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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2009-2.6-1 | Award Amount: 4.39M | Year: 2010

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is regarded as key element of advanced wastewater reclamation and reuse schemes and can considerably contribute to sustainable water management. MBR technology is used for wastewater treatment and reuse in municipal, agricultural and a variety of industrial sectors in Europe and MENA. The market pull, in the context of this NMP call, is the increasing demand for clean water complying with the strict European and MENA regulations. The European growing MBR market is dominated by two suppliers from Canada and Japan. Although, the European scientific community is strong in R&D, its expertise remains fragmented and lacks organization and communication within Europe. Despite the fact that the technical feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated through a large number of small and large scale applications, membrane fouling is regarded as an important bottleneck for further development. It is the main limitation to faster development of this process, particularly when it leads to flux losses that cleaning cannot restore. The objective of the BioNexGen project is therefore to develop a new class of functional low fouling membranes for membrane bioreactor technology with high and constant water flux (25 l/m2/h) and high rejection of organic pollutants with low molecular weight (down to 300 Da). The consortium consisting of European and MENA partners will develop a novel single step NF MBR operated with low energy consumption due to less aeration needed (0.2 Nm3/m2/h). Small footprint, flexible design, and automated operation make it ideal for localized, decentralized wastewater treatment and recycling in the European and MENA countries. Successful delivery will have a major impact on the competitiveness of the SME partners in the project and the European and MENA MBR market. Furthermore it will significantly contribute to scientific and technological cooperation between European and MENA countries in the provision of safe water.

El-Kady O.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute | Fathy A.,Zagazig University
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

In this work, the effect of SiC particle size and its amount on both physical and mechanical properties of Al matrix composite were investigated. SiC of particle size 70. nm, 10. μm and 40. μm, and Al powder of particle size 60. μm were used. Composites of Al with 5 and 10. wt.% SiC were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique followed by hot extrusion. Phase composition and microstructure were characterized. Relative density, thermal conductivity, hardness and compression strength were studied. The results showed that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the dominant components were Al and SiC. Densification and thermal conductivity of the composites decreased with increasing the amount of SiC and increased with increasing SiC particle size. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies showed that the distribution of the reinforced particle was uniform. Increasing the amount of SiC leads to higher hardness and consequently improves the compressive strength of Al-SiC composite. Moreover, as the SiC particle size decreases, hardness and compressive strength increase. The use of fine SiC particles has a similar effect on both hardness and compressive strength. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Harraz F.A.,Najran University | Harraz F.A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

The use of porous silicon (PSi) as a sensor for detection of various analytes is reviewed. The optical or electrical properties of PSi are key sensing parameters that have been used in many chemical and biological sensing applications. PSi is a promising candidate due to ease of fabrication, large surface area, various accessible pore sizes and morphologies, controllable surface modification and its compatibility with conventional silicon processing technology. The adsorption of chemical or biological molecules into the pores modifies the electrical and/or optical properties, allowing convenient and sensitive measurement approach. In this review, we provide a critical assessment of the development of PSi as a promising material for chemical and biosensing applications. Formation procedures of PSi with various pore sizes and morphologies are firstly given. Surface properties and structural characteristics of the material are briefly described. The recent progress on utilization of such porous structures in chemical and biosensing applications is then addressed in the context of surface chemistry effects and nanostructures, measuring approaches, operating concepts and device sensitivity and stability. Finally, concluding remarks with existing challenges that hinder the material for commercial use are highlighted. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ismail A.A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute | Ismail A.A.,Najran University
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2012

