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Central Square, MO, United States

Central Methodist University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts university located in Fayette, Missouri. CMU is an accredited four-year institution of higher education and offers masters, bachelors, and associate degrees. The school is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Wikipedia.

Jones K.L.,University of Missouri | Smith R.M.,Ohio State University | Edwards K.S.,Ohio State University | Givens B.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Several studies suggest that prenatal stress is a possible risk factor in the development of autism spectrum disorders. However, many children exposed to stress prenatally are born healthy and develop typically, suggesting that other factors must contribute to autism. Genes that contribute to stress reactivity may, therefore, exacerbate prenatal stress-mediated behavioral changes in the adult offspring. One candidate gene linked to increased stress reactivity encodes the serotonin transporter. Specifically, an insertion/deletion (long/short allele) polymorphism upstream of the serotonin transporter gene correlates with differential expression and function of the serotonin transporter and a heightened response to stressors. Heterozygous serotonin transporter knockout mice show reductions in serotonin transporter expression similar to the human short polymorphism. In this study, the role of prenatal stress and maternal serotonin transporter genotype were assessed in mice to determine whether their combined effect produces reductions in social behavior in the adult offspring. Pregnant serotonin transporter heterozygous knockout and wild-type dams were placed in either a control condition or subjected to chronic variable stress. The adult offspring were subsequently assessed for social interaction and anxiety using a three-chamber social approach task, ultrasonic vocalization detection, elevated-plus maze and an open field task. Results indicated that prenatal stress and reduced serotonin transporter expression of the dam may have the combined effect of producing changes in social interaction and social interest in the offspring consistent with those observed in autism spectrum disorder. This data indicates a possible combined effect of maternal serotonin transporter genotype and prenatal stress contributing to the production of autistic-like behaviors in offspring. © 2010 ISDN. Source

Allert A.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Cole-Neal C.L.,Central Methodist University | Fairchild J.F.,U.S. Geological Survey
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Deicers such as sodium chloride and calcium chloride are used to treat snow and ice on road surfaces and have been identified as potential stressors on aquatic life. Hinkson Creek is an urban stream on the Missouri 303(d) list of impaired waters and is classified as impaired due to urban non-point source pollution. A 7-day toxicity test using Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted to assess the toxicity of stream water during snowmelt at seven sites within the Hinkson Creek watershed. Chloride concentrations at two sites (Site 6, 1252 mg Cl/L; Site 4, 301 mg Cl/L) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic criterion (230 mg Cl/L). Survival (30 %) and total reproduction (6.9 young/adult) of C. dubia at Site 6 was significantly lower than survival (100 %) and total reproduction (30.4 young/adult) at Site 1 (reference site). Results indicate that chloride concentrations are elevated above water-quality criteria and that chloride may be a significant chemical stressor for macroinvertebrate communities during winter low-flow conditions in the Hinkson Creek watershed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

O'Neill B.,Ohio State University | Tilley M.R.,Central Methodist University | Gu H.H.,Ohio State University
Genes, Brain and Behavior | Year: 2013

Cocaine is an inhibitor of the dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake transporters. Because its administration would elevate signaling of all these three neurotransmitters, many studies have been aimed at attributing individual effects of cocaine to specific transmitter systems. Using mice with a cocaine-insensitive dopamine transporter (DAT-CI mice), we previously showed that cocaine-induced dopamine elevations were necessary for its rewarding and stimulating effects. In this study, we observe that DAT-CI mice exhibit cocaine-conditioned place aversion (CPA), and that its expression depends on their genetic background. Specifically, DAT-CI mice backcrossed to the C57Bl/6J strain background did not display a preference or an aversion to cocaine, whereas DAT-CI mice that were on a mixed 129S1/SvImJ×C57Bl/6J (129B6) background had a robust CPA to cocaine. These results indicate that while inhibition of the DAT is necessary for cocaine reward, other cocaine targets and neurotransmitter systems may mediate the aversive properties of cocaine. Furthermore, the aversive effect of cocaine can be observed in the absence of a DAT-mediated rewarding effect, and it is affected by genomic differences between these two mouse strains. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society. Source

Lough A.N.,University of Missouri | Lough A.N.,Central Methodist University | Faries K.M.,University of Missouri | Faries K.M.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 12 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2015

The transfer of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into nuclear genomes is a regularly occurring process that has been observed in many species. Few studies, however, have focused on the variation of nuclear-mtDNA sequences (NUMTs) within a species. This study examined mtDNA insertions within chromosomes of a diverse set of Zea mays ssp. mays (maize) inbred lines by the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization. A relatively large NUMT on the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L) was identified at approximately the same position in four inbred lines (B73, M825, HP301, and Oh7B). Further examination of the similarly positioned 9L NUMT in two lines, B73 and M825, indicated that the large size of these sites is due to the presence of a majority of the mitochondrial genome; however, only portions of this NUMT (~252 kb total) were found in the publically available B73 nuclear sequence for chromosome 9. Fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis estimated the size of the B73 9L NUMT to be ~1.8 Mb and revealed that the NUMT is methylated. Two regions of mtDNA (2.4 kb and 3.3 kb) within the 9L NUMT are not present in the B73 mitochondrial NB genome; however, these 2.4-kb and 3.3-kb segments are present in other Zea mitochondrial genomes, including that of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, a progenitor of domesticated maize. © 2015 Lough et al. Source

Porneluzi P.A.,Central Methodist University | Brito-Aguilar R.,University of Missouri | Clawson R.L.,Resource Science | Faaborg J.,University of Missouri
Wilson Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2014

We focus on bird use of clearcuts resulting from even-aged management as part of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP). The long-term nature of MOFEP allows us to present a 15-year monitoring of bird use of MOFEP clearcuts in July using constant effort mist-netting. This provides insight into the dynamics of forest bird use of clearcuts during the post-fledging period for both early succession and mature forest breeding birds. We operated nets ∼10,080 hrs and captured 4,711 individuals, with 2,718 individuals considered mature forest breeding birds, and 1,993 individuals considered early succession species. There were few birds occupying clearcuts in year 1, immediately after cutting. Mean captures of all species as a group showed a significant curvilinear trend over time with an early peak in year 3 to 4 followed by decline. Mean captures of early succession species showed a significant trend of an early peak in year 3 followed by steady decline. Mature forest breeding species captures showed a significant curvilinear trend that increased gradually up to a peak around 6-9 years after harvest and then declined. Capture rates suggest that large numbers of birds use clearcuts in the decade after the clearcuts are formed. The abundance of forest-breeding birds in clearcuts in late summer equals or even exceeds the abundance of clearcut-breeding birds found there. This suggests that clearcuts may be an important habitat for mature forest breeding birds after they breed in mature habitats. More work on post-fledging behavior of migratory birds is needed to determine those species which require early succession habitats such as clearcuts and those species which simply take advantage of such habitats should they occur in the vicinity. © 2014 by the Wilson Ornithological Society. Source

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