program Improvement (SAMPI) staff at WMU will serve as external program evaluators, track and evaluate the site progress and provide feedback for improvement. They will also conduct longitudinal studies to assess the long-term impact of the proposed RET site.
This RET Site is co-funded by the Directorate for Engineering (ENG), Division of Engineering Education and Centers (EEC) and the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE), Division of Computer and Network Systems (CNS).
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: FLUID DYNAMICS | Award Amount: 189.41K | Year: 2016
PI: Dong, Haibo / XI, Jinxiang
Proposal Number: 1605232 / 1605434
The goal of the proposed research is to investigate the fluid dynamics mechanisms that can lead to sleep apnea and to develop fluid dynamics-based strategies for intervention. The importance of understanding the reasons for this condition at a fundamental level is very significant, since this condition that can sometimes result in deaths.
The goal of the proposed research is to advance the fundamental knowledge of biological fluid dynamics in prediction and control of human snoring through a combined physiology-based modeling, physics-based simulation, analysis, verification, and optimization approach. This approach is also applicable to a wide range of engineering and biological systems, such as noise reduction and phonation. There are mainly two objectives: (1) to develop a methodology for unveiling the flow physics and sound-producing mechanism of biological fluid-structure coupling problems and (2) to use the methodology for the investigation of optimal intervention procedures in order to ease the vortex-induced snore symptoms towards a better quality of life. The proposed work is highly interdisciplinary and involves fundamental scientific problems in the fields of biology, physics, physiology, and engineering. Snoring is an audible sign coded with richness of information about human respiratory functions. The sound comes from a complex interaction between compliant airway structures and the transient vortex shedding which is induced by the narrowing of the airway passage. However, the specific snore source mechanisms are still elusive, despite the significant in vitro and clinical efforts. Physics-based numerical investigation of the snore source will promise to quantify the relationship between the nonlinear response of the flexible airways and the respiratory vortex dynamics for sound generation. Currently, snore source diagnosis relies on expensive and time-consuming procedures that are outsourced to special analytical laboratories. Such challenges in performing in vivo and in vitro snore diagnosis will make the numerical methods ideal investigative tools. The PIs propose to systematically study the snore-producing mechanisms of different age and gender groups, paying particular attention to the underlying physics of biological fluid-structure interaction and associated sound sources. This is to be accomplished through the use of a combined modeling, simulation, analysis, validation, and optimization approach. The findings from the proposed research could provide pre-surgical guidelines for alleviating the apnea-causing factors by minimizing sound production of the system. Findings from this work could be used by acoustic experts and respiratory therapists for understanding the sound source production and control from its biological origin. The theories developed from this research will promote accurate diagnosis of snore sources and effective treatment of patients with snoring or other respiratory disorders. The research work will also be the central theme in a multi-level education program in which: (1) PIs will continue to provide summer undergraduate research experience to attract and retain engineering students from under-represented groups; (2) the proposed methodology will be incorporated into the PIs existing graduate level course on bio-inspired flow and respiratory aerosol dynamics; and (3) an educational lab curriculum in snore specialty will be developed to provide multi-disciplinary training and research opportunities for high-school and college students and to support biomedical and bio-inspired engineering programs in both University of Virginia and Central Michigan University
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ANALYSIS PROGRAM | Award Amount: 102.29K | Year: 2016
This project combines two very powerful ideas of mathematics -- that of complex numbers and that of the calculus. Complex numbers include quantities such as the square root of negative one. The calculus studies how physical or geometric quantities vary in space or time. The combination of these ideas (called complex analysis) leads to far-reaching and beautiful results about smoothly varying complex quantities (called holomorphic functions). One may use these ideas to model various natural phenomena such as electrical attraction or the motion of liquids. These considerations also have surprising consequences in other parts of mathematics, such as the properties of prime numbers, the geometry of higher dimensional spaces, and the study of equations (called partial differential equations) used to describe many physical processes such as heat conduction and the propagation of waves. This research project studies the behavior of holomorphic functions as one approaches the boundary of the region in higher dimensional space where the function is defined. The investigator will also continue his successful mentoring of undergraduate student research in related topics.
