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Bohra P.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Bohra P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Waman A.A.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Waman A.A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

The commercial scale banana multiplication through micropropagation is concentrated mainly on the Cavendish group of bananas. Other varieties, though possess a wide array of desirable characters, have been conveniently neglected owing to their inherent problems such as difficult aseptic establishment, low multiplication rate, culture browning, difficult hardening, etc. The mixed diploid bananas including the Ney Poovan are among the choicest of bananas relished in many parts of the world. To promote its cultivation, systematic studies were undertaken and the lines possessing superior attributes have been identified. In order to multiply the clones in large number, a viable multiplication protocol is a must. The present study dealt with optimizing the plant growth regulator requirements of the growing cultures for obtaining superior multiplication and in vitro rooting. Out of the different cytokinins as benzyl aminopurine, 2-isopentenyl adenine, meta topolin (mT), and thidiazuron (TDZ) tested, only TDZ was found to promote shoot multiplication in both types of propagules i.e. single and double bud explants, although shorter plantlets were noticed in the treatment. In vitro root induction parameters were found to be superior when indole butyric acid was used as auxin source. This report could help in improving the multiplication rate of this least attempted group of bananas. As per the present knowledge it is the first report on the use of TDZ and mT in mixed diploid banana. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Velmurugan A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Swarnam T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Ambast S.K.,Indian Institute of Water Management | Kumar N.,University of Bonn
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

Soil and water salinity, waterlogging, and a lack of good quality irrigation water are the principal constraints affecting the productivity of the coastal areas in the humid tropical region. The present study was conducted at four sites in the coastal lowlands of the Andaman Islands to assess the impact of a permanent raised bed and furrow (RBF) system on waterlogging and salinity. The RBF system improved the drainage of the raised beds, maintained a favorable soil moisture content, harvested rain water to a maximum depth of 120 cm, and prevented the entry of tidal and runoff water into the furrow. Between the years 2009 and 2014, the soil salinity in the raised beds was reduced by 85% from the initial level of 10.9 dS m-1 during three distinct phases namely, the lag phase, the leaching phase and the equilibrium phase which were recognized based on their rate of reduction of salinity Similarly significant reductions were observed in seasonal variations and in the vertical salinity gradient. Interannual variations in salinity closely followed the rainfall pattern, particularly during the dry period. The data showed significant reduction in the concentration of soluble ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+ + Mg2+, Cl- and SO4 2-). In addition, over the years the salinity and sodium toxicity in the furrow water decreased and became suitable for irrigation and fish culture. In contrast, the coastal lowlands adjoining the RBF system experienced waterlogging (5-81 cm) and high levels of salinity (3.0-9.1 dS m-1), which closely corresponded with the rainfall patterns. Multiple linear regression models were developed to predict the surface soil salinity of the RBF system separately for the monsoon (r2 = 0.56) and dry seasons (r2 = 0.63). Waterlogging and salinity peaks in different seasons require a different management strategy, but the RBF system was effective in addressing this challenge together. The findings from this study would equally apply to other humid tropical coastal regions, provided that considerations are given to the inherent soil properties and the local hydrology. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sahu S.K.,Annamalai University | Singh R.,Annamalai University | Singh R.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Kathiresan K.,Annamalai University
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2016

