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Wani S.H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Haider N.,Syrian Atomic Energy Commission | Kumar H.,Punjab Agricultural University | Singh N.B.,Central Agricultural University
Current Genomics | Year: 2010

Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Sanghera G.S.,University Of Kashmir | Wani S.H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Hussain W.,University Of Kashmir | Singh N.B.,Central Agricultural University
Current Genomics | Year: 2011

Plants respond with changes in their pattern of gene expression and protein products when exposed to low temperatures. Thus ability to adapt has an impact on the distribution and survival of the plant, and on crop yields. Many species of tropical or subtropical origin are injured or killed by non-freezing low temperatures, and exhibit various symptoms of chilling injury such as chlorosis, necrosis, or growth retardation. In contrast, chilling tolerant species are able to grow at such cold temperatures. Conventional breeding methods have met with limited success in improving the cold tolerance of important crop plants involving inter-specific or inter-generic hybridization. Recent studies involving full genome profiling/ sequencing, mutational and transgenic plant analyses, have provided a deep insight of the complex transcriptional mechanism that operates under cold stress. The alterations in expression of genes in response to cold temperatures are followed by increases in the levels of hundreds of metabolites, some of which are known to have protective effects against the damaging effects of cold stress. Various low temperature inducible genes have been isolated from plants. Most appear to be involved in tolerance to cold stress and the expression of some of them is regulated by C-repeat binding factor/ dehydration-responsive element binding (CBF/DREB1) transcription factors. Numerous physiological and molecular changes occur during cold acclimation which reveals that the cold resistance is more complex than perceived and involves more than one pathway. The findings summarized in this review have shown potential practical applications for breeding cold tolerance in crop and horticultural plants suitable to temperate geographical locations. ©2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Kumar S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar S.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Patra A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Purakayastha T.J.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2014

