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Krishnamurthy S.L.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Gautam R.K.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma P.C.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Sharma D.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Salinity is known to reduce rice yield in ecosystems prone to salt stress. Seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature require development of rice varieties with differential salinity tolerance. Evaluation of breeding lines under varying salinity levels will help to identify appropriate genotypes for similar salt affected areas. A set of 34 genetically and geographically diverse, representative rice genotypes was evaluated in non-stress moderate sodic (pH. ∼. 9.5), high sodic (pH. ∼. 9.9) and high saline (EC. ∼. 10. dS/m) stress environments with three replications in controlled micro-plots/lysimeters for two wet seasons of 2011 and 2012. The stress intensity (SI) for grain yield under moderate sodic, high sodic and high saline environments as compared to non-stress was 0.28, 0.77 and 0.56, respectively. Compared to the non-stress, the per cent grain yield reduction under moderate sodicity ranged from 7 (IR78806-B-B-16-1-2-2-AJY1) to 76% (Pusa 44), while under high sodicity and high salinity, it ranged from 44 (CSR 27) to 97% (PR 120) and 28 (CSR-RIL-50) to 91% (Pusa 44) respectively. Amongst the genotypes evaluated, highest stress tolerance indices (STI) were noticed in genotype CSR 36 (2.17, 1.27 and 1.15 in moderate sodicity, high sodicity and high salinity, respectively), whereas the lowest STI was recorded in genotype NDR 359 (0.27 and 0.05 in moderate sodicity, high sodicity) and TR-2000-008 (0.18 in high salinity). Similarly, genotype CSR 36 registered the highest geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP) in all stress conditions. The biplot analysis of grain yield showed that the stress tolerance attributes MP, GMP, STI and grain yield favored salt tolerant genotypes CSR 23, CSR 27, CSR 36, CSR-RIL-197, HKR 127 and IR60997-16-2-3-2-2R. The sensitive genotypes PR 113, PR 114, PR 118, PR 120, Pusa 44, TR-2000-008 and VSR 156 were favored by other indices TOL and SSI. Thus, a combination of salt stress indices helps in selection of stable rice genotypes for reproductive stage salt tolerance. Selection based on salt stress indices coupled with trait correlation resulted in the identification of high yielding reproductive stage salt tolerant genotypes viz. CSR 36, CSR 23, CSR 27 and CSR-RIL-197. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bohra P.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Bohra P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Waman A.A.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Waman A.A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

The commercial scale banana multiplication through micropropagation is concentrated mainly on the Cavendish group of bananas. Other varieties, though possess a wide array of desirable characters, have been conveniently neglected owing to their inherent problems such as difficult aseptic establishment, low multiplication rate, culture browning, difficult hardening, etc. The mixed diploid bananas including the Ney Poovan are among the choicest of bananas relished in many parts of the world. To promote its cultivation, systematic studies were undertaken and the lines possessing superior attributes have been identified. In order to multiply the clones in large number, a viable multiplication protocol is a must. The present study dealt with optimizing the plant growth regulator requirements of the growing cultures for obtaining superior multiplication and in vitro rooting. Out of the different cytokinins as benzyl aminopurine, 2-isopentenyl adenine, meta topolin (mT), and thidiazuron (TDZ) tested, only TDZ was found to promote shoot multiplication in both types of propagules i.e. single and double bud explants, although shorter plantlets were noticed in the treatment. In vitro root induction parameters were found to be superior when indole butyric acid was used as auxin source. This report could help in improving the multiplication rate of this least attempted group of bananas. As per the present knowledge it is the first report on the use of TDZ and mT in mixed diploid banana. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India. Source

Velmurugan A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Swarnam T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Ambast S.K.,Indian Institute of Water Management | Kumar N.,University of Bonn
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

