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Szydlowski A.,National Center for Nuclear Research andrzeja Soltana 7 | Szydlowski A.,Poland Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion | Malinowska A.,National Center for Nuclear Research andrzeja Soltana 7 | Szewczak K.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection CLOR | And 4 more authors.
Radiation Measurements | Year: 2015

This paper presents the results of the influence of soft X-ray radiation on craters induced in SSNTDs by energetic α particles and protons of energy in the MeV range. We checked two detectors of the PM-355 and CR-39 types in order to verify and compare their resistance to the harsh conditions of high-temperature plasma experiments. To determine this effect some detector samples were first irradiated with α particles emitted from natural α particle sources and protons delivered by a particle accelerator. After that these samples were exposed to soft X ray radiation emitted from an X ray tube and also from the PF-1000 Plasma Focus facility. Doses during X ray irradiations varied from 0 up to tens of kGy. The irradiated samples were then etched in steps and track diameters were determined versus the absorbed dose and etching time and compared with those measured in samples not exposed to X ray radiation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kopec R.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Budzanowski M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Olko P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Gieszczyk W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Szewczak K.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection CLOR
Radiation Measurements | Year: 2011

Using a two-dimensional thermo luminescent (TL) system consisting of MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) TL detectors and self-developed TLD reader with a CCD camera (TL-CCD reader) a method of distinguishing between static and dynamic radiation exposure to X-rays was developed. MCP-N TL detectors installed in the RADOS dosimetry badge were covered with non-uniform Pb and Cu filters. Quantitative identification of the static exposure cases was performed by analyzing the distribution of pixel intensity in the images obtained in the TL-CCD reader (Kopec et al., 2010). We demonstrate the possibility of automatically distinguishing cases of static exposure for doses as low as 5 mSv, up to mean X-ray energies of 250 keV and for exposure angles up to 60°. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Michalik B.,Central Mining Institute of Poland | Brown J.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | Krajewski P.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection CLOR
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2013

In contrast to the monitoring and prevention of occupational radiation risk caused by enhanced natural radioactivity, relatively little attention has been paid to the environmental impact associated with residues containing enhanced activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides. Such materials are often deposited directly into the environment, a practice which is strictly forbidden in the management of other types of radioactive waste. In view of the new trends in radiation protection, the need to consider the occurrence of anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity as a particular unique case of environmental hazard is quite apparent. Residues containing high activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides differ from radioactive materials arising from the nuclear industry. In addition, the radiation risk is usually combined with the risk caused by other pollutants. As such and to date, there are no precise regulations regarding this matter and moreover, the non-nuclear industry is often not aware of potential environmental problems caused by natural radioactivity. This article discusses aspects of environmental radiation risks caused by anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity stored at unauthorised sites. Difficulties and inconclusiveness in the application of recommendations and models for radiation risk assessment are explored. General terms such as "environmental effects" and the basic parameters necessary to carry out consistent and comparable Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) have been developed and defined. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Martinelli G.,ARPA Emilia Romagna | Solecki A.T.,Wroclaw University | Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz D.E.,Wroclaw University | Piekarz M.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection CLOR | Karolina Grudzinska K.,Wroclaw University of Technology
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2015

Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification, evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on the earth's surface could be measured by satellite techniques capable of measuring thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies have found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes, hence satellite techniques are widely used in research into the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations in SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes, such as the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or because of radon. In particular, ionization processes due to radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of radon in the thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory-controlled atmospheric volume. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Szumska A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Budzanowski M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Kopec R.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Olko P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ciupek K.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection CLOR
Radiation Measurements | Year: 2013

Following the recent ICRP recommendation to decrease the limit of occupational exposure to the eye lens from 150 mSv to 20 mSv/year, a dedicated individual eye-lens dosemeter, EYE-D™, was developed at the IFJ PAN. This dosemeter uses MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescent detectors covered with a polyamide capsule and was so far optimized to achieve a flat photon energy and angular response for X-ray exposures typical in interventional radiology. To verify the applicability of this eye-lens dosemeter in external β-ray fields which arise, e.g. in nuclear medicine procedures, we measured and calculated its β-ray energy and angular response. Measurements, applying β-rays from Sr-90/Y-90 isotope, were performed at the Beta Secondary Standard type 2 (BSS 2) in CLOR. Calculations, using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo transport code which simulates coupled electron and photon transport in arbitrary materials, were performed for P-32, K-42 and Sr-90/Y-90 fields to simulate doses received by the eye lens within the human body. PENELOPE Monte Carlo transport code was also used to calculate doses received with EYE-D™ detectors. We found good agreement between the measured and calculated energy and angular responses which confirms the suitability of this dosemeter in assessing Hp(3) to estimate the eye lens. Obtained results and conclusions, however preliminary, conform with current ICRP recommendations when performing individual radiation protection dosimetry in external β-ray fields occurring in nuclear industry and nuclear medicine activities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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