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Horner D.,Royal Infirmary | Horner D.,University of Manchester | Hogg K.,Thrombosis Group | Body R.,Royal Infirmary | And 4 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2012

Background: Half of all lower limb deep vein thrombi (DVT) in symptomatic ambulatory patients are located in the distal (calf) veins. While proximal disease warrants therapeutic anticoagulation to reduce the associated risks, distal DVT often goes untreated. However, a proportion of untreated distal disease will undoubtedly propagate or embolize. Concern also exists that untreated disease could lead to long-term post thrombotic changes. Currently, it is not possible to predict which distal thrombi will develop such complications. Whether these potential risks outweigh those associated with unrestricted anticoagulation remains unclear. The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT) trial aims to compare therapeutic anticoagulation against conservative management for patients with acute symptomatic distal deep vein thrombosis.Methods: ACT is a pragmatic, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Adult patients diagnosed with acute distal DVT will be allocated to either therapeutic anticoagulation or conservative management. All patients will undergo 3 months of clinical and assessor blinded sonographic follow-up, followed by 2-year final review. The project will commence initially as an external pilot study, recruiting over a 16-month period at a single center to assess feasibility measures and clinical event rates. Primary outcome measures will assess feasibility endpoints. Secondary clinical outcomes will be collected to gather accurate data for the design of a definitive clinical trial and will include: (1) a composite endpoint combining thrombus propagation to the popliteal vein or above, development of symptomatic pulmonary embolism or sudden death attributable to venous thromboembolic disease; (2) the incidence of major and minor bleeding episodes; (3) the incidence of post-thrombotic leg syndrome at 2 years using a validated screening tool; and (4) the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence at 2 years.Discussion: The ACT trial will explore the feasibility of comparing therapeutic anticoagulation to conservative management in acute distal DVT, within a modern cohort. We also aim to provide contemporary data on clot propagation, bleeding rates and long-term outcomes within both groups. These results will inform the conduct of a definitive study if feasibility is established.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75175695. © 2012 Horner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Dignan F.L.,Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust | Wynn R.F.,Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital | Hadzic N.,Kings College | Karani J.,Kings College | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (BSBMT) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of veno-occlusive disease of the liver following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This guideline includes recommendations for both prophylaxis and treatment of the condition and includes recommendations for children and adults undergoing HSCT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Bagabir R.,University of Manchester | Byers R.J.,Royal Infirmary | Chaudhry I.H.,Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust | Muller W.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background Keloid disease (KD) is a common fibroproliferative disorder of unknown aetiology. T cells and macrophages are increased in KD and are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. However, while a link between inflammation and fibrotic disorders is well known for other disorders, it remains undetermined in KD. Objectives Systematically to immunophenotype the inflammatory infiltrate of KD in situ in a site-specific manner, and to compare this with normal skin and scar tissue. Methods Sixty-eight keloid cases were screened for the presence of all three (intralesional, perilesional and extralesional) keloid-associated specific tissue sites. Subsequently, a complete set of 25 keloid biopsies (from different patients) was compared with normal skin (n = 11) and normal scar (n = 11) samples and subjected to systematic, site-specific quantitative immunohistomorphometry and histochemistry, using a range of immunological markers of B cells, T cells, macrophages, mast cells (MCs) and Langerhans cells. Results T cells, B cells, degranulated and mature MCs (coexpressing OX40 ligand) and alternative macrophages (M2) were all significantly increased in intralesional and perilesional KD sites compared with normal skin and scar tissue (P < 0·05). Additionally, 10 of 68 KD cases (15%) showed the presence of distinctive lymphoid aggregates, which resembled mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Conclusions The increased number and activity of MCs and M2 may implicate inflammation in the fibrotic process in KD. The distinct KD-associated lymphoid aggregate resembles MALT, for which we propose the term 'keloid-associated lymphoid tissue' (KALT). It may perpetuate inflammatory stimuli that promote KD growth. KALT, MCs and M2 are promising novel targets for future KD therapy. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

Galloway J.B.,University of Manchester | Hyrich K.L.,University of Manchester | Mercer L.K.,University of Manchester | Dixon W.G.,University of Manchester | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Objectives: To evaluate the risk of septic arthritis (SA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Methods: Using data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register, a prospective observational study, the authors compared the risk of SA between 11 881 anti-TNF-treated and 3673 non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (nbDMARD)- treated patients. Results: 199 patients had at least one episode of SA (anti-TNF:179, nbDMARD:20). Incidence rates were: anti-TNF 4.2/1000 patient years (pyrs) follow-up (95% CI 3.6 to 4.8), nbDMARD 1.8/1000 pyrs (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7). The adjusted HR for SA in the anti-TNF cohort was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.4). The risk did not differ significantly between the three agents: adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab. The risk was highest in the early months of therapy. The patterns of reported organisms differed in the anti-TNF cohort. Prior joint replacement surgery was a risk factor for SA in all patients. The rate of postoperative joint infection (within 90 days of surgery) was 0.7%. This risk was not significantly influenced by anti-TNF therapy. Conclusions: Anti-TNF therapy use in RA is associated with a doubling in the risk of SA. Physicians and surgeons assessing the RA patient should be aware of this potentially life-threatening complication.

Harries M.J.,University of Manchester | Meyer K.,University of Lubeck | Chaudhry I.,Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust | E Kloepper J.,University of Lubeck | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown pathogenesis that leads to permanent hair loss. Whilst destruction of epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) that reside in an immunologically protected niche of the HF epithelium, the bulge, is a likely key event in LPP pathogenesis, this remains to be demonstrated. We have tested the hypotheses that bulge immune privilege (IP) collapse and inflammation-induced eHFSC death are key components in the pathogenesis of LPP. Biopsies of lesional and non-lesional scalp skin from adult LPP patients (n = 42) were analysed by quantitative (immuno)histomorphometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, or skin organ culture. At both the protein and transcriptional level, lesional LPP HFs showed evidence for bulge IP collapse (ie increased expression of MHC class I and II, β2microglobulin; reduced TGFβ2 and CD200 expression). This was accompanied by a Th1-biased cytotoxic T cell response (ie increased CD8 + GranzymeB+ T cells and CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells, with increased CXCR3 expression) and increased expression of interferon-inducible chemokines (CXCL9/10/11). Interestingly, lesional LPP eHFSCs showed both increased proliferation and apoptosis in situ. Microarray analysis revealed a loss of eHFSC signatures and increased expression of T cell activation/binding markers in active LPP, while bulge PPARγ transcription was unaltered compared to non-lesional LPP HFs. In organ culture of non-lesional LPP skin, interferon-γ (IFNγ) induced bulge IP collapse. LPP is an excellent model disease for studying and preventing immune destruction of human epithelial stem cells in situ. These novel findings raise the possibility that LPP represents an autoimmune disease in whose pathogenesis IFNγ-induced bulge IP collapse plays an important role. Therapeutically, bulge IP protection/restoration may help to better manage this highly treatment-resistant cicatricial alopecia. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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