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Sharma N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh G.,Plant Biotechnology Center | Mishra M.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Biopesticides International | Year: 2014

In this study, 32 bacteria were isolated from pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. rhizosphere and associated nonrhizospheric areas. Pearl millet rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere areas were dominated by gram negative bacterial population with rod shaped creamy colonies. Salinity and temperature tolerance study of bacterial isolates showed that most of the bacterial isolates (rhizospheric as well as non-rhizospheric) were less halophilic. Seed inoculation with pearl millet rhizospheric bacteria significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigor of pearl millet. The overall findings indicated that the most effective bacterial isolate with maximum PGPR activity is PM-14 that was confirmed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing method and BLAST analysis of the sequence revealed that the predominant microorganism is the Acetinobacter sp. The GenBank accession number of PM-14 is BankIt1541513 Seq1 JX124708. © 2014 (KRF).

Raghupathi H.B.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Sakthivel T.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Ravishankar H.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Ravishankar H.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

The nutrient management strategies for rational fertilizer application were developed for Coorg mandarin through crop specific and reliable nutrient standards/norms using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) technique. DRIS provided comprehensive leaf nutrient standards for diagnosis of nutrient imbalance for Coorg mandarin. DRIS is a dual ratio concept where the nutrient concentration ratios were considered rather than absolute nutrient concentrations in isolation. The diagnostic norms were essentially developed through a survey conducted in Kodagu region in Karnataka. The data bank of nutrient concentration vs. yield was divided into two sub-groups as low and high yielding based on the yield potential in individual orchards. The individual nutrient concentrations were expressed in as many forms as possible (e.g. N/P, N X P). The variance ratios and coefficient of variation were calculated for all forms of expressions. The nutrient expressions with high variance ratio and low coefficient of variation were chosen as diagnostic norms. Twenty eight nutrient expressions were derived for identification of nutrient imbalance in Coorg mandarin. Among the nutrient expressions selected as diagnostic norms for Coorg mandarin, some expressions such as N/P (6.427), N/K (1.703) and P/Zn (0.0134) were found to have greater physiological rationale in seedling plants. The ratio of N/P (7.17), N/K (1.395) and Zn/P (77.80) and Ca /Mg (5.92) were found important in budded plants. The nutrient imbalance in plants was diagnosed through DRIS indices. DRIS identified zinc and magnesium as the most yield-limiting nutrients.

Shakya R.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Siddiqui S.A.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Siddiqui S.A.,Allahabad Agricultural Institute | Srivatawa N.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture | Bajpai A.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
International Journal of Fruit Science | Year: 2010

Jambul (Syzygium cumini) is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae, and is native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Indonesia. Systematic breeding and propagation has not been done in this crop until now. The variation observed may result from seed propagation with the J-22 selection being the most dissimilar from other accessions in that it is unique in being seedless. At the same time J-36 was found to occupy a separate cluster from the other two. In the present study, good differentiation and diverse genetic bases of Indian accessions has been demonstrated. The dendogram analysis shows clearly grouped accessions by different geographical regions. Plant improvement, either by natural selection or through the effort of breeders has always relied upon creating, evaluating, and selecting the right combination of alleles. The manipulation of a large number of genes is often required for improvement of even the simplest of characteristics. In the present study, OPZ9 and OPA12 primers detected a small difference between these selections. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Raghupathi H.B.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Raghupathi H.B.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Sakthivel T.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Ravishankar H.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Ravishankar H.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

A data bank of leaf nutrient concentration vs yield was established for Coorg mandarin through survey of coffeebased cropping system of Kodagu region for developing leaf nutrient diagnostic norms. Multivariate compositional nutritional diagnosis norms were derived for diagnostic purpose and for identification of yield-limiting nutrients. Principal component analysis was used to extract the correlation structure among different nutrient elements. The mean concentrations of N, P and K between budded and seedling plants indicated only marginal differences. The mean concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn however were much lower in budded plants as compared to their concentrations in seedling plants. The compositional nutritional diagnosis norms for N, P and K were higher for budded plants as compared to the seedlings. Differences in compositional nutritional diagnosis norms were also observed for Ca and Mg in respect of budded and seedlings plants. The compositional nutritional diagnosis norm for Fe was marginally higher for budded plant as compared to the seedling plants. The compositional nutritional diagnosis norms for Mn and Zn were higher for seedling as compared to budded plants. Principal component analysis indicated the existence of multinutrient interaction in Coorg mandarin and correction of nutrient imbalance cannot be done in isolation and therefore multinutrient diagnostic norms are required for identification of nutrient deficiency or excess.