The behavior of holomorphic functions of several variables is well-understood on strongly pseudoconvex domains. In this project, the goal is to study the extension of such results to new and more general types of domains. Among the questions under study are estimates for the solutions of the solutions of the inhomogeneous Cauchy-Riemann equations, understanding what happens when there are no such estimates, and the boundary behavior of holomorphic functions. The domains to be studied include piecewise smooth domains (in particular product domains), Levi-flat Stein domains in complex manifolds, and non-pseudoconvex domains, both with and without holes. The research will involve both the investigation of general questions and the careful study of particular examples, which can exhibit unexpected phenomena associated to these domains. Tools employed in this project to study these problems include a priori estimates, integral formulas, and algebraic methods based on sheaf theory, as well as insights from other parts of mathematics such as partial differential equations, functional analysis, and differential geometry.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 492.29K | Year: 2015
An award is made to Central Michigan University to acquire a Hitachi high-contrast/high-resolution digital transmission electron microscope (TEM). The new microscope will enable the training of the next generation of scientists in modern methods using TEM for analysis of biological and materials science samples. Undergraduate and graduate students will be exposed to the new TEM in courses that are required for the Biology/microscopy majors and that serve the doctoral students in the interdisciplinary Science of Advanced Materials Ph.D. program. The interdisciplinary team of faculty will attract underrepresented students to their research teams, and introduce high school students to cutting edge methods in STEM research, by participating in campus-wide programs that serve underrepresented students. The new TEM will also be incorporated into outreach activities for K-12 students, including Grandparents University, a program to bring grandparent/grandchild pairs to campus for educational experiences in a university setting.
The acquisition of the new Hitachi TEM will enable biology researchers to continue a long history of performing research using TEM, and at the same time, provide a new capability for materials science researchers at CMU. The new TEM has state-of-the-art imaging technology that will allow biology researchers to substantially increase the quality and quantity of images of low-contrast biological samples. The biology research projects that will benefit from the new TEM span a broad range and include the analysis of membrane remodeling that occurs in eggs in response to stress and aging, and the characterization of a novel cell type in corn endosperm. The new TEM will be configured to allow faculty and student researchers working with nanomaterials and polymers to collect data on campus instead of traveling to outside institutions. The materials science research projects include the characterization of the superlattice structure of ferroelectric nanoparticles that can be used in exciting applications such as energy conversion and data storage, and characterization of edge-defined graphene nanoribbons that have applications for lithium-ion battery electrodes. The new TEM will enhance the growing research capabilities at CMU, serve students in many programs, and attract new researchers to CMU.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: IUSE | Award Amount: 267.57K | Year: 2016
Active Learning and Active Learning Classrooms have proven themselves as a valuable means to better engage STEM students, enhance their learning experience and increase their performance with respect to learning outcomes. One difficulty in providing more student access to Active Learning Classrooms is the associated cost of constructing or retrofitting existing classrooms is expensive and cost prohibitive for many institutions. Newer, more economical tools and approaches are needed to increase access and the evaluation of this new technology will add to a growing body of knowledge as to how Active Learning Technology and pedagogy work together to enhance student collaboration in the classroom and increase student performance and satisfaction in introductory Computer Science courses.
This project will develop, deploy and evaluate an economical means of adapting existing classrooms to facilitate Active Learning for Computer Science students. Lightweight, commodity hardware running flexible, open-source software will be used to create a network of self-contained practical, active learning stations (PALS). These stations will then be deployed in an existing classroom to transform it into an Active Learning Classroom. The effectiveness of the PALS system will be evaluated through qualitative and quantitative data collected on student learning outcomes for CS1 and CS2 and perceived learning experience.