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Praharaj S.K.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Jana A.K.,KPC Medical College and Hospital | Goyal N.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Sinha V.K.,Central Institute of Psychiatry
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is useful in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, but its use is associated with troublesome weight gain and metabolic syndrome. A variety of pharmacological agents has been studied in the efforts to reverse weight gain induced by olanzapine, but current evidence is insufficient to support any particular pharmacological approach. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of metformin for the treatment of olanzapine-induced weight gain. Systematic review of the literature revealed 12 studies that had assessed metformin for antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Of these, four studies (n= 105) met the review inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Meta-analysis was performed to see the effect size of the treatment on body weight, waist circumference and body-mass index (BMI). Weighted mean difference (WMD) for body weight was 5.02 (95% CI 3.93, 6.10) kg lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For waist circumference, the test for heterogeneity was significant (P= 0.00002, I2= 85.1%). Therefore, a random effects model was used to calculate WMD, which was 1.42 (95% CI 0.29, 3.13) cm lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For BMI, WMD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.44, 2.19) kgm-2 lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Existing data suggest that short term modest weight loss is possible with metformin in patients with olanzapine-induced weight gain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.


Sarkar S.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Sinha V.K.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Praharaj S.K.,Kasturba Medical College
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Purpose: There is a dearth of research on the prevalence of depressive disorders in children from suburban and rural areas in the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of depressive disorders and the associated risk factors in the primary and secondary school children in suburban India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, school-based epidemiological study involving 1,851 children from standard I to VII age group. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), a semi-structured interview was used to diagnose depression in this sample. Results: Using K-SADS-PL, prevalence of depressive disorder was 3.13% (n = 58); major depressive disorder was diagnosed in 15 (0.81%), dysthymia in 28 (1.51%) and depressive disorder NOS in 15 (0.81%). Age (OR 1.396, CI 1.121-1.738), class attendance (OR 0.251, CI 0.103-0.613), family history of psychiatric illness (OR 0.204, CI 0.069-0.605) and birth complications (OR 0.128, CI 0.029-0.558) emerged as significant predictors of depression; the model explained 24.1-32.3% of the variance in this sample. Conclusion: The present study confirms the findings from previous studies that childhood depression is a distinct diagnostic entity affecting a significant number of children and adolescents. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Sahoo S.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Khess C.R.J.,Central Institute of Psychiatry
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2010

The lifetime prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescents and young adults around the world is currently estimated to range from 5% to 70%, with an Indian study reporting no depression among college going adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence of current depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms on a Dimensional and Categorical basis among young adults in Ranchi city of India. A stratified sample of 500 students was selected to be representative of the city's college going population (n = 50,000) of which 405 were taken up for final analysis. Data were obtained using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to assess symptoms on dimensional basis and using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose on categorical basis. Mean age of students was 19.3 years with an average education of 14.7 years. Ranging from mild to extremely severe, depressive symptoms were present in 18.5% of the population, anxiety in 24.4%, and stress in 20%. Clinical depression was present in 12.1% and generalized anxiety disorder in 19.0%. Comorbid anxiety and depression was high, with about 87% of those having depression also suffering from anxiety disorder. Detecting depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms in the college population is a critical preventive strategy, which can help in preventing disruption to the learning process. Health policies must integrate young adults' depression, stress, and anxiety as a disorder of public health significance. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Kumar A.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Khess C.R.J.,Central Institute of Psychiatry
Indian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Background: Controversy persists with regard to how best we can categorize symptomatic dimension of Schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to compute factorial dimensions in Indian subset of schizophrenic patients and to compare them with five factor pentagonal model extracted in western studies. Materials and Methods: 150 inpatients of Schizophrenia with acute exacerbation were subjected to PANSS rating within one week of admission and statistical calculation done based on exploratory factor analysis. Results: Five factors namely negative, autistic, activation, positive and depression were extracted wherein negative factors showed highest percentage of total variance supporting five factor modal of western literature Conclusion: A consensus is gradually emerging regarding symptomatic dimensions of Schizophrenia.


Mishra B.R.,Center for Cognitive Neurosciences | Nizamie S.H.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Das B.,Center for Cognitive Neurosciences | Praharaj S.K.,Center for Cognitive Neurosciences
Addiction | Year: 2010

Objective To study the anticraving efficacy of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with alcohol dependence. Methods We performed a prospective, single-blind, sham-controlled study involving 45 patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (according to ICD-10 DCR), with Clinical Institute of Withdrawal Assessment in Alcohol Withdrawal (CIWA-Ar) scores ≤10. Patients were allocated to active and sham rTMS in a 2 : 1 ratio, such that 30 patients received active and 15 patients sham rTMS to the right DLPFC (10 Hz frequency, 4.9 seconds per train, inter-train interval of 30 seconds, 20 trains per session, total 10 sessions). The Alcohol Craving Questionnaire (ACQ-NOW) was administered to measure the severity of alcohol craving at baseline, after the last rTMS session and after 1 month of the last rTMS session. Results Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant reduction in the post-rTMS ACQ-NOW total score and factor scores in the group allocated active rTMS compared to the sham stimulation. The effect size for treatment with time interaction was moderate (η 2 = 0.401). Conclusions Right dorsolateral pre-frontal high-frequency rTMS was found to have significant anticraving effects in alcohol dependence. The results highlight the potential of rTMS which, combined with other anticraving drugs, can act as an effective strategy in reducing craving and subsequent relapse in alcohol dependence. © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.


