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Mathura Uttar Pradesh, India

Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Veterinary Officer | Pawaiya R.V.S.,Central Institute on Research on Goats CIRG | Kapoor S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses under the genus Spumauirus of family Retroviridae. They cause induction of multinucleated giant cell formation which presents numerous vacuoles, giving the monolayer culture a foamy appearance. FVs can infect animals as well as humans. In case of the Human foamy virus (HFV), a defective variant (named AHFV or HFVATas) negatively interferes with replication of parental counterpart. Some species, such as rhesus macaques, African green monkeys, chimpanzees and cats harbor closely related yet serologically distinct FV subtypes. Unanticipated FV pathogenicity may warrant appropriate attention to biosafety practices to prevent occupational infections and the importance of additional studies to better define clinical outcome of these zoonotic infections. During cross-species infection and subsequent passages a rapid and fatal disease can occur, with changes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic potentials. In persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates, Simian foamy virus (SFV) infection occurs persistently showing that simian retroviruses cross into humans more frequently. Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIV), mostly are nonpathogenic in their natural hosts but during cross-species infection a rapid and fatal disease can occur. Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA), Western blot analysis and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification are the important diagnostic tests for FVs. FVs are also being exploited as potential vectors that can be used for gene therapy which is gaining much attention of the researchers worldwide. Strengthening sero-epidemiological as well as molecular investigations and public health surveillance programme along with extra precautions while transferring xenograft are some of the approaches to prevent these viral infections. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kapoor S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Pawarya R.V.S.,Central Institute on Research on Goats CIRG | Chakraborty S.,Animal Resources Development
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

A fascinating and important arbovirus is Ross River Virus (RRV) which is endemic and epizootic in nature in certain parts of the world. RRV is a member of the genus Alphavirus within the Semliki Forest complex of the family Togaviridae, which also includes the Getah virus. The virus is responsible for causing disease both in humans as well as horses. Mosquito species (Aedes camptorhynchus and Aedes vigilax; Culex annulirostris) are the most important vector for this virus. In places of low temperature as well as low rainfall or where there is lack of habitat of mosquito there is also limitation in the transmission of the virus. Such probability is higher especially in temperate regions bordering endemic regions having sub-tropical climate. There is involvement of articular as well as non-articular cells in the replication of RRV. Levels of pro-inflammatory factors viz., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); interferon-gamma (IFN-γ); and macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 (MAC-1) during disease pathogenesis have been found to be reduced. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most advanced molecular diagnostic tool along with epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting RRV infection. Treatment for RRV infection is only supportive. Vaccination is not a fruitful approach. Precise data collection will help the researchers to understand the RRV disease dynamics and thereby designing effective prevention and control strategy. Advances in diagnosis, vaccine development and emerging/novel therapeutic regimens need to be explored to their full potential to tackle RRV infection and the disease it causes. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source


Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Pawaiya R.V.S.,Central Institute on Research on Goats CIRG | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Tiwari R.,Mathura
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Powassan encephalitis is a rare but severe disease caused by infection with Powassan virus (POWV). It is a tick-borne Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) having single stranded Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) which is positive sense in nature. The virus has highest case-fatality rates and is associated with a very high incidence of severe neurologic sequelae. Humans contract POWV infection accidentally when they are exposed to areas where the virus, arthropod vector (an Ixodid tick) and the vertebrate natural hosts coexist. Reported incubation periods for Powassan virus range from 8 to 34 days. The disease is associated with a reactive inflammatory cellular infiltrate (chronic) of lymphocytes and macrophages that include the abundance of perivascular inflammatory cells and multiple foci of parenchymal cells in grey matter. Basically two diagnostic approaches are considered. First one is the direct detection of the virus or viral RNA in the initial (viremic) phase of infection by virus isolation in mammalian cell culture or by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-FCR). Second is the indirect detection of specific immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG antibodies) with serological methods such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) or Neutralization Tests (NTs). Fhylogenetic analysis is important for genogrouping of the virus. Oligomers targeting specific locations in the RNA genome of the flavivirus have been used at present for successful suppression of viral gene expression. Strict hygienic and biosafety measures including tick control is pre-requisite for prevention of disease. The present review will give an insight to the details of disease caused by this arbovirus that may often prove fatal, its epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and control measures to be adopted. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source


Dhama K.,Central Institute on Research on Goats CIRG | Pawaiya R.V.S.,Central Institute on Research on Goats CIRG | Karthik K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Equine Encephalosis (EE) is an arthropod borne febrile non contagious disease of equines. The causative virus, Equine encephalosis virus (EEV), has several serotypes (EEV1-EEV7) and the virus has been reported from southern Africa including Kenya, Botswana and South Africa. EEV was first isolated in 1967 from horses in the Republic of South Africa. Like the African horse sickness virus (AHSV) EEV is also endemic in southern Africa. In most of the country, EE virus in comparison to AHSV has a higher transmission rate. Two species in the Culicoides imicola species complex, C. imicola (senso stricto) and C. bolitinos are known to transmit EEV. Zebra and elephants can act as maintenance host of the virus, making the elimination of the virus difficult. Outbreaks of EEV infection is reported to be associated with equine foetus abortion during the first 5-6 months of gestation. 32P-labelled genomic probes of EEV are used for detection of viral Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). Sero-epidemiological tools for the detection of antibodies against EEV include Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A novel real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay has also been developed for the detection of EEV by targeting the gene Viral Protein (VP)-7. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for this virus. Supportive treatment can only be provided. Management of horses in the stable is the key to control the spread of EEV in equines along with follow up of good biosecurity measures. The present review deals with all these aspects of the infection caused by this virus to enrich knowledge of researchers and equine/stud farm owners and the industry. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source

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