Central Island Agricultural Research Institute

Port Blair, India

Central Island Agricultural Research Institute

Port Blair, India
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Sakthivel K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Dam Roy S.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Fourteen Ralstonia solanacearum strains from solanaceous vegetables on the Andaman Islands, India, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strains wilted their respective hosts within 1 to 3 weeks postinoculation. Virulence assays on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), brinjal (eggplant; S. melongena), and chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed that all strains were infective on all three hosts. However, tomato was more susceptible than eggplant and chili pepper. Strains were identified as R. solanacearum based on carbon substrate utilization profiling with Biolog similarity coefficients >0.82. Species identity was further confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA and recN gene sequence analysis. Intraspecific identification of strains revealed the presence of race 1 biovar 3 and race 1 biovar 4. Both biovars wilted plants with similar aggressiveness. All strains were identified as phylotype I, and multilocus sequence typing revealed that the strains belong to a small number of clonal complexes that also comprise strains from mainland India, especially West Bengal state and Kerala. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.


Tripathi P.,Gautam Buddha University | Swain S.N.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Plant Archives | Year: 2016

The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe, from Zingiberaceae family, are known to possess anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antihelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastro protective, and anti-diabetic properties. Its decoction is widely used to treat cough, stomach ache, respiratory ailments, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and diabetes in traditional system of medicine. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of cold ethanolic extract (CEE), cold methanolic extract (CME) and cold water extracts (CWE) of Alpinia calcarata from Andaman Islands were analysed. Highest IC50 value was found in ethanolic extract (36 μg/ml) suggesting high efficiency in quenching 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical followed by methanolic (142.5 μg/ml) and aqueous extract (176 μg/ml).


Kumar K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Manigundan K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Amaresan N.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Basic Microbiology | Year: 2017

In the present study, a total of 70 Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of vegetable and spice crops that were grown in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Initial screening of Trichoderma spp. for salt tolerant properties showed 32 isolates were able to tolerate 10% NaCl. Furthermore, these isolates were screened for their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics such as IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Among 32 isolates, nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderophore, and solubilize phosphate. Jar trial was carried out on maize under axenic conditions at 1.67, 6.25, 11.25, 17.2, and 22.9 dS m−1 salt stress using the best nine isolates. Three isolates (TRC3, NRT2, and THB3) were effective in improving germination percentage, reducing reduction percentage of germination (RPG) and also in increasing the shoot and root length under axenic conditions. These three isolates were further tested under pot trial at 52 (sea water), 27, 15, 7, and 1.67 dS m−1. TRC3 was found to be the most effective isolate compared to the other isolates and significantly increased the physiological parameters like shoot, root length, leaf area, total biomass, and stem and leaf fresh weight at all stress levels. Similarly, total chlorophyll content also increased by TRC3 over control. All three isolates, NRT2, TRC3, and THB3 showed lower accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content whereas, proline and phenol content were higher than the uninoculated control plants under both normal and saline conditions. The results suggest that these isolates could be utilized for the alleviation of salinity stress in maize. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Velmurugan A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Swarnam T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Ambast S.K.,Indian Institute of Water Management | Kumar N.,University of Bonn
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

Soil and water salinity, waterlogging, and a lack of good quality irrigation water are the principal constraints affecting the productivity of the coastal areas in the humid tropical region. The present study was conducted at four sites in the coastal lowlands of the Andaman Islands to assess the impact of a permanent raised bed and furrow (RBF) system on waterlogging and salinity. The RBF system improved the drainage of the raised beds, maintained a favorable soil moisture content, harvested rain water to a maximum depth of 120 cm, and prevented the entry of tidal and runoff water into the furrow. Between the years 2009 and 2014, the soil salinity in the raised beds was reduced by 85% from the initial level of 10.9 dS m-1 during three distinct phases namely, the lag phase, the leaching phase and the equilibrium phase which were recognized based on their rate of reduction of salinity Similarly significant reductions were observed in seasonal variations and in the vertical salinity gradient. Interannual variations in salinity closely followed the rainfall pattern, particularly during the dry period. The data showed significant reduction in the concentration of soluble ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+ + Mg2+, Cl- and SO4 2-). In addition, over the years the salinity and sodium toxicity in the furrow water decreased and became suitable for irrigation and fish culture. In contrast, the coastal lowlands adjoining the RBF system experienced waterlogging (5-81 cm) and high levels of salinity (3.0-9.1 dS m-1), which closely corresponded with the rainfall patterns. Multiple linear regression models were developed to predict the surface soil salinity of the RBF system separately for the monsoon (r2 = 0.56) and dry seasons (r2 = 0.63). Waterlogging and salinity peaks in different seasons require a different management strategy, but the RBF system was effective in addressing this challenge together. The findings from this study would equally apply to other humid tropical coastal regions, provided that considerations are given to the inherent soil properties and the local hydrology. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sahu S.K.,Annamalai University | Singh R.,Annamalai University | Singh R.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Kathiresan K.,Annamalai University
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2016