Pandit A.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Lal B.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture | Rana R.K.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Research | Year: 2014

This paper assessed the system of contract farming in potato cultivation in the state of West Bengal, India, by comparing the production of potatoes under noncontract and contractual systems. The data were collected from 139 noncontract and 144 contract farmers spread over 13 blocks of four districts of the state during the year 2008. The results indicated that no government functionary was involved in the contract farming arrangement and that the agreements were largely verbal. Vendors were appointed by the company; they managed the total affairs for a group of villages. Although the price was fixed well before planting, it was not fixed uniformly across the state. Contract farmers planted more seed per hectare than noncontract farmers and used relatively more seed from their own seed stock. The number of agricultural assets per household was higher in contract farmers. Further, it was found that the cost of cultivation was higher for cv. Atlantic as compared to cv. K. Jyoti. The major costs were those for planting, fertilizers and micronutrients, irrigation and land preparation for both cultivars. Farmers without contracts incurred losses but contract farmers growing cv. Atlantic received net returns of about INR15,000 (EUR 238) per hectare. Lack of remunerative price, bad seed quality, occurrence of late blight, expensive seed and labour shortage were the major constraints faced by the noncontract farmers. The contract farmers also experienced many problems like high cost of cultivation, late blight infestation, low yield, lack of clear contract agreement and difficulties in disposing off the leftover potatoes. The findings suggest an involvement of the local government, a uniform fixation of the price throughout the state, written and clear agreements and development of good dual purpose (processing as well as table) potato cultivars for the farmers for boosting the enterprise. For noncontract potato farming, a 'price stabilization fund' could be created to minimize the price fluctuation. Low-cost farm implements, low-cost and effective late blight controlling fungicides, supplying good quality seed at reasonable rates by the Agriculture Department were some of the other suggestions emerging from this study. © 2014 European Association for Potato Research.

Burondkar M.M.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University | Rajan S.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture | Upreti K.K.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Reddy Y.T.N.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Horticulture | Year: 2013

The present study, aimed at advancing Alphonso mango harvest season through manipulation in time of soil application of paclobutrazol (PBZ) [soil application on 15th of May, June, July, and August]; foliar spray of KNO3 (3%) [August and September], was conducted during 2010 to 2012 cropping seasons in red lateritic rocky soil of Konkan (Maharashtra, India). Results of individual years and mean for three years revealed that significant earliness in flowering (85.4 day) and advancement in harvesting (82 day) was achieved with the application of PBZ on 15th May. PBZ application on 15th June was relatively less effective in inducing early flowering (56 day) and harvesting (69 days). However, the greater extent of flowering (72.23 %) and fruit yield per tree (40.72 kg/tree) were recorded with PBZ applied at recommended time i.e., on 15th August. Individual fruit weight was higher in KNO3 sprayed tree in the months of August (268g) and September (265.5 g), whereas fruit T.S.S. was higher (19.37 °Brix.) in trees receiving PBZ on 15th August. The findings of study indicated huge potential for realizing about 5-6 times higher returns from Alphonso produced in February-March months as compared to May harvest.

Punithavalli M.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute | Muthukrishnan N.M.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | Rajkuma M.B.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Rice Science | Year: 2013

The experiment was carried out to assess the reaction of different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild in response to the infestation by rice leaffolder (RLF), Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) and to explore the possible use of these genotypes in developing RLF-resistant rice varieties. The changes of various biochemical constituents such as leaf soluble protein, phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol, tannin and enzymes viz., peroxidase, phenyl alanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were assessed spectrophotometrically in all the rice genotypes before and after RLF infestation. The protein profile was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. A significant constituent of biochemical content such as tannin, phenol and ortho-dihydroxy phenol has been increased along with enzyme activities of peroxidase and PAL in the infested resistant (Ptb 33, TKM6 and LFR831311) and wild rice genotypes ( Oryza minuta and O. rhizomatis). A decrease in leaf protein content was evident invariably in all the infested rice genotypes. It is also evident that the contents of biochemicals such as phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol and tannin were negatively correlated with leaffolder damage. However, leaf protein content was positively correlated with the damage by rice leaffolder. SDS-PAGE analysis for total protein profiling of healthy and C. medinalis-infested genotypes revealed the enhanced expression of a high molecular weight (> 97 kDa) protein in all the genotypes. Besides, there was also an increased induction of a 38 kDa protein in C. medinalis infested resistant genotypes, which was absent in uninfested plants. The present investigation proved that the elevated levels of biochemicals and enzymes may play a vital role in rice plants resistance to RLF. © 2013 China National Rice Research Institute.

