Central Square, MO, United States
Central Square, MO, United States

Central Methodist University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts university located in Fayette, Missouri. CMU is an accredited four-year institution of higher education and offers masters, bachelors, and associate degrees. The school is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Wikipedia.


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Kendrick S.W.,University of Missouri | Porneluzi P.A.,Central Methodist University | Iii F.R.T.,Columbia University | Morris D.L.,Central Methodist University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2015

Long-term landscape-scale experiments allow for the detection of effects of silviculture on bird abundance. Manipulative studies allow for strong inference on effects and confirmation of patterns from observational studies. We estimated bird-territory density within forest stands (2.89-62 ha) for 19 years of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP), a 100-year experiment designed to study the effects of even-age and uneven-age management on wildlife. We spot-mapped territories of 15 species in 228 stands for 5 years before treatment and 14 years after treatment to assess the effects of stand-level silvicultural treatments (clearcut, select cut, thin, and no-harvest) applied within even-age, uneven-age, or no-harvest (control) management sites and year on avian territory density. We used 2 a priori contrasts to compare pre-treatment bird densities with densities during early (3-5 yr) and late (12-14 yr) post-treatment periods. The interaction of silvicultural treatment and year had significant effects on the densities of all 15 species. Densities of hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), prairie warbler (Setophaga discolor), and yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens) increased significantly 3-5 years post-treatment with the greatest changes in clearcuts, but densities 12-14 years post-treatment did not differ from pre-treatment densities. Densities of Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and especially ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) had significant decreases in clearcut stands after treatment and lesser decreases in select cut or thin stands post-treatment. Densities of black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia), eastern wood-pewee (Contopus virens), and Kentucky warbler (Geothlypis formosa) increased in clearcut, thin, and select cut stands, but these increases were short-lived and sporadic by year after treatment. Densities of Acadian flycatcher and ovenbird remained lower in clearcut stands than no-harvest stands 13 years post-treatment. The results of this manipulative experiment were mostly consistent with our predictions of bird response to common silvicultural treatments in these forests. Managers can use these species-specific responses to silvicultural treatment to guide management decisions for target species or to balance management practices in a landscape to meet the needs of multiple species. © 2014 The Wildlife Society.


Park J.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Lee J.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Liu L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Clark K.W.,Central Methodist University | And 8 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Two-dimensional interfaces between crystalline materials have been shown to generate unusual interfacial electronic states in complex oxides. Recently, a one-dimensional interface has been realized in hexagonal boron nitride and graphene planar heterostructures, where a polar-on-nonpolar one-dimensional boundary is expected to possess peculiar electronic states associated with edge states of graphene and the polarity of boron nitride. Here we present a combined scanning tunnelling microscopy and first-principles theory study of the graphene-boron nitride boundary to provide a first glimpse into the spatial and energetic distributions of the one-dimensional boundary states down to atomic resolution. The revealed boundary states are about 0.6 eV below or above the Fermi level depending on the termination of the boron nitride at the boundary, and are extended along but localized at the boundary. These results suggest that unconventional physical effects similar to those observed at two-dimensional interfaces can also exist in lower dimensions. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Central Methodist University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2014

Two-dimensional interfaces between crystalline materials have been shown to generate unusual interfacial electronic states in complex oxides. Recently, a one-dimensional interface has been realized in hexagonal boron nitride and graphene planar heterostructures, where a polar-on-nonpolar one-dimensional boundary is expected to possess peculiar electronic states associated with edge states of graphene and the polarity of boron nitride. Here we present a combined scanning tunnelling microscopy and first-principles theory study of the graphene-boron nitride boundary to provide a first glimpse into the spatial and energetic distributions of the one-dimensional boundary states down to atomic resolution. The revealed boundary states are about 0.6eV below or above the Fermi level depending on the termination of the boron nitride at the boundary, and are extended along but localized at the boundary. These results suggest that unconventional physical effects similar to those observed at two-dimensional interfaces can also exist in lower dimensions.