The effect of fertilization on resistance and resilience of soil microbial activity against heat stress in the tropical soils is largely unknown. We investigated the impact of long-term (36 years) application of chemical fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM) on substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and their resistance and resilience against heat stress in a sandy clay loam soil (Typic Haplustept). Surface soils from five selected treatments (Control, N, NP, NPK, NPK + FYM) under maize (Zea mays) crop were assessed immediately after sampling (0 Day) and at 1, 14, 28 and 56 day(s) after heat stress (48 °C for 24 h). The heat stress significantly decreased soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity by 20-80 %. Recovery after stress was up to 100 % within 56 days. The combined application of NPK (balanced) and FYM was most effective in enhancing resistance and resilience (stability) of soil microbial activity against heat stress. Correlation between resistance of dehydrogenase activity and substrate-induced respiration revealed a significant relationship (R2 = 0.85). However, after stress, this correlation was initially weak but subsequently improved with time (R2 = 0.38-57), indicating different time lags to restore the normalcy of these parameters. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Krishna H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture Regional Station | Das B.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture Regional Station | Attri B.L.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture Regional Station | Grover M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Ahmed N.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Stem brown canker or Botryosphaeria canker disease impairs the growth and kills the shoots, limbs and even trunks of infected apple trees. Apple roots are usually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which may have a positive influence on plant growth and suppression of diseases. In order to assess the efficacy of AM to suppress the disease severity and plant growth enhancement, nine AMF inoculation treatments (Sclerocystis dussi, Glomus intraradices, G. fasciculatum, G. bagyaraji, G. leptotichum, G. monosporum, Gigaspora margarita, a mixed AM culture and a non-mycorrhizal control treatment) were used in this present study. Two-year-old potted apple plants, maintained under glasshouse conditions, were either pre-inoculated with AMF followed by stem inoculation with Botryosphaeria ribis or simultaneously inoculated with Botryosphaeria ribis and AM. The results indicated that the incidence of canker was less severe in plants inoculated with AMF in comparison to non-mycorrhizal control. Timing of inoculation also had a significant effect on disease development and plant survival. Plants pre-inoculated with mycorrhiza performed better over those inoculated simultaneously with Botryosphaeria ribis and AM fungi. Furthermore, AM inoculation resulted in improved survival and growth of AMF-colonized plants; though, it varied by species of AM fungi utilized. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bansal K.C.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Singh A.K.,University of Kentucky | Wani S.H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures are major limiting factors in plant growth and development and pose serious threat to global agricultural production. Here we describe a procedure, using a tobacco plastid transformation vector, to generate transplastomic plants with an enhanced ability to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold stress. The procedure involves biolistic delivery of a plastid transformation vector into explants, antibiotic selection procedures, and identification of transplastomic lines. The plastid transformation vector contains an aadA gene that encodes resistance to spectinomycin as a selectable marker along with the gene of interest for developing transplastomic plants that are tolerant to abiotic stresses. Shoot buds appear over the surface of bombarded explants following spectinomycin selection. Transplastomic shoots are multiplied following several rounds of spectinomycin selection. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines are confirmed by spectinomycin and streptomycin double selection over a period of 4-5 weeks. The available reports suggest that transplastomic technology is a useful tool for expressing genes in plastids or chloroplasts for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Wani S.H.,Punjab Agricultural University | Wani S.H.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Sanghera G.S.,Rice Research and Regional Station | Gosal S.S.,Punjab Agricultural University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Tissue culture is one of the tools necessary for genetic engineering and many other breeding programs. Moreover, selection of high regenerating rice varieties is a pre-requisite for success in rice biotechnology. In this report we established a reproducible plant regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis. The explants used for regeneration were embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds cultured on callus induction media. For callus induction mature seeds were cultured on MS medium containing 30. g/l sucrose combined with 560. mg/l proline and 1.5-3.5. mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5-1.5. mg/l Kin. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to MS medium containing 30. g/l sucrose, supplemented with 1.0-3.0. mg/l BAP, 0.5-1.5. mg/l Kin and 0.5-1.5. mg/l NAA. The highest frequency of callus induction (44.4%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.5. mg/l 2,4-D, 0.5. mg/l Kin, 560. mg/l proline and 30. g/l sucrose. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (42.5%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.0. mg/l BAP, 0.5. mg/l NAA and 0.5. mg/l Kin. The plantlets were hardened and transferred to soil in earthen pots. The developed method was highly reproducible. The in vitro developed plants showed normal growth and flowering under glasshouse conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Das B.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Ahmad N.,Central Institute Of Temperate Horticulture Kd Farm | Srivastava K.K.,Central Institute Of Temperate Horticulture Kd Farm | Ranjan P.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) shows gametophytic self incompatibility and requires cross pollination by suitable pollinizers. Gradual decline in natural pollinators and insufficient proportion of pollinizers have been observed in the apple orchards over the years across the North Western Himalayan region. This situation resulted in considerable pollination problem in the region. The present study was undertaken (during the years 2006-2010) to examine the effect of top working methods and time as well as type of pollinizers on different growth parameters for efficient pollination management. Chip budding performed in fall, late winter and summer gave significantly higher success rate (90.0, 89.8 and 80.9%, respectively). Other methods viz., side rind graft (85.6%) and cleft graft (71.2%) during February-March, and T-bud (71.7%) during July-August also gave better success. The highest shoot numbers (4.1) and length (92.8. cm) were recorded when chip budding was performed during September-October and February-March, respectively. In 4th year, chip budded scion branches of all the pollinizers recorded significantly higher number of spurs/m twig length with a range of 22.8 (December-January) to 24.7 (September-October). Significantly the highest bloom density (22.1) was recorded on chip budded (February-March) branches of pollinizers in 4th year. Fruit set on top worked trees of 'Oregon Spur' was only in the range of 18.0-20.1% in 1st year and reached to the range of 35.6-41.5% in 4th year. Seed numbers/fruit also increased to the range of 7.3-7.9 in 4th year from 2.9 to 4.6 in 1st year. All these factors resulted in better yield efficiency (2.6-3.8) of 'Oregon Spur' in 4th year. 'Manchurian' crab produced significantly higher shoot length of 86.5-87.2. cm and 146.1-149.2. cm in 1st and 4th years, respectively. However, 'Stark Spur' produced the highest number of spurs/m twig length of 28.9 when grafted/chip budded during December-January or February-March, and 27.1 when chip/T-budded during September-October or July-August. Top working with 'Manchurian' crab also resulted in significantly higher fruit set (44.2-45.4%) and yield efficiency (3.6-3.8) on 'Oregon Spur' in 4th year. This was followed by 'Stark Spur' as pollinizer (37.1-38.2% and 2.9-3.1, respectively). Highly significant positive correlation of shoot numbers, spur density and bloom density of pollinizers with fruit set and yield efficiency of 'Oregon Spur' were observed. 'Manchurian' crab was found to be very efficient as pollinizer, followed by 'Stark Spur' for spur type 'Oregon Spur' apple cultivar on the basis of higher bloom density and fruit set parameters. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Wani S.H.,Farm Science Center Hengbung | Singh N.B.,Central Agricultural University | Haribhushan A.,Farm Science Center Hengbung | Mir J.I.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
Current Genomics | Year: 2013