Mangroves are taxonomically diverse group of salt-tolerant, mainly arboreal, flowering plants that grow in tropical and sub-tropical regions and have adapted themselves to thrive in such obdurate surroundings. While evolution is often understood exclusively in terms of adaptation, innovation often begins when a feature adapted for one function is co-opted for a different purpose and the co-opted features are called exaptations. Thus, one of the fundamental issues is what features of mangroves have evolved through exaptation. We attempt to address these questions through molecular phylogenetic approach using chloroplast and nuclear markers. First, we determined if these mangroves specific traits have evolved multiple times in the phylogeny. Once the multiple origins were established, we then looked at related non-mangrove species for characters that could have been co-opted by mangrove species. We also assessed the efficacy of these molecular sequences in distinguishing mangroves at the species level. This study revealed the multiple origin of mangroves and shed light on the ancestral characters that might have led certain lineages of plants to adapt to estuarine conditions and also traces the evolutionary history of mangroves and hitherto unexplained theory that mangroves traits (aerial roots and viviparous propagules) evolved as a result of exaptation rather than adaptation to saline habitats. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Velmurugan A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Velmurugan A.,Ohio State University | Swarnam T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Lal R.,Ohio State University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami severely damaged the coastal ecosystems of the Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar. Restoring coastal ecosystems and degraded soils of these islands is essential to provisioning of numerous ecosystem services for the native islanders and ecological functions and services of these hotspots of biodiversity. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the impact of bunding and broad bed and furrow (BBF) systems in restoring the productivity of tsunami inundated coastal areas of southern Andaman. Bunding of agricultural land leached out the salts by impounding of rainwater with significant reduction in electrical conductivity (ECe), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and exchangeable ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2++Mg2+, Cl- and SO4 2-). The BBF system installed in the low lying waterlogged areas improved the drainage of the beds, harvested rain water (4476m3ha-1), prevented entry of tidal and runoff water into the furrow, and reduced the overall salinity. In addition, microbial biomass carbon was significantly improved (193-210mgkg-1soil). Whereas the low lying areas were inundated during the 20 to 45th standard meteorological week by 25 to 85cm of water, soils under BBF systems were adequately drained and had moisture content between field capacity and the saturation level. The depth of submergence (R2=0.798) and soil salinity (R2=-0.787) were correlated with the rainfall amount. Consequently, the BBF systems enabled a higher cropping intensity (218%), increased fish production (2.32Mgha-1) and water productivity (47.36Rsm-3) and enhanced employment generation (213 man days). These land forming interventions must be up scaled to tsunami-affected, low lying areas of Andaman and elsewhere in southeastern Asia. © 2015.