Morris D.L.,University of Missouri | Morris D.L.,Central Methodist University | A. Porneluzi P.,Central Methodist University | Haslerig J.,Resource Science | And 2 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Understanding the relationship between forest management and bird populations requires understanding the effects of silvicultural practices on avian demography at large spatio-temporal scales. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is a long-term, large-scale manipulative experiment testing the effects of even-aged (3-13. ha cuts over 10-15% of the site; n= 3), uneven-aged (0.03-3.14. ha cuts over 57% of the site; n= 3), and no harvest forest management on ecosystem level responses. We report on the effects of these management systems on the density and reproductive success of 11 songbird species from 5. years of pre-harvest (1991-1995) to 14. years of post-harvest (1997-2010). Density of four of the five mature forest species were lower after harvest in all management types and did not return to pre-harvest density, even in no harvest sites. Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) responded most negatively to even-aged management in the early post-harvest period (1997-2003) where density was significantly lower than in no harvest sites. Kentucky Warbler (Geothlypis formosa) density increased on uneven-aged and even-aged sites during early post-harvest, but returned to pre-harvest density on both management types by 14. years post-harvest. Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus) had lower density in all treatments post-harvest. Among the six early-successional species, density of Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera), Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) and Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) were significantly higher in even-aged and uneven-aged sites than in no harvest sites after harvest. Density of Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor) were significantly higher only in even-aged management after harvest. Prairie Warbler, Hooded Warbler, and White-eyed vireo appeared on the study sites following harvest while Indigo Bunting, Prairie Warbler, and Yellow-breasted Chat were absent from the study area 14. years post-harvest. Nest survival of mature forest and early-successional species did not change significantly from the pre- to the late post-harvest period or with forest management. Brood parasitism rates remained low from pre-harvest to late post-harvest, but parasitism rates were higher for early-successional species (4%) than mature forest species (1%). Although forest management had variable effects on species, we suggest a modified version of even-aged management could maximize benefits to early-successional species while minimizing decreases in mature forest bird species in central hardwood forests. Rather than the current prescription to harvest 10-15% of the mature stands every 15. years, we recommend harvesting approximately half the number of mature stands with a shorter re-entry period of 8-10. years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Jones K.L.,University of Missouri | Smith R.M.,Ohio State University | Edwards K.S.,Ohio State University | Givens B.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Several studies suggest that prenatal stress is a possible risk factor in the development of autism spectrum disorders. However, many children exposed to stress prenatally are born healthy and develop typically, suggesting that other factors must contribute to autism. Genes that contribute to stress reactivity may, therefore, exacerbate prenatal stress-mediated behavioral changes in the adult offspring. One candidate gene linked to increased stress reactivity encodes the serotonin transporter. Specifically, an insertion/deletion (long/short allele) polymorphism upstream of the serotonin transporter gene correlates with differential expression and function of the serotonin transporter and a heightened response to stressors. Heterozygous serotonin transporter knockout mice show reductions in serotonin transporter expression similar to the human short polymorphism. In this study, the role of prenatal stress and maternal serotonin transporter genotype were assessed in mice to determine whether their combined effect produces reductions in social behavior in the adult offspring. Pregnant serotonin transporter heterozygous knockout and wild-type dams were placed in either a control condition or subjected to chronic variable stress. The adult offspring were subsequently assessed for social interaction and anxiety using a three-chamber social approach task, ultrasonic vocalization detection, elevated-plus maze and an open field task. Results indicated that prenatal stress and reduced serotonin transporter expression of the dam may have the combined effect of producing changes in social interaction and social interest in the offspring consistent with those observed in autism spectrum disorder. This data indicates a possible combined effect of maternal serotonin transporter genotype and prenatal stress contributing to the production of autistic-like behaviors in offspring. © 2010 ISDN.


Morris D.L.,University of Missouri | Morris D.L.,Central Methodist University | Faaborg J.,University of Missouri | Washburn B.E.,University of Missouri | And 2 more authors.
Conservation Physiology | Year: 2015

Renesting after nest predation is ultimately an adaptive response to increase productivity in birds. However, renesting also increases reproductive effort to replace lost clutches. We investigated the consequences of this increased reproductive effort by determining whether renesting in female indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) is associated with a decline in body condition (size-corrected mass) and haematocrit and an increase in stress hormones and whether renesting or maternal body condition is associated with a decline in productivity (clutch size, nestling body condition). Next, because a consequence of multiple renesting attempts is a prolonged breeding season and later timing, we predicted that a population of post-breeding females and juveniles would have lower body condition in fragmented forest than in contiguous forest owing to higher nest predation and frequency of renesting. Both forest types were settled by females of similar condition. Nest survival was lower in fragmented forest, where a higher proportion of females failed their first attempt and the breeding season was 2 weeks longer. Compared with females on their first attempt, renesting females had lower body condition and haematocrit and higher corticosterone concentrations. Lower maternal body condition was associated with higher concentrations of corticosterone, lower nestling body condition and smaller clutches. Clutch size was lower in renests and in fragmented forest. Nestling condition was lower in renests but did not vary greatly with forest type. Despite a prolonged breeding season in the fragmented forest, post-breeding females and hatch-year birds were in similar condition in both forest types. Our results suggest that the indirect effects of nest predation on maternal and offspring condition pose additional individual-level costs that have not been considered in the context of fragmentation studies. We discuss how predator-induced renesting could have additional demographic consequences by prolonging the breeding season and prompting seasonal interactions or carry-over effects that could impact populations. © The Author 2015.