Abiotic stresses collectively are responsible for crop losses worldwide. Among these, drought and salinity are the most destructive. Different strategies have been proposed for management of these stresses. Being a complex trait, conventional breeding approaches have resulted in less success. Biotechnology has emerged as an additional and novel tool for deciphering the mechanism behind these stresses. The role of compatible solutes in abiotic stress tolerance has been studied extensively. Osmotic adjustment, at the physiological level, is an adaptive mechanism involved in drought or salinity tolerance, which permits the maintenance of turgor under conditions of water deficit, as it can counteract the effects of a rapid decline in leaf water potential. Increasing evidence from a series of in vivo and in vitro studies of the physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology of plants suggest strongly that Glycine Betaine (GB) performs an important function in plants subjected to environmental stresses. It plays an adaptive role in mediating osmotic adjustment and protecting the sub-cellular structures in stressed plants, protection of the transcriptional and translational machineries and intervention as a molecular chaperone in the refolding of enzymes. Many important crops like rice do not accumulate glycinebetaine under stress conditions. Both the exogenous application of GB and the genetically engineered biosynthesis of GB in such crops is a promising strategy to increase stress tolerance. In this review we will discuss the importance of GB for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Further, strategies like exogenic application and transgenic development of plants accumulating GB will be also be discussed. Work done on exogenic application and genetically engineered biosynthesis of GB will be listed and its advantages and limitations will be described. ©2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


This study provides a broad understanding of vascular plant richness and community structure of mountain grassland (Matri) at Bandipora, Kashmir and links it various environmental variables. Employing a stratified sampling design, six sites were selected wherein vegetation was sampled by placing quadrats (n=210). Elucidating an important effect of topography and anthropic pressure, numerical classification –TWINSPAN segregated the quadrats into seven community types. Contrary to species rich communities which showed an explicit composition and localized distribution, the other communities depicted a vague composition and stretched unevenly between the lower and middle altitudes. Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), elevation and disturbance were found as most influencing factors whereas steepness of slope, organic carbon, soil reaction (pH) and soil salinity (electrical conductivity) were other important factors. Indices of diversity measured at two measurement scales varied differently between communities and at a macro scale (site level) highest values were recorded in least disturbed communities. However, on a micro scale (quadrat level) the indices behaved differently. For effective conservation of these species rich grasslands, acknowledging the local level variability in vegetation structure is all but crucial. © 2016, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.


Singh P.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture | Attr B.L.,Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2014

This paper communicates the traditional uses of medicinal plants of Bageshwar valley of Uttarakhand. Aims of the study were to document the medicinal plant and their indigenous traditional use patterns by local population. A total of 158 taxa belonging to 83 families were reported as locally used for various medicinal purposes. These medicinal plants used against various diseases e.g. asthma, cough, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, abdominal pain, cholera, piles, tumor, headache, snakebites, jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery etc. Observation of the site showed that vegetation of the area was generally threatened due to deforestation, over grazing, habitat fragmentation, un-scientific extraction, and habitat loss. Measures for the conservation of plant resources especially medicinal plants of Bageshwar valley (Kuamun Himalaya) are urgently needed.

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