Punithavalli M.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute | Muthukrishnan N.M.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | Rajkumar M.B,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture
Rice Science | Year: 2013

Folding and spinning behavior of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild rice genotypes were significantly different. Longer leaf selection time and folding time per primary fold; shorter primary fold and whole leaf fold; lower number of binds per primary fold and whole leaf fold were recorded in resistant and wild rice genotypes. In the correlation analysis, it was found that the leaf folding parameters were positively correlated to leaf folder damage whereas the leaf spinning parameters were negatively correlated. Similarly, the morphological characters differed significantly among the chosen genotypes and were related to leaffolder damage. The leaf width and total productive tiller number were positively correlated to leaffolder infestation. Results also indicated that the trichome density and length, leaf length and plant height might contribute to resistance whereas total number of green leaves had no effect on leaffolder infestation. In the scatter plot analysis between leaf folding and spinning characters and leaffolder damage, the genotypes were separated into four groups viz., resistant (TKM6, Ptb 33, LFR831311, Oryza rhizomatis and O. minuta), moderately resistant (ASD16 and CORH1), moderately susceptible (ADT36, Pusa Basmati and CB200290) and susceptible (IR36 and TN1). The present investigation proved that the leaf morphology viz., leaf length and width, plant height and trichome density and length may play a vital role in resistance against rice leaffolder. © 2013 China National Rice Research Institute.

Damodaran T.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Rai R.B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Jha S.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Kannan R.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014

Extensive development of canal irrigation system led to formation of unproductive sodic lands, which limited the cultivation of flower crop gladiolus in the basins of major rivers. The purpose of this study was to isolate native rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria from sodic environment and evaluate their growth enhancement and bio-ameloirant properties in gladiolus under sodic soils. Sixteen isolates of plant-growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated and screened for growth promotion potential. The promising strains were identified and evaluated for growth and production in gladiolus. The plants treated with strains CSR-G-1, CSR-B-2, and CSR-B-3 significantly produced marketable spikes and higher number of florets/spike. Also, the treated plants showed an increased activity of superoxide dismutase, phenyl alanine lyase, catalase, peroxidase, phenols, and proline than control. Further, the soil pH, total carbonates, and sodium adsorption ratio were lower in treated soils. The Na+/K+ ratio in leaves of treated plants was observed to be lower than control. In conclusion, these bio-inoculums can be used as growth enhancer and bio-ameliorant in sodic soils as an eco-friendly management strategy. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Burondkar M.M.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University | Upreti K.K.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Ambavane A.R.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University | Rajan S.,Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of soil applied paclobutrazol (PBZ) on the hormonal composition of auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins and gibberellins in 12 years old Alphonso mango trees during the year 2011. Paclobutrazol treatment decreased IAA contain in shoots by 4.3 and 28.2 % at 15 days before bud break and at bud break stage, respectively. Abscisic acid content in PBZ treated trees was 59.85 and 41.11 % higher in leaf and bud, respectively, as compared to untreated trees, during flowering period. Fifteen days before bud break, total cytokinin contents (zeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, zeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, isopentenyl adenosine) in leaf and bud were 25.93 and 37.54 %, respectively less than untreated trees, but at bud break and 15 days after bud break it increased by 31.92 and 36.37 % in leaf and bud, respectively. Paclobutrazol treatment decreased gibberellin contents in shoots. Total gibberellin contents at bud break stage was 51.71 % less in treated trees as compared with untreated trees, while 55.58 % reduction was observed in treated trees from 15 days before bud break to bud break. While in untreated trees slight increment in total gibberellin contents was observed. These results indicated that, PBZ application though decreased gibberellin and IAA contents, but caused increases in ABA and cytokinins in mango shoots to elicit flowering responses. © 2016, Indian Society for Plant Physiology.

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