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Punithavalli M.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute | Muthukrishnan N.M.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | Rajkumar M.B,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Rice Science | Year: 2013

Folding and spinning behavior of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild rice genotypes were significantly different. Longer leaf selection time and folding time per primary fold; shorter primary fold and whole leaf fold; lower number of binds per primary fold and whole leaf fold were recorded in resistant and wild rice genotypes. In the correlation analysis, it was found that the leaf folding parameters were positively correlated to leaf folder damage whereas the leaf spinning parameters were negatively correlated. Similarly, the morphological characters differed significantly among the chosen genotypes and were related to leaffolder damage. The leaf width and total productive tiller number were positively correlated to leaffolder infestation. Results also indicated that the trichome density and length, leaf length and plant height might contribute to resistance whereas total number of green leaves had no effect on leaffolder infestation. In the scatter plot analysis between leaf folding and spinning characters and leaffolder damage, the genotypes were separated into four groups viz., resistant (TKM6, Ptb 33, LFR831311, Oryza rhizomatis and O. minuta), moderately resistant (ASD16 and CORH1), moderately susceptible (ADT36, Pusa Basmati and CB200290) and susceptible (IR36 and TN1). The present investigation proved that the leaf morphology viz., leaf length and width, plant height and trichome density and length may play a vital role in resistance against rice leaffolder. © 2013 China National Rice Research Institute.

Damodaran T.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Damodaran T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Rai R.B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Pandey B.K.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture | And 10 more authors.
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to determine the influence of endophytes along with other commercial nutrient mixtures on enhancing growth and improving vase-life of gladiolus. A field experiment was performed over the two successive years 2009 and 2010. The recommended dose of fertilizers was added and the treatment with regulators and their combinations were imposed during the critical stages of the crop. The commercial nutrient mixtures of Hi-Media Chemicals, India (HMN ®), Biovita ® and a bacterial strain CSR-B-1 from Baccillus isolated from sodic soils of Rae Bareli district, Uttar Pradesh was imposed as treatments and combinations. The results revealed that the bacterial strain CSR-B-1 alone and in combination with HMN significantly increased plant height, number of leaves/plant, spike length, number of cormlets, fresh and dry weight of cormlets and also the vase-life of the cut flower. The incremental effects on plants height, leaf number and leaf area were 32.32, 25.00 and 9.00%, respectively, while 13.00, 45.18 and 56.83% increment was noticed on number of plant, spike length and weight of spike, respectively as compared to control plants in both seasons. The role of bio-chemicals and enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenyl alanine lyase (PAL) activities and phenols were also assessed and were attributed for increasing shelf-life and quality of the cut flowers. © 2014, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.

Punithavalli M.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute | Muthukrishnan N.M.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | Rajkuma M.B.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Rice Science | Year: 2013

The experiment was carried out to assess the reaction of different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild in response to the infestation by rice leaffolder (RLF), Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) and to explore the possible use of these genotypes in developing RLF-resistant rice varieties. The changes of various biochemical constituents such as leaf soluble protein, phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol, tannin and enzymes viz., peroxidase, phenyl alanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were assessed spectrophotometrically in all the rice genotypes before and after RLF infestation. The protein profile was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. A significant constituent of biochemical content such as tannin, phenol and ortho-dihydroxy phenol has been increased along with enzyme activities of peroxidase and PAL in the infested resistant (Ptb 33, TKM6 and LFR831311) and wild rice genotypes ( Oryza minuta and O. rhizomatis). A decrease in leaf protein content was evident invariably in all the infested rice genotypes. It is also evident that the contents of biochemicals such as phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol and tannin were negatively correlated with leaffolder damage. However, leaf protein content was positively correlated with the damage by rice leaffolder. SDS-PAGE analysis for total protein profiling of healthy and C. medinalis-infested genotypes revealed the enhanced expression of a high molecular weight (> 97 kDa) protein in all the genotypes. Besides, there was also an increased induction of a 38 kDa protein in C. medinalis infested resistant genotypes, which was absent in uninfested plants. The present investigation proved that the elevated levels of biochemicals and enzymes may play a vital role in rice plants resistance to RLF. © 2013 China National Rice Research Institute.

Pandit A.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Lal B.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture | Rana R.K.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Research | Year: 2014

This paper assessed the system of contract farming in potato cultivation in the state of West Bengal, India, by comparing the production of potatoes under noncontract and contractual systems. The data were collected from 139 noncontract and 144 contract farmers spread over 13 blocks of four districts of the state during the year 2008. The results indicated that no government functionary was involved in the contract farming arrangement and that the agreements were largely verbal. Vendors were appointed by the company; they managed the total affairs for a group of villages. Although the price was fixed well before planting, it was not fixed uniformly across the state. Contract farmers planted more seed per hectare than noncontract farmers and used relatively more seed from their own seed stock. The number of agricultural assets per household was higher in contract farmers. Further, it was found that the cost of cultivation was higher for cv. Atlantic as compared to cv. K. Jyoti. The major costs were those for planting, fertilizers and micronutrients, irrigation and land preparation for both cultivars. Farmers without contracts incurred losses but contract farmers growing cv. Atlantic received net returns of about INR15,000 (EUR 238) per hectare. Lack of remunerative price, bad seed quality, occurrence of late blight, expensive seed and labour shortage were the major constraints faced by the noncontract farmers. The contract farmers also experienced many problems like high cost of cultivation, late blight infestation, low yield, lack of clear contract agreement and difficulties in disposing off the leftover potatoes. The findings suggest an involvement of the local government, a uniform fixation of the price throughout the state, written and clear agreements and development of good dual purpose (processing as well as table) potato cultivars for the farmers for boosting the enterprise. For noncontract potato farming, a 'price stabilization fund' could be created to minimize the price fluctuation. Low-cost farm implements, low-cost and effective late blight controlling fungicides, supplying good quality seed at reasonable rates by the Agriculture Department were some of the other suggestions emerging from this study. © 2014 European Association for Potato Research.

Raghupathi H.B.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Sakthivel T.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Ravishankar H.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Ravishankar H.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

The nutrient management strategies for rational fertilizer application were developed for Coorg mandarin through crop specific and reliable nutrient standards/norms using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) technique. DRIS provided comprehensive leaf nutrient standards for diagnosis of nutrient imbalance for Coorg mandarin. DRIS is a dual ratio concept where the nutrient concentration ratios were considered rather than absolute nutrient concentrations in isolation. The diagnostic norms were essentially developed through a survey conducted in Kodagu region in Karnataka. The data bank of nutrient concentration vs. yield was divided into two sub-groups as low and high yielding based on the yield potential in individual orchards. The individual nutrient concentrations were expressed in as many forms as possible (e.g. N/P, N X P). The variance ratios and coefficient of variation were calculated for all forms of expressions. The nutrient expressions with high variance ratio and low coefficient of variation were chosen as diagnostic norms. Twenty eight nutrient expressions were derived for identification of nutrient imbalance in Coorg mandarin. Among the nutrient expressions selected as diagnostic norms for Coorg mandarin, some expressions such as N/P (6.427), N/K (1.703) and P/Zn (0.0134) were found to have greater physiological rationale in seedling plants. The ratio of N/P (7.17), N/K (1.395) and Zn/P (77.80) and Ca /Mg (5.92) were found important in budded plants. The nutrient imbalance in plants was diagnosed through DRIS indices. DRIS identified zinc and magnesium as the most yield-limiting nutrients.

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