Krishnamurthy S.L.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma P.C.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Sharma D.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Salinity is known to reduce rice yield in ecosystems prone to salt stress. Seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature require development of rice varieties with differential salinity tolerance. Evaluation of breeding lines under varying salinity levels will help to identify appropriate genotypes for similar salt affected areas. A set of 34 genetically and geographically diverse, representative rice genotypes was evaluated in non-stress moderate sodic (pH. ∼. 9.5), high sodic (pH. ∼. 9.9) and high saline (EC. ∼. 10. dS/m) stress environments with three replications in controlled micro-plots/lysimeters for two wet seasons of 2011 and 2012. The stress intensity (SI) for grain yield under moderate sodic, high sodic and high saline environments as compared to non-stress was 0.28, 0.77 and 0.56, respectively. Compared to the non-stress, the per cent grain yield reduction under moderate sodicity ranged from 7 (IR78806-B-B-16-1-2-2-AJY1) to 76% (Pusa 44), while under high sodicity and high salinity, it ranged from 44 (CSR 27) to 97% (PR 120) and 28 (CSR-RIL-50) to 91% (Pusa 44) respectively. Amongst the genotypes evaluated, highest stress tolerance indices (STI) were noticed in genotype CSR 36 (2.17, 1.27 and 1.15 in moderate sodicity, high sodicity and high salinity, respectively), whereas the lowest STI was recorded in genotype NDR 359 (0.27 and 0.05 in moderate sodicity, high sodicity) and TR-2000-008 (0.18 in high salinity). Similarly, genotype CSR 36 registered the highest geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP) in all stress conditions. The biplot analysis of grain yield showed that the stress tolerance attributes MP, GMP, STI and grain yield favored salt tolerant genotypes CSR 23, CSR 27, CSR 36, CSR-RIL-197, HKR 127 and IR60997-16-2-3-2-2R. The sensitive genotypes PR 113, PR 114, PR 118, PR 120, Pusa 44, TR-2000-008 and VSR 156 were favored by other indices TOL and SSI. Thus, a combination of salt stress indices helps in selection of stable rice genotypes for reproductive stage salt tolerance. Selection based on salt stress indices coupled with trait correlation resulted in the identification of high yielding reproductive stage salt tolerant genotypes viz. CSR 36, CSR 23, CSR 27 and CSR-RIL-197. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sunder J.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Tamilvanan S.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Kundu A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2015

An experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of feeding of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice (noni) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAB) and their combination in commercial broilers. Commercial broiler chicks were fed till 7 weeks of age as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). At day old age, chicks were randomly assigned to each of four water supplement treatments namely, T1 (5 mL noni juice/bird/day), T2 {5 mL (1×108 CFU mL-1) LAB/bird/day}, T3 (2.5 mL noni+2.5 mL LAB/bird/day) and T4 (control with basal diet only). The birds were maintained under deep litter system of rearing and provided with normal basal ration throughout the experiment period. Results revealed that broilers given with noni juice recorded significantly (p<0.05) higher mean body weight (451.9±17.1 and 1434.5±60.5 g) and weight gain (402.5±18.4 and 1391±60.3 g) at 21 and 49 days, respectively. Control group recorded significantly comparable body weight and weight gain. Feed efficiency was significantly (p<0.05) better (1.6 ±0.17) in noni group. Humoral immune response in noni+LAB group (0.73) was found to be significantly higher than control group (0.36) and other treatment groups (0.53) at one week post inoculation of Goat Red Blood Cells (GRBC). Noni and LAB groups showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in the coliform load. Treatment groups did not influence pH of intestine and carcass yield significantly. The feed consumption of the noni group was 10% lower than the other groups thus in turn it saved the feed cost of 5.39 per bird. Based on the present study, it is concluded that the feeding of Morinda citrifolia juice showed improved growth performance, high immune response, low gut microbial load and feed cost efficiency in commercial broilers and the combination of noni and LAB might be promising alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters to improve the production of safety poultry products. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.


Anantharaj A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Jeyakumar S.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sathya M.M.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sunder J.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is a medicinal plant widely distributed in the tropical regions of India, Indonesia and Malaysia and has a long history of treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes. The present investigation was designed to evaluate blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant effects in calves fed with M. citrifolia. A total of eight calves were divided into two groups as control (n = 4) and treatment (n = 4). The calves of treatment group were fed with fresh minced raw fruit (100 g/calf/day) and the calves in control group were fed with placebo. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks for estimation of biochemical parameters and to determine antioxidant activity. The crude extract of noni fruits significantly (P < .01) decreased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glucose and also decreased (P < .05) serum creatinine and urea. There was a reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) than control; however, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were dramatically increased (P < .01) in morinda-fed calves. The results of present preliminary study demonstrated hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effect of M. citrifolia in calves. The findings of this study could be exploited for stress amelioration and management of metabolic diseases in calves and cattle without adverse effects. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis


PubMed | Central Island Agricultural Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of basic microbiology | Year: 2016

In the present study, a total of 70 Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of vegetable and spice crops that were grown in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Initial screening of Trichoderma spp. for salt tolerant properties showed 32 isolates were able to tolerate 10% NaCl. Furthermore, these isolates were screened for their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics such as IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Among 32 isolates, nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderophore, and solubilize phosphate. Jar trial was carried out on maize under axenic conditions at 1.67, 6.25, 11.25, 17.2, and 22.9dSm

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