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Wani S.H.,Punjab Agricultural University | Wani S.H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Sanghera G.S.,Rice Research and Regional Station | Gosal S.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
New Biotechnology

Tissue culture is one of the tools necessary for genetic engineering and many other breeding programs. Moreover, selection of high regenerating rice varieties is a pre-requisite for success in rice biotechnology. In this report we established a reproducible plant regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis. The explants used for regeneration were embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds cultured on callus induction media. For callus induction mature seeds were cultured on MS medium containing 30. g/l sucrose combined with 560. mg/l proline and 1.5-3.5. mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5-1.5. mg/l Kin. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to MS medium containing 30. g/l sucrose, supplemented with 1.0-3.0. mg/l BAP, 0.5-1.5. mg/l Kin and 0.5-1.5. mg/l NAA. The highest frequency of callus induction (44.4%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.5. mg/l 2,4-D, 0.5. mg/l Kin, 560. mg/l proline and 30. g/l sucrose. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (42.5%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.0. mg/l BAP, 0.5. mg/l NAA and 0.5. mg/l Kin. The plantlets were hardened and transferred to soil in earthen pots. The developed method was highly reproducible. The in vitro developed plants showed normal growth and flowering under glasshouse conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wani S.H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Haider N.,Syrian Atomic Energy Commission | Kumar H.,Punjab Agricultural University | Singh N.B.,Central Agricultural University
Current Genomics

Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

This study provides a broad understanding of vascular plant richness and community structure of mountain grassland (Matri) at Bandipora, Kashmir and links it various environmental variables. Employing a stratified sampling design, six sites were selected wherein vegetation was sampled by placing quadrats (n=210). Elucidating an important effect of topography and anthropic pressure, numerical classification –TWINSPAN segregated the quadrats into seven community types. Contrary to species rich communities which showed an explicit composition and localized distribution, the other communities depicted a vague composition and stretched unevenly between the lower and middle altitudes. Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), elevation and disturbance were found as most influencing factors whereas steepness of slope, organic carbon, soil reaction (pH) and soil salinity (electrical conductivity) were other important factors. Indices of diversity measured at two measurement scales varied differently between communities and at a macro scale (site level) highest values were recorded in least disturbed communities. However, on a micro scale (quadrat level) the indices behaved differently. For effective conservation of these species rich grasslands, acknowledging the local level variability in vegetation structure is all but crucial. © 2016, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Bansal K.C.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Singh A.K.,University of Kentucky | Wani S.H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
Methods in Molecular Biology

Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures are major limiting factors in plant growth and development and pose serious threat to global agricultural production. Here we describe a procedure, using a tobacco plastid transformation vector, to generate transplastomic plants with an enhanced ability to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold stress. The procedure involves biolistic delivery of a plastid transformation vector into explants, antibiotic selection procedures, and identification of transplastomic lines. The plastid transformation vector contains an aadA gene that encodes resistance to spectinomycin as a selectable marker along with the gene of interest for developing transplastomic plants that are tolerant to abiotic stresses. Shoot buds appear over the surface of bombarded explants following spectinomycin selection. Transplastomic shoots are multiplied following several rounds of spectinomycin selection. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines are confirmed by spectinomycin and streptomycin double selection over a period of 4-5 weeks. The available reports suggest that transplastomic technology is a useful tool for expressing genes in plastids or chloroplasts for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Wani S.H.,Farm Science Center Hengbung | Singh N.B.,Central Agricultural University | Haribhushan A.,Farm Science Center Hengbung | Mir J.I.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
Current Genomics

Abiotic stresses collectively are responsible for crop losses worldwide. Among these, drought and salinity are the most destructive. Different strategies have been proposed for management of these stresses. Being a complex trait, conventional breeding approaches have resulted in less success. Biotechnology has emerged as an additional and novel tool for deciphering the mechanism behind these stresses. The role of compatible solutes in abiotic stress tolerance has been studied extensively. Osmotic adjustment, at the physiological level, is an adaptive mechanism involved in drought or salinity tolerance, which permits the maintenance of turgor under conditions of water deficit, as it can counteract the effects of a rapid decline in leaf water potential. Increasing evidence from a series of in vivo and in vitro studies of the physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology of plants suggest strongly that Glycine Betaine (GB) performs an important function in plants subjected to environmental stresses. It plays an adaptive role in mediating osmotic adjustment and protecting the sub-cellular structures in stressed plants, protection of the transcriptional and translational machineries and intervention as a molecular chaperone in the refolding of enzymes. Many important crops like rice do not accumulate glycinebetaine under stress conditions. Both the exogenous application of GB and the genetically engineered biosynthesis of GB in such crops is a promising strategy to increase stress tolerance. In this review we will discuss the importance of GB for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Further, strategies like exogenic application and transgenic development of plants accumulating GB will be also be discussed. Work done on exogenic application and genetically engineered biosynthesis of GB will be listed and its advantages and limitations will be described. ©2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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