BACKGROUND: First-rank symptoms (FRS) in schizophrenia have been found to be associated with various cognitive and biological markers. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to modulate such factors. We hypothesized that rTMS adjunctive to antipsychotics will be safe and effective in treatment of FRS in schizophrenia. METHODS: Schizophrenia patients with FRS randomly received either active or sham-magnetic resonance imaging navigated continuous Θ burst stimulation (cTBS)-rTMS to right inferior parietal lobule for 2 weeks; assessments were repeated. While primary outcome variables were safety profile, FRS and overall psychopathology; secondary outcomes were γ oscillatory activity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and self-monitoring function. RESULTS: No significant adverse events were reported in either group. None of the outcome measures showed sufficient power on the time by group analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study fails to demonstrate whether or not adjunctive cTBS to right inferior parietal lobule could significantly alleviate FRS. We also fail to provide evidence for whether this protocol has any effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, self-monitoring function, and right hemispheric γ oscillations. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved


Khanra S.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Khess C.R.J.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Srivastava N.,Central Institute of Psychiatry
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Introduction: A range of psychoactive substances used by patients suffering from schizophrenia varies and may include those which are fatal and may cause serious toxicity leading to death. We here present a case report of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, who was abusing Datura stramonium over a prolonged period. Case summary: A 32year old male presented with aggressive behaviour, irritability for 6years and regular intake of Datura seeds for 3years. After taking detailed history and mental status examination (MSE), diagnoses of paranoid schizophrenia and mental and behavioral disorder due to use of hallucinogen were made. He had shown improvement on standard treatment with antipsychotics. Conclusion: D. stramonium is recognized among emerging new psychoactive substances being used across the world. Among various theories we discuss self-medication hypothesis as a mediating factor for this case. Though D. stramonium is notorious for its life threatening sequelae, clinicians should be aware of its chronic abuse as self-medication. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sarkhel S.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Sinha V.K.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Praharaj S.K.,Central Institute of Psychiatry
Journal of Anxiety Disorders | Year: 2010

Background: There is preliminary evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be useful in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Methods: Our objective was to examine efficacy of adjunctive right prefrontal high-frequency (rapid) rTMS treatment in OCD patients. 42 patients with OCD were randomly assigned to 10 sessions of add-on high-frequency right prefrontal active rTMS (10. Hz, 110% of motor threshold, 4. s per train, 20 trains per session) or sham stimulation. They were rated on Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) at baseline, day 14 and day 28. The dose of antiobsessive drug was kept constant throughout the period of assessment. Results: For YBOCS scores, repeated measures ANOVA showed significant main effect of treatment, but no effect of treatment over time (Pillai's Trace F=1.39, p=262). However, significant effect of treatment over time as shown by interaction effect for both HAM-D (Pillai's Trace F=3.67, p=035, η2=158) and HAM-A scores (Pillai's Trace F=5.22, p=01, η2=211) were seen. Conclusion: Adjunctive high-frequency right prefrontal rTMS does not have any significant effect in the treatment of OCD. However, it is modestly effective in the treatment of comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with OCD. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Nizamie S.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Tikka S.,Central Institute of Psychiatry
Indian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music′s relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy.


Sarkar S.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Katshu M.Z.U.H.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Nizamie S.H.,Central Institute of Psychiatry | Praharaj S.K.,Central Institute of Psychiatry
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2010

Background: Among the sleep abnormalities found in schizophrenia, slow wave sleep deficits have been found to persist even after the resolution of active psychotic symptoms. Further, such abnormalities are observed in young healthy individuals at high risk of schizophrenia, which suggest that slow wave sleep deficits might be trait marker in schizophrenia. Methods: Sleep EEG was recorded in 20 right handed patients aged 18-45 years with ICD-10 DCR diagnosis of schizophrenia, 14 first degree relatives and 20 age and sex matched controls. Patients were rated on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) for assessment of psychopathology. Results: There was significant difference between the three groups in total sleep period (p<.01), total sleep time (p<.01), stage shifts (p<.05), stage 1 percentage of total sleep time (p<.05), stage 2 duration (p<.05), stage 3 latency (p<.05), stage 4 duration (p<.01) and stage 4 percentage of total sleep time (p<.01). There was significant positive correlation of REM percentage of total sleep time with BPRS total score (r s=488, p=029) and PANSS positive score (r s=583, p=007), whereas significant negative correlation of REM latency was found with BPRS total score (r s=-640, p=002) and PANSS positive score (r s=-657, p=002) in the patients. Conclusions: Slow wave sleep deficits are a possible trait marker in patients with schizophrenia, which needs replication in further studies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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