Mangroves are taxonomically diverse group of salt-tolerant, mainly arboreal, flowering plants that grow in tropical and sub-tropical regions and have adapted themselves to thrive in such obdurate surroundings. While evolution is often understood exclusively in terms of adaptation, innovation often begins when a feature adapted for one function is co-opted for a different purpose and the co-opted features are called exaptations. Thus, one of the fundamental issues is what features of mangroves have evolved through exaptation. We attempt to address these questions through molecular phylogenetic approach using chloroplast and nuclear markers. First, we determined if these mangroves specific traits have evolved multiple times in the phylogeny. Once the multiple origins were established, we then looked at related non-mangrove species for characters that could have been co-opted by mangrove species. We also assessed the efficacy of these molecular sequences in distinguishing mangroves at the species level. This study revealed the multiple origin of mangroves and shed light on the ancestral characters that might have led certain lineages of plants to adapt to estuarine conditions and also traces the evolutionary history of mangroves and hitherto unexplained theory that mangroves traits (aerial roots and viviparous propagules) evolved as a result of exaptation rather than adaptation to saline habitats. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Velmurugan A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Velmurugan A.,Ohio State University | Swarnam T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Lal R.,Ohio State University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami severely damaged the coastal ecosystems of the Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar. Restoring coastal ecosystems and degraded soils of these islands is essential to provisioning of numerous ecosystem services for the native islanders and ecological functions and services of these hotspots of biodiversity. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the impact of bunding and broad bed and furrow (BBF) systems in restoring the productivity of tsunami inundated coastal areas of southern Andaman. Bunding of agricultural land leached out the salts by impounding of rainwater with significant reduction in electrical conductivity (ECe), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and exchangeable ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2++Mg2+, Cl- and SO4 2-). The BBF system installed in the low lying waterlogged areas improved the drainage of the beds, harvested rain water (4476m3ha-1), prevented entry of tidal and runoff water into the furrow, and reduced the overall salinity. In addition, microbial biomass carbon was significantly improved (193-210mgkg-1soil). Whereas the low lying areas were inundated during the 20 to 45th standard meteorological week by 25 to 85cm of water, soils under BBF systems were adequately drained and had moisture content between field capacity and the saturation level. The depth of submergence (R2=0.798) and soil salinity (R2=-0.787) were correlated with the rainfall amount. Consequently, the BBF systems enabled a higher cropping intensity (218%), increased fish production (2.32Mgha-1) and water productivity (47.36Rsm-3) and enhanced employment generation (213 man days). These land forming interventions must be up scaled to tsunami-affected, low lying areas of Andaman and elsewhere in southeastern Asia. © 2015.


Krishnamurthy S.L.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma P.C.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Sharma D.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Salinity is known to reduce rice yield in ecosystems prone to salt stress. Seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature require development of rice varieties with differential salinity tolerance. Evaluation of breeding lines under varying salinity levels will help to identify appropriate genotypes for similar salt affected areas. A set of 34 genetically and geographically diverse, representative rice genotypes was evaluated in non-stress moderate sodic (pH. ∼. 9.5), high sodic (pH. ∼. 9.9) and high saline (EC. ∼. 10. dS/m) stress environments with three replications in controlled micro-plots/lysimeters for two wet seasons of 2011 and 2012. The stress intensity (SI) for grain yield under moderate sodic, high sodic and high saline environments as compared to non-stress was 0.28, 0.77 and 0.56, respectively. Compared to the non-stress, the per cent grain yield reduction under moderate sodicity ranged from 7 (IR78806-B-B-16-1-2-2-AJY1) to 76% (Pusa 44), while under high sodicity and high salinity, it ranged from 44 (CSR 27) to 97% (PR 120) and 28 (CSR-RIL-50) to 91% (Pusa 44) respectively. Amongst the genotypes evaluated, highest stress tolerance indices (STI) were noticed in genotype CSR 36 (2.17, 1.27 and 1.15 in moderate sodicity, high sodicity and high salinity, respectively), whereas the lowest STI was recorded in genotype NDR 359 (0.27 and 0.05 in moderate sodicity, high sodicity) and TR-2000-008 (0.18 in high salinity). Similarly, genotype CSR 36 registered the highest geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP) in all stress conditions. The biplot analysis of grain yield showed that the stress tolerance attributes MP, GMP, STI and grain yield favored salt tolerant genotypes CSR 23, CSR 27, CSR 36, CSR-RIL-197, HKR 127 and IR60997-16-2-3-2-2R. The sensitive genotypes PR 113, PR 114, PR 118, PR 120, Pusa 44, TR-2000-008 and VSR 156 were favored by other indices TOL and SSI. Thus, a combination of salt stress indices helps in selection of stable rice genotypes for reproductive stage salt tolerance. Selection based on salt stress indices coupled with trait correlation resulted in the identification of high yielding reproductive stage salt tolerant genotypes viz. CSR 36, CSR 23, CSR 27 and CSR-RIL-197. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sunder J.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Tamilvanan S.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Kundu A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2015

An experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of feeding of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice (noni) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAB) and their combination in commercial broilers. Commercial broiler chicks were fed till 7 weeks of age as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). At day old age, chicks were randomly assigned to each of four water supplement treatments namely, T1 (5 mL noni juice/bird/day), T2 {5 mL (1×108 CFU mL-1) LAB/bird/day}, T3 (2.5 mL noni+2.5 mL LAB/bird/day) and T4 (control with basal diet only). The birds were maintained under deep litter system of rearing and provided with normal basal ration throughout the experiment period. Results revealed that broilers given with noni juice recorded significantly (p<0.05) higher mean body weight (451.9±17.1 and 1434.5±60.5 g) and weight gain (402.5±18.4 and 1391±60.3 g) at 21 and 49 days, respectively. Control group recorded significantly comparable body weight and weight gain. Feed efficiency was significantly (p<0.05) better (1.6 ±0.17) in noni group. Humoral immune response in noni+LAB group (0.73) was found to be significantly higher than control group (0.36) and other treatment groups (0.53) at one week post inoculation of Goat Red Blood Cells (GRBC). Noni and LAB groups showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in the coliform load. Treatment groups did not influence pH of intestine and carcass yield significantly. The feed consumption of the noni group was 10% lower than the other groups thus in turn it saved the feed cost of 5.39 per bird. Based on the present study, it is concluded that the feeding of Morinda citrifolia juice showed improved growth performance, high immune response, low gut microbial load and feed cost efficiency in commercial broilers and the combination of noni and LAB might be promising alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters to improve the production of safety poultry products. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.


Anantharaj A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Jeyakumar S.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sathya M.M.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sunder J.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is a medicinal plant widely distributed in the tropical regions of India, Indonesia and Malaysia and has a long history of treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes. The present investigation was designed to evaluate blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant effects in calves fed with M. citrifolia. A total of eight calves were divided into two groups as control (n = 4) and treatment (n = 4). The calves of treatment group were fed with fresh minced raw fruit (100 g/calf/day) and the calves in control group were fed with placebo. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks for estimation of biochemical parameters and to determine antioxidant activity. The crude extract of noni fruits significantly (P < .01) decreased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glucose and also decreased (P < .05) serum creatinine and urea. There was a reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) than control; however, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were dramatically increased (P < .01) in morinda-fed calves. The results of present preliminary study demonstrated hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effect of M. citrifolia in calves. The findings of this study could be exploited for stress amelioration and management of metabolic diseases in calves and cattle without adverse effects. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis


Deva Kumar K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Dam Roy S.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

A relatively high frequency occurrence of mutant soft endosperm coconuts called “Dahi nariyel” in the Andaman Ordinary Tall variety is reported. These coconut types are similar to the popular “macapuno” coconuts. Embryo culture is the only method to propagate such novel mutants. We generated few plantlets in Y3 media through embryo rescue. Germination of embryo commenced in a month’s time and the seedlings got developed into a three leaf stage plantlet in about 9 months. The scope of these coconut types for the islands and local prosperity is presented. © 2014, Indian J. Genet. All right reserved.


Velmurugan A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Swarnam T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sai T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Dam Roy S.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2015

The Nicobari tribes are the largest tribal group inhabiting Nicobar Islands who are well educated and advanced than many of their counterparts in these Islands and in mainland India. The main economic activity of the Nicobari tribe is agriculture and coconut plantation occupies majority of the agricultural area in these Islands. The present study encompasses a glimpse of a folk knowledge gleaned through survey on farming and post harvest processing of coconut a main source of livelihood activity of the tribals. The knowledge gained and passed on to the generations is vital for their livelihood and some of them are found relevant even today. The tribals practice a form of natural farming with minimum disturbance to the soil and do replace the old and senile plants with new seedlings. In new plantation intercropping is allowed until the seedlings are established. They also have knowledge on different methods for drying copra based on the need and extraction of oil from coconut milk mainly used for sanitary purpose which is now called as virgin coconut oil. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


PubMed | Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of basic microbiology | Year: 2016

In the present study, a total of 70 Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of vegetable and spice crops that were grown in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Initial screening of Trichoderma spp. for salt tolerant properties showed 32 isolates were able to tolerate 10% NaCl. Furthermore, these isolates were screened for their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics such as IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Among 32 isolates, nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderophore, and solubilize phosphate. Jar trial was carried out on maize under axenic conditions at 1.67, 6.25, 11.25, 17.2, and 22.9dSm

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