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Sterlinski S.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection
Radiochimica Acta

It is argued that in the recent papers by A. Vivier and J. Aupiais (Radiochim. Acta 95, 471 (2007) and 96, 385 (2008)) some relevant probability distributions are incorrectly composed. The argument is supported by applying the Feller and Markov formulae. © Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München. Source

Szewczak K.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection | Jednorog S.,Poland Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion
Physica Scripta

The Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion operates the biggest plasma focus device built so far in the world. It is identified as DPF-1000 U (Dense Plasma Focus Upgrade). The plasma produced by the described device constitutes a pulse of highly effective neutron source with the neutron yield ranging up to 1012 n per impulse. The precise composition of the stainless steel from which the vacuum chamber of the plasma focus device is made, was determined by neutron activation analysis. It was found that nuclear reactions that occur inside the stainless steel are mainly (n, γ), (n, p) and (n, α) reactions. Taking into consideration the neutron energy spectrum and the material composition, 63 nuclear reactions leading to vacuum chamber material activation were identified in total. It was observed that in the first hour after shut-down, the main activity comes from 59Fe and 59Ni isotopes. One year after the shut-down, the main contribution to the observed radioactivity of the experimental chamber material was related to the presence of 54Mn isotope, while after 10 years the only significant contribution to the activity will be made by molybdenum isotopes such as 93mMo and 99Mo. © 2014 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Source

Szewczak K.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection | Jednorog S.,Poland Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

This paper focuses on radiation exposures to researchers and technicians involved in fusion research. It is the second article in the series on this topic. It discusses immediate exposures to the ionizing radiation that is generated immediately during fusion research performed on the PF-1000, a dense magnetized plasma generator that is the world’s largest. © 2015, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

Szewczak K.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection | Jednorog S.,Poland Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion
Central European Journal of Physics

Plasma research poses a radiation hazard. Due to the program of deuterium plasma research using the PF-1000 device, it is an intensive source of neutrons (up to 1011 n · pulse -1) with energy of 2,45 MeV and ionizing electromagnetic radiation with a broad energy spectrum. Both types of radiation are mostly emitted in ultra-short pulses (∼100 ns). The aim of this work was to test and calibrate the RSS-131 radiometer for its application in measurements of ultra-short electromagnetic radiation pulses with broad energy spectrum emitted during PF-1000 discharge. In addition, the results of raw measurements performed in the control room are presented. © 2014 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Jaworowski Z.,Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection
Human and Experimental Toxicology

Personal reflections on radiation hormesis for the past 50 years are presented. The causes of ignoring and rejections of this phenomenon by international and national bodies and by radiation protection establishment are analyzed. The opposition against nuclear weapons and preparations for nuclear war was probably the main factor in inducing the concern for adverse effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, a byproduct of activism against the nuclear weapon tests. UNSCEAR was deeply involved in preparation of the scientific basis for cessation of nuclear test, and contributed to elaboration of the LNT assumption, which is in contradiction with the hormetic phenomenon. However, this authoritative body recognized also the existence of radiation hormesis, termed as 'adaptive response.' The political and vested interests behind exclusion of hormesis from the current risk assessment methodology are discussed. Source

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