Herein, we report a synthesis of mesoporous PdO-TiO 2 nanocomposites at different PdO (0-3wt%) through simple one-step sol-gel reactions. Pd 2+ ions have been immobilized into TiO 2 networks by cross-linking triblock copolymer (Pluronic F123) as the structure-directing agents to develop highly efficient PdO-TiO 2 photocatalyst. The produced PdO-TiO 2 gel were calcined at 400°C for 4h to remove organic materials. TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average diameter are 8-10nm and PdO nanoparticles are well dispersed and exhibit diameters of about 10-40nm based on the PdO content. Our prepared photocatalysts have been compared with Pd/Aeroxide TiO 2-P25 by the determination of the initial rate of HCHO formation generated by the photooxidation of CH 3OH in aqueous suspensions to calculate the corresponding photonic efficiencies. The newly prepared PdO-TiO 2 nanocomposites showed a more effective and high efficient photocatalytic activities for CH 3OH oxidation to HCHO ~4 and 2 times than TiO 2-P25 and Pd/TiO 2-P25 respectively. In the present work, the photocatalytic activities of the obtained PdO-TiO 2 nanocomposites were significantly higher than those of previously reported. To the best of our knowledge, the measured photonic efficiency ξ=19.5% of mesosporous PdO-TiO 2 nanocomposites is found to be among the highest ξ-values reported up to now. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2011-6.2 | Award Amount: 555.64K | Year: 2011

The overall aim of the AdM-ERA project is to integrate the Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI) into the European Research Area (ERA), by developing cooperation with European research and innovation organisations in its 2 strongest research topics: A) Additive Manufacturing of Ti and CoCr alloys based prostheses, and B) Additive Manufacturing of biocompatible ceramic materials: HA, PEEK and TCP. These are research topics highly relevant to the FP7 NMP and FP7 PPP-FoF work programmes. Additive Manufacturing (AdM) is a generic name for layer based manufacturing techniques that create physical models directly from computer data without the need for tooling. Using AdM, products can be made from plastics, metals or ceramics by depositing and joining material in a layer by layer process. CMRDI is a major research centre with a high potential for integration into ERA. AdM research work started in 2004 within CMRDI, in Egypt. This AdM-ERA proposal aims to develop the CMRDI research capacities to explore novel applications such as the additive manufacturing of human-specific prostheses from titanium, cobalt chrome and bio-ceramic materials using high energy laser based selective laser melting systems. CMRDI now seeks to develop its AdM capabilities further by partnering with European research partners who can bring specific areas of expertise in Additive manufacturing technology and techniques. The AdM-ERA project will build upon CMRDIs existing strengths as a high-quality research institution via capacity building activities with the following 3 excellent European research and innovation organisations: i) Loughborough University, ii) Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, and iii)Intelligentsia Consultants Ltd.

Ismail A.A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute | Bahnemann D.W.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

Titanium dioxide is a very important semiconductor with a high potential for applications in photocatalysis, solar cells, photochromism, sensoring, and various other areas of nanotechnology. Increasing attention has recently been focused on the simultaneous achievement of high bulk crystallinity and the formation of ordered mesoporous TiO2 frameworks with high thermal stability. Mesoporous TiO2 has continued to be highly active in photocatalytic applications because it is beneficial for promoting the diffusion of reactants and products, as well as for enhancing the photocatalytic activity by facilitating access to the reactive sites on the surface of photocatalyst. This steady progress has demonstrated that mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles are playing and will continue to play an important role in the protection of the environment and in the search for renewable and clean energy technologies. This review focuses on the preparation and characterisation of mesoporous titania, noble metals nanoparticles, transition metal ions, non-metal/doped mesoporous titania networks. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania materials upon visible and UV illumination will be reviewed, summarized and discussed, in particular, concerning the influence of preparation and solid-state properties of the materials. Reaction mechanisms that are being discussed to explain these effects will be presented and critically evaluated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Ismail A.A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute | Bahnemann D.W.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Mesoporous Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposites have been synthesized by using two pathways: (1) the in-situ preparation of Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposites was carried out using a one-step synthesis by dissolving the Pt and TiO 2 precursors in the presence of a triblock copolymer as the structure-directing agent followed by drying, calcinations, and reduction under H 2 gas. (2) Platinum particles have been photochemically deposited onto mesoporous TiO 2. The TEM images of the mesoporous Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposites calcined at 450 °C demonstrate that the TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 10 nm are not agglomerated and are quite uniform in size and shape. Following the photodeposition process, the Pt nanoparticles are well-dispersed and highly uniform, exhibiting diameters of ∼3 nm; however, following the in situ preparation, the Pt particles are reaching diameters of approximately 15 nm, most likely as a result of the calcination and reduction at high temperatures. The photocatalytic activity of the newly synthesized mesoporous photocatalysts was measured and compared with that of nonporous commercial Aeroxide TiO 2 P 25 and Pt/TiO 2 P 25 by measuring the rate of H + ion release during the photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and confirmed by measuring the concomitant total organic carbon removal. For both preparation routes the photonic efficiency of the mesoporous TiO 2 photocatalysts is found to be increased by the addition of the Pt islands and to correlate with the size of the Pt particles. The mesoporous Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposites showed 2 times higher activity for the photocatalytic DCA photodegradation than Aeroxide TiO 2 P 25. The larger photoactivity of the mesoporous Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposites prepared by the photodeposition process is attributed to the higher dispersity and the small size of the Pt particles (3 nm). To the best of our knowledge, the measured photonic efficiency of ξ= 7.95% for the photodeposited Pt/TiO 2 nanocomposites is among the highest ξ value reported up to now. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Rashad M.M.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2012

