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Kaur B.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Oberoi H.S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Chadha B.S.,Guru Nanak Dev University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

A heterokaryon 28, derived through protoplast fusion between Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis (Dal8), was subjected cyclic mutagenesis followed by selection on increasing levels of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) as selection marker. The derived deregulated cellulase hyper producing mutant '64', when compared to fusant 28, produced 9.83, 7.8, 3.2, 4.2 and 19.74 folds higher endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, FPase and xylanase, respectively, under shake cultures. The sequence analysis of PCR amplified β-glucosidase gene from wild and mutant showed nucleotide deletion/substitution. The mutants showed highly catalytic efficient β-glucosidase as evident from low Km and high Vmax values. The expression profiling through zymogram analysis also indicated towards over-expression of cellulases. The up/down regulated expressed proteins observed through SDS-PAGE were identified by Peptide mass fingerprinting The cellulase produced by mutants in conjunction with cellulase free xylanase derived from Thermomyces lanuginosus was used for efficient utilization of alkali treated rice straw for obtaining xylo-oligosaccharides and ethanol. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kaur B.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Sharma M.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Soni R.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Oberoi H.S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Chadha B.S.,Guru Nanak Dev University
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Thirty heterokaryons, formed by protoplast fusion of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis, were selected on the basis of their ability to grow on 2-deoxyglucose (0.2 %, w/v) and intermediate spore color. These heterokaryons were studied for cellulase production using shake flask and solid substrate cultures at 40 C. Fusants 51 and 28 exhibited appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, and FPase activities when compared with parental strains. Employing proteomic-based approaches, the differential expression of proteins in secretome of fusants and parental strains were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The expression of some of the proteins in the fusants was found to be up/downregulated. The upregulated proteins in the fusant 51 were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy as endoxylanase, endochitinase, β-glucosidase, as well as hypothetical proteins. The cellulases produced by fusants 28 and 51 showed improved saccharification of alkali treated rice straw when compared with the parental strains. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Sharma M.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Yadav D.N.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Singh A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Tomar S.K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was subjected to heat moisture treatment (HMT) at different moisture levels i.e., 20 % (HMT-20), 25 % (HMT-25) & 30 % (HMT-30) for 8 h at 110 °C and evaluated for changes in rheological, thermal, functional and morphological properties. Peak, breakdown, cool paste and setback viscosity decreased, while pasting temperature increased after HMT. Shear stability of HMT-30 sample was maximum (stability ratio 0.54). Highest (33.5 Pa) G′ value was observed for native and lowest (14.8 Pa) for HMT-25 sample. Yield and flow point of starch gels also decreased after HMT, indicating softer gels and higher spreadability. HMT increased gelatinization temperature from 62.59 °C for native to 84.05 °C for HMT-30. Resistant starch content increased about three times in HMT-30 sample (7.07 %) as compared to native. Swelling power and solubility decreased after HMT. HMT also induced cavity and some dents on starch granules surface. © 2015, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source


Sharma M.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Mridula D.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Gupta R.K.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) for development of wheat based probiotic beverage and to optimize the proportion of different ingredients viz. sprouted wheat flour, sprouted wheat bran, oat and stabilizer using response surface methodology. Acidity, pH and probiotic count of samples prepared with L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was higher than that of L. acidophilus NCDC-16 culture. Being more compatible, L. acidophilus NCDC-14 was selected for this study. Acidity (in terms of lactic acid), pH and probiotic count of the different samples ranged from 0.21 to 0.45 %, 4.0 to 4.9, and 8.30 to 10.95 log10 cfu mL−1, respectively. Probiotic count increased with increasing amount of sprouted wheat and oat. Optimized levels for sprouted wheat flour, oat, wheat bran and guar gum were 7.86, 5.42, 1.42 and 0.6 g, respectively per 100 mL of water. Optimized probiotic beverage provided 13.19 % total solids, 1.19 % protein, 0.33 % fat, 0.10 % ash, 0.42 % crude fibre, 1.45 mg iron, calcium 15.74 mg, 11.56 % carbohydrates, 54 kcal calories and 10.43 log10 cfu mL−1 probiotic count. Thus, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-14 can be used for development of potentially probiotic beverage with sprouted wheat and oat. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source


Jha S.N.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Jaiswal P.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Borah A.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Gautam A.K.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET | Srivastava N.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering Technology CIPHET
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2015

Milk adulteration with synthetic chemicals is a serious concern for human health. Urea is added in milk which causes severe stomach ailments. Potential of attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was evaluated for rapid detection and quantification of added urea in milk. Altogether, 210 spectra (4000–700 cm−1) of milk adulterated with known urea concentration (viz., 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 700 ppm, 900 ppm, 1300 ppm, and 2000 ppm) were analyzed. The spectral range of 1670–1564 cm−1 comprising four smaller spectral regions (1670–1653, 1649–1621, 1615–1580, and 1594–1564 cm−1) showed clear differences in absorption values. Pattern recognition analysis using Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) provided well-separated clusters, viz., pure milk and urea <900 ppm and urea >900 ppm. Quantity of urea was best predicted in the spectral range of 1649–1621 and 1611–1580 cm−1 using partial least square (PLS) regression with coefficient of determination 0.906 and 0.879 for calibration and validation, respectively. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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