Soil and water salinity, waterlogging, and a lack of good quality irrigation water are the principal constraints affecting the productivity of the coastal areas in the humid tropical region. The present study was conducted at four sites in the coastal lowlands of the Andaman Islands to assess the impact of a permanent raised bed and furrow (RBF) system on waterlogging and salinity. The RBF system improved the drainage of the raised beds, maintained a favorable soil moisture content, harvested rain water to a maximum depth of 120 cm, and prevented the entry of tidal and runoff water into the furrow. Between the years 2009 and 2014, the soil salinity in the raised beds was reduced by 85% from the initial level of 10.9 dS m-1 during three distinct phases namely, the lag phase, the leaching phase and the equilibrium phase which were recognized based on their rate of reduction of salinity Similarly significant reductions were observed in seasonal variations and in the vertical salinity gradient. Interannual variations in salinity closely followed the rainfall pattern, particularly during the dry period. The data showed significant reduction in the concentration of soluble ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+ + Mg2+, Cl- and SO4 2-). In addition, over the years the salinity and sodium toxicity in the furrow water decreased and became suitable for irrigation and fish culture. In contrast, the coastal lowlands adjoining the RBF system experienced waterlogging (5-81 cm) and high levels of salinity (3.0-9.1 dS m-1), which closely corresponded with the rainfall patterns. Multiple linear regression models were developed to predict the surface soil salinity of the RBF system separately for the monsoon (r2 = 0.56) and dry seasons (r2 = 0.63). Waterlogging and salinity peaks in different seasons require a different management strategy, but the RBF system was effective in addressing this challenge together. The findings from this study would equally apply to other humid tropical coastal regions, provided that considerations are given to the inherent soil properties and the local hydrology. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bohra P.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Bohra P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Waman A.A.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Waman A.A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Erwerbs-Obstbau | Year: 2015

Banana, one of the major staple food crops of the world, flowers round the year irrespective of the season. It gives the decisive flexibility to the grower for planning orchard operations as well as exploring the best marketing opportunities for the produce well in advance. Being a heavy feeder of nutrients and water, these inputs are critical to the success of banana cultivation especially at reproductive stage. Also, banana fruits are sensitive to many biotic and abiotic stresses which render them unsuitable for marketing. All these factors could be taken care of if phenological cycle of the crop is known to the grower. In Ney Poovan (Musa AB) banana, 58 plants were studied for parameters like days taken for floral initiation, anthesis, completion of female phase, fruit filling and total crop duration using BBCH scale. Inflorescence appeared after 311 days of planting and duration of reproductive stage varied between 124–147 days with average crop duration of 443 days. An account of the practical implications of this study has been discussed in detail. Further, another study was conducted in order to study the changes in the quality and storage behavior of the fruits harvested at different phases of bunch development (12–18 weeks after anthesis). Studies revealed that fruits harvested after 16 weeks of anthesis were more firm, exhibited maximum shelf life with minimum PLW and had highest TSS content amongst all the groups studied. The early as well as delayed harvesting rendered the fruits inferior in most of the parameters studied. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Velmurugan A.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Velmurugan A.,Ohio State University | Swarnam T.P.,Central Island Agricultural Research Institute | Lal R.,Ohio State University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami severely damaged the coastal ecosystems of the Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar. Restoring coastal ecosystems and degraded soils of these islands is essential to provisioning of numerous ecosystem services for the native islanders and ecological functions and services of these hotspots of biodiversity. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the impact of bunding and broad bed and furrow (BBF) systems in restoring the productivity of tsunami inundated coastal areas of southern Andaman. Bunding of agricultural land leached out the salts by impounding of rainwater with significant reduction in electrical conductivity (ECe), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and exchangeable ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2++Mg2+, Cl- and SO4 2-). The BBF system installed in the low lying waterlogged areas improved the drainage of the beds, harvested rain water (4476m3ha-1), prevented entry of tidal and runoff water into the furrow, and reduced the overall salinity. In addition, microbial biomass carbon was significantly improved (193-210mgkg-1soil). Whereas the low lying areas were inundated during the 20 to 45th standard meteorological week by 25 to 85cm of water, soils under BBF systems were adequately drained and had moisture content between field capacity and the saturation level. The depth of submergence (R2=0.798) and soil salinity (R2=-0.787) were correlated with the rainfall amount. Consequently, the BBF systems enabled a higher cropping intensity (218%), increased fish production (2.32Mgha-1) and water productivity (47.36Rsm-3) and enhanced employment generation (213 man days). These land forming interventions must be up scaled to tsunami-affected, low lying areas of Andaman and elsewhere in southeastern Asia. © 2015. Source

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