Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET

Ludhiāna, India

Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET

Ludhiāna, India

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Chaves M.A.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Barreto I.M.A.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Reis R.C.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research EMBRAPA | Kadam D.M.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to characterise the foams of purple Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) pulp made with different additives, aiming at foam-mat drying. Characterisation was made through analyses of moisture, pH, acidity, soluble solids, density, water activity, colour, total and reducing sugars, protein and ashes. Drying was done at 55 °C for 2 h. Dried Brazilian cherry juice powder was rehydrated for acceptance test. It is concluded that the physicochemical characterisation of fresh Brazilian cherry pulp was satisfactory and was in accordance with the Brazilian standards for agro-industrial products. Albumin was the best foaming agent that produced a good-quality powder in a short period. The foam-mat drying of Brazilian cherry pulp using albumin and Superliga® (Duas Rodas Industrial ltda, Santa Catarina, Brazil) as foaming agents produced a powder with good physicochemical properties and sensory quality and most preferred juice. © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Jain P.,Banaras Hindu University | Yadav D.N.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Rajput H.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Bhatt D.K.,Bundelkhand University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Small scale process for the production of peanut milk was developed from M-522 variety of peanut. Three treatments i.e. traditional, 1% NaHCO3 soaking and pressure blanching (at 121 C, 15 psi for 2, 3 and 5 mins) were given for the preparation of peanut milk. The milks so obtained were analyzed for chemical composition and also subjected to organoleptic evaluation using nine point hedonic scale by semi trained panel of judges. Peanut milk prepared by pressure blanching (at 121 C, 15 psi for 3 min) was found most acceptable method. The proximate composition of the most acceptable peanut milk prepared by pressure blanching (at 121 C, 15 psi for 3 min) was found to be moisture 88.22%, ash 0.16%, fat 1.65%, protein 3.27%, total solids 11.78%. Based on the results it was concluded that the pressure blanching was found most acceptable method for the preparation of peanut milk beverage although it had the negative effect on the protein and total solid extraction. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Manikantan M.R.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Barnwal P.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Barnwal P.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Goyal R.K.,National Coordinator
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Drying characteristics of paddy (long grain variety PR-118 procured from PAU, Ludhiana) in an integrated dryer using single as well as combined heating source was studied at different air temperatures. The integrated dryer comprises three different air heating sources such as solar, biomass and electrical. Drying of paddy occurred in falling rate period. It was observed that duration of drying of paddy from 22 to 13 % moisture content (w.b.) was 5-9 h depending upon the source of energy used. In order to select a suitable drying curve, six thin layer-drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. Among the mathematical models investigated, Wang and Singh model best described the drying behaviour of paddy using solar, biomass and combined heating sources with highest coefficient of determination (r 2) values and least chi-square, χ 2, mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) values. However, Page model adequately described the drying behavior of paddy using electrical heating source. © 2013 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Dhillon G.S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Dhillon G.S.,University of Québec | Oberoi H.S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Kaur S.,University of Québec | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was performed to evaluate the potential of agricultural residues for the production of cellulase and hemicellulase using individual and mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reseei. The maximum filter paper (FP) cellulase activity of 13.57. IU/gram dry substrate (gds), 22.89. IU/gds and 24.17. IU/gds and β-glucosidase activities of 21.69. IU/gds, 13.58. IU/gds and 24.54. IU/gds were obtained with wheat bran medium at 96. h incubation period with A. niger, T. reseei and mixed-cultures of A. niger and T. reseei, respectively. Mixed-culture SSF using rice straw supplemented with wheat bran in the ratio 3:2 resulted in higher FP cellulase, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase (CMCase) and xylanase activities, compared to the activities obtained using mono-cultures. Similarly, higher FP cellulase, β-glucosidase, CMCase and xylanase activities of 35.8. IU/gds (96. h), 33.71. IU/gds (96. h), 131.34. IU/gds (120. h) and 3106.34. IU/gds (120. h) were achieved in the tray fermentation using rice straw with wheat bran in the ratio of 3:2. Results of present investigation showed that higher cellulase activity and an optimal combination of cellulase and β-glucosidase can be achieved through mixed-culture SSF in trays. The approach of utilizing negative cost agricultural wastes through tray fermentation for cellulase and hemicellulase production is expected to serve the objectives of: (a) management of wastes which would otherwise cause environmental pollution problems; (b) production of hydrolytic enzymes at low cost and; (c) simple technique requiring no sophisticated instruments with practical applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Kadam D.M.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Wilson R.A.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Kaur S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Investigations were carried out to see the impact of drying air temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and milk as foaming agent in different concentration levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) on the chemical properties of foam-mat dried mango juice powder. Chemical properties such as total sugars, ascorbic acid, total carotenes, minerals, total acid, pH, total soluble solids (TSS) and microbial load (fungal and bacterial) of foam-mat dried mango powder were determined. Data were analysed as per two-way anova, Duncan's multiple range test and l.s.d. of A. gR. es Software statistical package. Almost all chemical properties show decreasing trend with increase in drying air temperature. Microbial load was not detected in foam-mat dried mango powder. It was found that addition of 10% milk as foaming agent and drying at 65 °C temperature gave better results. © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Kadam D.M.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Balasubramanian S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2011

Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of drying air temperature and foaming agent (egg albumin) for production of tomato powder using foam-mat drying. Samples were prepared using tomato juice (4°Brix total soluble solids), incorporating egg albumin as foaming agent (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, w/w). Foamed tomato juice (300±0.5g) was spread on rectangular trays (2.5mm thickness) and kept in tray dryer at 60, 65 and 70C air temperature. Incorporation of 10% egg albumin with 5min of whipping time was found optimum for stable foam formation. The increase in foaming agent level enhanced the drying process (up to 15% egg albumin) and thereafter followed a decreasing trend. Foamed tomato juice can be dried in 510 and 450min at 60 and 70C drying air temperature, respectively, with best acceptability. Effective moisture diffusivity of tomato juice ranged from 2.026×10-8 to 3.039×10-8m2/s. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Maiti S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Lukka Thuyavan Y.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Singh S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Oberoi H.S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Agarwal G.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

The main objective of this work was to remove inhibitors and concentrate sugars in hydrolysates obtained from dilute acid-treated rice straw. The Donnan steric pore flow model (DSPM) was applied for membrane characterization and it captured the membrane transport adequately. The polyamide and polyethylene sulfate nanofiltration membranes of 150. Da molecular weight cut-off showed a separation factor of 3 for acetic acid over glucose and xylose and 7 over cellobiose for a simulated mixture at the optimum pH of 3. A separation factor of 3 was also found for the inhibitors hydroxymethyl furfural, ferulic and vanilic acids over sugars. The concentration of rice straw acid hydrolysate by a volume concentration ratio of 4 increased the concentrations of xylose, glucose, arabinose, cellobiose and inhibitor by 100%, 104%, 93%, 151% and 3%, respectively which indicates the membrane can be used for separating the inhibitors from acid-pretreated rice straw hydrolysate while simultaneously concentrating sugars. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Oberoi H.S.,Kansas State University | Oberoi H.S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Vadlani P.V.,Kansas State University | Madl R.L.,Kansas State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Orange peels were evaluated as a fermentation feedstock, and process conditions for enhanced ethanol production were determined. Primary hydrolysis of orange peel powder (OPP) was carried out at acid concentrations from O to 1.0% (w/v) at 121 ° C and 15 psi for 15 min. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sugars and inhibitory compounds showed a higher production of hydroxymethyfurfural and acetic acid and a decrease in sugar concentration when the acid level was beyond 0.5% (w/v). Secondary hydrolysis of pretreated biomass obtained from primary hydrolysis was carried out at 0.5% (w/v) acid. Response surface methodology using three factors and a twolevel central composite design was employed to optimize the effect of pH, temperature, and fermentation time on ethanol production from OPP hydrolysate at the shake flask level. On the basis of results obtained from the optimization experiment and numerical optimization software, a validation study was carried out in a 2 L batch fermenter at pH 5.4 and a temperature of 34 ° C for 15 h. The hydrolysate obtained from primary and secondary hydrolysis processes was fermented separately employing parameters optimized through RSM. Ethanol yields of 0.25 g/g on a biomass basis (YP/X) and 0.46 g/g on a substrate-consumed basis (YP/S) and a promising volumetric ethanol productivity of 3.37 g/L/h were attained using this process at the fermenter level, which shows promise for further scale-up studies. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Jaiswal P.,Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Jha S.N.,Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Bharadwaj R.,Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Potential of spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 299-1100. nm for nondestructive prediction of dry matter (DM) content, pH, sweetness (total soluble solids, TSS), and acid-Brix ratio (ABR) for banana was studied to have proper estimation of their maturity and ripening stage. Partial least square (PLS) and multiple linear regression (MLR) employing pre-processing techniques were carried out. PLS models were found to be the best with multiple correlation coefficients for calibration and validation were found to be 0.88 and 0.81. °Brix for TSS, 0.85 and 0.78 for ABR, 0.88 and 0.83 for pH and 0.90 and 0.87% for DM, respectively. The standard errors of calibration, prediction, biases and differences in them were low, which indicated that NIRS has potential to predict maturity and ripening parameters of banana nondestructively. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Kadam D.M.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Nangare D.D.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Singh R.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET | Kumar S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET
Journal of Food Process Engineering | Year: 2011

The performance of the greenhouse solar heat collector was highly dependent on the solar radiation, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Increase in air temperature inside greenhouse varied from 0.7 to 19.0C, and relative humidity inside greenhouse varied from -16 to 25.7% by air exchange at a flow rate of 6.1 m3/s. The average midday thermal efficiency was around 20.82%. The cured red onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were cleaned, outer layer was peeled and trimmed manually, and washed in water to remove dirt and infection. Edible bulb of onion was sliced into 3-mm thick slices by using manual stainless steel slicer. The onion slices were pretreated with sodium chloride, and potassium metabisulphite, for 5 min in three concentration levels (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%) and drained onion slices were spread in thin layers in trays before keeping them in greenhouse for drying. Onion slices were dried in 19 sunshine hours. Preservatives used as pretreatment in 3-mm sliced onion were found to be significantly different (probability, P < 0.05) from each other. It was found that 0.50% potassium metabisulphite was best. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Availability of solar energy is abundant in the Indian subcontinent and drying of agricultural produce using low cost greenhouse is one of the latest developments when crop production is not possible in greenhouse duringsummer season. Low cost greenhouse can be utilized to dry the onion slice asalternative to conventional mechanical dryers. Greenhouse drying can be used for the preparation of shelf-stable dehydrated onion slices for the purpose of use during off-season. The quality of dehydrated onions is good and it can be stored for months together. Dried onion slices can be used same as fresh onion after rehydration, apart from this, it can be added directly into soups, etc., before cooking. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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