PubMed | University of Missouri and Central Methodist University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Conservation physiology | Year: 2016

Renesting after nest predation is ultimately an adaptive response to increase productivity in birds. However, renesting also increases reproductive effort to replace lost clutches. We investigated the consequences of this increased reproductive effort by determining whether renesting in female indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) is associated with a decline in body condition (size-corrected mass) and haematocrit and an increase in stress hormones and whether renesting or maternal body condition is associated with a decline in productivity (clutch size, nestling body condition). Next, because a consequence of multiple renesting attempts is a prolonged breeding season and later timing, we predicted that a population of post-breeding females and juveniles would have lower body condition in fragmented forest than in contiguous forest owing to higher nest predation and frequency of renesting. Both forest types were settled by females of similar condition. Nest survival was lower in fragmented forest, where a higher proportion of females failed their first attempt and the breeding season was 2weeks longer. Compared with females on their first attempt, renesting females had lower body condition and haematocrit and higher corticosterone concentrations. Lower maternal body condition was associated with higher concentrations of corticosterone, lower nestling body condition and smaller clutches. Clutch size was lower in renests and in fragmented forest. Nestling condition was lower in renests but did not vary greatly with forest type. Despite a prolonged breeding season in the fragmented forest, post-breeding females and hatch-year birds were in similar condition in both forest types. Our results suggest that the indirect effects of nest predation on maternal and offspring condition pose additional individual-level costs that have not been considered in the context of fragmentation studies. We discuss how predator-induced renesting could have additional demographic consequences by prolonging the breeding season and prompting seasonal interactions or carry-over effects that could impact populations.


PubMed | University of Missouri, Central Methodist University, Harvard University and Queen's University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research | Year: 2016

Stress exposure during gestation is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research showed that prenatal stress increases risk for ASD with peak exposure during the end of the second and the beginning of the third trimester. However, exposures to prenatal stress do not always result in ASD, suggesting that other factors may interact with environmental stressors to increase ASD risk. The present study examined a maternal genetic variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) affecting stress tolerance and its interaction with the effect of environmental stressors on risk for ASD. Two independent cohorts of mothers of ASD children recruited by the University of Missouri and Queens University were surveyed regarding the prenatal environment and genotyping on 5-HTTLPR was performed to explore this relationship. In both samples, mothers of children with ASD carrying the stress susceptible short allele variant of 5-HTTLPR experienced a greater number of stressors and greater stress severity when compared to mothers carrying the long allele variant. The temporal peak of stressors during gestation in these mothers was consistent with previous findings. Additionally, increased exposure to prenatal stress was not reported in the pregnancies of typically developing siblings from the same mothers, regardless of maternal genotype, suggesting against the possibility that the short allele might increase the recall of stress during pregnancy. The present study provides further evidence of a specific maternal polymorphism that may affect the risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1151-1160. 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Allert A.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Cole-Neal C.L.,Central Methodist University | Fairchild J.F.,U.S. Geological Survey
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Deicers such as sodium chloride and calcium chloride are used to treat snow and ice on road surfaces and have been identified as potential stressors on aquatic life. Hinkson Creek is an urban stream on the Missouri 303(d) list of impaired waters and is classified as impaired due to urban non-point source pollution. A 7-day toxicity test using Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted to assess the toxicity of stream water during snowmelt at seven sites within the Hinkson Creek watershed. Chloride concentrations at two sites (Site 6, 1252 mg Cl/L; Site 4, 301 mg Cl/L) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic criterion (230 mg Cl/L). Survival (30 %) and total reproduction (6.9 young/adult) of C. dubia at Site 6 was significantly lower than survival (100 %) and total reproduction (30.4 young/adult) at Site 1 (reference site). Results indicate that chloride concentrations are elevated above water-quality criteria and that chloride may be a significant chemical stressor for macroinvertebrate communities during winter low-flow conditions in the Hinkson Creek watershed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


O'Neill B.,Ohio State University | Tilley M.R.,Central Methodist University | Gu H.H.,Ohio State University
Genes, Brain and Behavior | Year: 2013

Cocaine is an inhibitor of the dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake transporters. Because its administration would elevate signaling of all these three neurotransmitters, many studies have been aimed at attributing individual effects of cocaine to specific transmitter systems. Using mice with a cocaine-insensitive dopamine transporter (DAT-CI mice), we previously showed that cocaine-induced dopamine elevations were necessary for its rewarding and stimulating effects. In this study, we observe that DAT-CI mice exhibit cocaine-conditioned place aversion (CPA), and that its expression depends on their genetic background. Specifically, DAT-CI mice backcrossed to the C57Bl/6J strain background did not display a preference or an aversion to cocaine, whereas DAT-CI mice that were on a mixed 129S1/SvImJ×C57Bl/6J (129B6) background had a robust CPA to cocaine. These results indicate that while inhibition of the DAT is necessary for cocaine reward, other cocaine targets and neurotransmitter systems may mediate the aversive properties of cocaine. Furthermore, the aversive effect of cocaine can be observed in the absence of a DAT-mediated rewarding effect, and it is affected by genomic differences between these two mouse strains. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

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