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Manchester, United Kingdom

Kwok C.S.,Royal Infirmary | Umar S.,Central Manchester Foundation Trust | Myint P.K.,University of Aberdeen | Mamas M.A.,University of Manchester | Loke Y.K.,University of East Anglia
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Background Dietary interventions are an important component of cardiovascular risk factor management although their impact on cardiovascular risk and mortality remains uncertain. We have studied influence of a vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk and mortality.Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for comparative studies that evaluated clinical outcomes associated with vegetarian diet as compared to non-vegetarian controls or the general population. Relevant studies were pooled using random effects meta-analysis for risk of death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease. We conducted subgroup analysis according to specific type of cohort (e.g. Seventh Day Adventist [SDA]) and gender.Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria with 183,321 participants (n = 183,321). There was significant heterogeneity in all the meta-analyses, particularly evident with the studies of SDA. In all instances, we found that SDA studies showed greater effect size as compared to non-SDA studies: death (RR 0.68 95% CI 0.45-1.02 vs RR 1.04 95% CI 0.98-1.10), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (RR 0.60 95% CI 0.43-0.80 vs RR 0.84 95% CI 0.74-0.96) and cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.71 95% CI 0.41-1.20 vs RR 1.05 95% CI 0.89-1.24). Sex specific analyses showed that IHD was significantly reduced in both genders but risk of death and cerebrovascular disease was only significantly reduced in men.Conclusions Data from observational studies indicates that there is modest cardiovascular benefit, but no clear reduction in overall mortality associated with a vegetarian diet. This evidence of benefit is driven mainly by studies in SDA, whereas the effect of vegetarian diet in other cohorts remains unproven. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Husain N.,University of Manchester | Rahman A.,University of Liverpool | Husain M.,Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust | Khan S.M.,Central Manchester Foundation Trust | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health | Year: 2014

Recent reports suggest that antenatal depression is as prevalent as postnatal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used tool to detect postnatal depression, which can also detect depression during the antenatal period. Mothers of Pakistani origin have the highest birth rate in the UK. The validity of EPDS has not been assessed in this group. A prospective cohort of 714 women in their third trimester of pregnancy completed the EPDS while waiting for their antenatal visit. Women scoring 12 or more on the EPDS, and a random sample of low scores were assessed with the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry to establish psychiatric diagnosis. A cut-off point of 8 showed the best discrimination with sensitivity = 89.6 % and specificity 54.7 %. Positive predictive value was 29.4 and negative predictive value was 96.2. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.72 (0.66–0.78). When language is taken into account the area under the ROC curve for subjects who preferred the Urdu or Punjabi language is slightly higher at 0.79 than those who preferred English (0.61). We have not been able to find a single clear cut-off is a result of the AUCs not being particularly large, and confirms that the EPDS should only be used as a screen and not for diagnostic purposes. The larger AUC for the Urdu/Punjabi speakers than for the English speakers suggests that the EPDS is as good a screen for this group as for the indigenous English population. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Eyden B.,Christie NHS Foundation Trust | Curry A.,Central Manchester Foundation Trust | Wang G.,Christie NHS Foundation Trust | Wang G.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011

The free spindled cells of the lamina propria of the gut have been reported as showing fibroblastic, smooth-muscle and myofibroblastic differentiation. A precise understanding of the differentiation of these cells is essential for appreciating their functions, and this paper addresses this question using ultrastructural analysis. Histologically normal samples from different areas of the gastrointestinal tract were studied. Both subepithelial stromal cells, lying immediately beneath the basal lamina, and the deeper interstitial stromal cells, were studied. Subepithelial and interstitial cells had comparable features, reinforcing the idea that these formed a single reticulum of cells. Two major cell types were identified. Some were smooth-muscle cells, on the basis of abundant myofilaments with focal densities, glycogen, an irregular cell surface, focal lamina and multiple attachment plaques alternating with plasmalemmal caveolae. Some cells had a lesser expression of these markers, especially of myofilaments, and were regarded as poorly differentiated smooth-muscle cells and descriptively referred to as 'myoid'. Other cells were fibroblastic to judge by prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum, an absence of myofilaments and lamina, but presence of focal adhesions. The fibronexus junctions of true myofibroblasts were not seen. The study emphasises that the smooth-muscle actin immunoreactivity in this anatomical site resides in smooth-muscle cells and not in myofibroblasts, a view consistent with earlier ultrastructural and immunostaining results. The recognition that these cells are showing smooth-muscle or fibroblastic but not true myofibroblastic differentiation should inform our understanding of the function of these cells. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Hennayake S.,Central Manchester Foundation Trust
Journal of Pediatric Urology | Year: 2010

Introduction: Two children presented with malignant hypertension due to complex reno-vascular malformations. The 7-min video shows the use of prone retroperitoneoscopy in both. Patient 1: A 6-year-old girl presented with convulsions and malignant hypertension. Captopril DMSA was suggestive of right renal artery stenosis. On formal angiography, the kidney was perfused by what appeared to be an arterio-venous malformation. The renal artery was hypoplastic and there were pulsatile vessels along the ureter due to the gonadal periureteric and gonadal inferior capsular collateral supply to the kidney. The kidney could be devascularized easily by controlling these. Patient 2: A 14-month-old boy presented with 6-month history of poor appetite, weight loss and irritability. Formal angiography showed acute obstruction of the main upper pole branch. The vessels to the upper pole could be clearly seen and controlled at surgery for partial right nephrectomy. He recovered with no urine leak or bleeding. Conclusion: Gravity kept the renal vessels under stretch allowing excellent two-hand dissection and the space was adequate for suture closure of a calyx in Case 2. The prone approach provides excellent exposure of the renal blood vessels, aorta and vena cava, and seems to be the most suitable for complex renal vascular malformations. © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company.

Chew C.,The Kellgren Center for Rheumatology | Pemberton P.W.,Central Manchester Foundation Trust | Husain A.A.-M.,The Kellgren Center for Rheumatology | Husain A.A.-M.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2013

Objectives: In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually estimated using the modified Cockcroft-Gault (mCG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. We aimed to study cystatin C (sCysC) in SLE to assess its agreement with standard renal indices and investigate factors affecting sCysC in SLE. Methods: SLE patients (=4 ACR criteria) and healthy women from Greater Manchester were recruited and clinical assessments were undertaken. SCysC was measured using R&D Systems' ELISA. Agreement between renal measures was assessed using Deming plots and factors associated with sCysC in SLE were examined by multiple linear regression analyses. Results: 178 patients and 68 controls had median (IQR) ages of 53 (46-61) and 50 (39-60) years, respectively. In an age-adjusted analysis, SLE patients had higher sCysC (1.16 [0.98-1.36] vs. 0.950 [0.73-1.13] mg/l; p<0.0001) and within SLE those with a history of lupus nephritis had higher sCysC (1.31 [1.10-1.66] vs. 1.11 [0.95-1.29] mg/l; p<0.005). SCysC correlated positively with serum creatinine, and inversely to renal measures (r=-0.530; p<0.0001 [mCG], and r=-0.620; p<0.0001 [MDRD]). There was closer agreement between the two eGFR measures than between either eGFR measures and sCysC. In addition to age and serum creatinine, a multivariate analysis (β, p) found that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (0.03, 0.026) was also independently associated with sCysC in SLE. Conclusion: In SLE, sCysC may be influenced by low grade inflammation as well as by renal dysfunction. Therefore, SCysC should not supplant current assessment of renal dysfunction in SLE. © Clinical and experimental rheumatology 2013.

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