Bismuth orthoferrite (BiFeO 3) nanoparticles have been synthesized via the co-precipitation and the oxalate precursor methods. Effects of Bi source, annealing temperature, Bi/Fe molar ratio, oxalic acid ratio and Mn2? ion on the crystal structure, crystallite size, microstructure and magnetic properties of the produced powders were systematically studied. The results revealed that bismuth oxychloride and iron oxide were formed using chlorides sources. A single phase of BiFeO 3 was formed from asmade samples with Bi/Fe molar ratio 1.1 using nitrate sources and annealed at 500 and 600 °C for 2 h via the two pathways. The pure BiFeO 3 phase appeared as spherical and pseudocubic-like structure using the co-precipitation and the oxalic acid precursor routes, respectively. A high saturation magnetization (3.94 emu/g) was achieved for powder formed from the oxalate precursor route with Bi/Fe molar ratio 1.0 annealed at 600 °C for 2 h as the result of the formation of Bi 25FeO 39. Moreover, Mn 2+ ion addition affected BiFeO 3 properties due to the formation of Bi 2Fe 2Mn 2O 10. Hence, the saturation magnetization and the coercive force of BiFeO 3 were improved substantially by substitution of Mn 2+ ions (BiFe1-XMnXO 3, X = 0.1-0.2). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Harraz F.A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics | Year: 2011

Fabrication of porous silicon layers using the electrochemical technique followed by filling the nanopores with a group of conducting polymers is investigated. Our findings revealed that the deposition of polymer proceeds homogeneously inside the nanopores strating from the pore bottom and propagates into the outer surface. The polymerization process was conducted and controlled by the potentiostatic and galvanostatic modes with charactarestic, defined polymerization stages. As-formed hybrid nanocomposites were charactarized using different analytical techniques. Polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene were tested in this study. By selective dissolution of porous silicon template, polymeric nanowires were obtained. The fabrication process, the electrochemical measurements and the porous silicon filling mechanism with polymer are throughly addressed and discussed. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ismail A.A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2012

Ag nanoparticles highly dispersed into TiO2 thin films are synthesized via a remarkably simple one-pot route in the presence of a P123 triblock copolymer as template directing and reducing agents, where the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 by in situ heat-induced reduction through the oxidation of template at 400 °C and the controlled polymerization of TiO2 take place simultaneously. The obtained mesoporous Ag/TiO2 films deposited on soda-lime glass were optically transparent and crack-free. SEM and Kr adsorption clearly prove that Ag/TiO 2 films at different Ag contents are mesoporous with large surface area and regularly ordered mesopores and the thickness of the obtained films is ∼280 ± 20 nm. The pristine TiO2 film exhibits a specific surface area of 63 cm2/cm2 and specific pore volume of 0.013 mm3/cm2 that it is decreased to 42 cm 2/cm2 and 0.010 mm3/cm2 respectively as a result of Ag-loaded mesoporous TiO2. The newly prepared photocatalysts Ag/TiO2 films were evaluated for their photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol as a model reaction. It was found that the meso-ordered Ag/TiO2 films are more photoactive 8 times than nonporous commercial photocatalysts Pilkington Glass Activ™. The recycling tests indicated that Ag/TiO2 films was quite stable during that liquid-solid heterogeneous photocatalysis since no significant decrease in activity was observed even after being used repetitively for 10 times, showing a good potential in practical application. In general, the cubic mesoporous Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites are stable and can be recycled without loss of their photochemical activity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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