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PubMed | ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, ICAR Central Plantation Crops Research Institute and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2017

Ozone has shown the potential to control the stored product insect pests. The high reactivity of ozone makes special problems when it passes though an organic medium such as stored grains. Thus, there is a need for simulation study to understand the concentration profile and flow characteristics of ozone in stored paddy bulks as a function of time.Simulation of ozone concentration through the paddy grain bulks was explained by applying the principle of law of conservation along with continuity equation. A higher ozone concentration value was observed at regions near the ozone diffuser whereas a lower concentration value was observed at region away from the ozone diffuser. The relative error between the experimental and predicted ozone concentration values for the entire bin geometry was less than 42.8%.The simulation model described a non linear change of ozone concentration in stored paddy bulks. Results of this study provide the valuable source for estimating the parameters needed for effectively designing a storage bin for fumigation of paddy grains in a commercial scale continuous-flow ozone fumigation system.


Jalgaonkar K.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Jha S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2016

Effect of particle size and blend composition (wheat semolina: pearl millet flour) on quality of pasta were investigated in this study. Initially, the pasta was prepared from 100% pearl millet flour of different particle sizes (241–780 μm). Observation indicated that it was not possible to make pasta from 100% pearl millet flour as these disintegrated after cooking. Particle sizes of pearl millet flour showed significant effect on nutritional and cooking quality of pearl millet pasta. Pasta from pearl millet flour of particle size 425 μm had least cooking loss, high protein, iron and zinc contents. Further, with increase in the level of pearl millet flour in the blend composition, protein, ash and cooking loss of pasta increased whereas hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness showed decreasing trend. Blend composition (wheat semolina: pearl millet flour) in the ratio of 70:30 was found to be satisfactory for making pasta with desirable quality characteristics like cooking loss (<8%), protein content (>10%), ash content (<0.7%), colour and texture. However, with the objective of maximum incorporation of pearl millet flour in the final product, a blend composition of 50:50 could be used to make pasta with acceptable quality. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Eyarkai Nambi V.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Gupta R.K.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Kumar S.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Sharma P.C.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Bioactive components of fruit and vegetables play an important role in scavenging free radicals and protect the body from degenerative diseases. A kinetic study was conducted to quantify the losses occurring in bioactive components, antioxidant activity and changes in colour and firmness of four commonly used vegetables (beetroot, green pea, eggplant and green pepper) during heat treatment (70–90 °C). The study revealed that logistic model can predict the variation in bioactive components and antioxidant activity with higher R2 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) as compared to first order model due to logarithmic reduction in these properties in the beginning of the process itself. However zero and first order kinetic models were found suitable to predict the changes occurring in colour and firmness respectively during blanching. D, z value, activation energy (Ea), activation enthalpy and entropy were calculated for all measured parameters for selected vegetables in the temperature range of 70–90 °C. These finding would be useful in designing thermal processes and related calculations for these vegetables. © 2016 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)


Sharma M.,National Dairy Research Institute | Singh A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Yadav D.N.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Arora S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Vishwakarma R.K.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The impact of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) esterification was investigated on rheological, pasting, thermal and physicochemical properties of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch. Starch was esterified with 3% OSA at four reaction times viz. 2 (OSA-2H), 3 (OSA-3H), 4 (OSA-4H), and 5 h (OSA-5H). Degree of substitution (DS) increased significantly (p < h.05) from 0.018 to 0.022 with increasing reaction time and peak height at 1724 cm-1 in fourier transform infrared spectroscopy increased with increase in DS. Resistant starch and oil absorption capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 2.41 to 13.72% and 1.31-2.67 g/g, respectively with increasing DS. Significant increase was observed in peak, hot paste, cold paste and breakdown viscosity upon OSA esterification while, pasting temperature and setback ratio decreased. Storage modulus, loss modulus and strain increased upon OSA esterification. Herschel Bulkley model was found best fitted with R2 values 0.997 and 0.995 for native and OSA-3H (DS 0.0208) gels, respectively. Consistency index decreased from 13.57 to 2.25 and 27.30 to 1.84 for native and OSA-3H, respectively with increase in temperature from 5 to 85 °C. Gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased significantly. OSA-starch gels exhibited good proportioning, homogeneous mixing and self leveling characteristics making them potential fat replacers. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology and CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2015

The availability of fruit like litchi has been limited by variability in yield, alternate bearing, seasonal differences and most commonly post harvest problems. The litchi fruit has a very short shelf-life during which red color turns brown which greatly affects the appeal to consumer although not the unique flavor. This review article focuses on the post harvest problems especially browning of litchi. The pericarp of litchi is also sensitive to desiccation and turns brown and brittle once moisture is reduced to half. A large number of approaches have been tried to solve this problem starting from hydro-cooling to gamma irradiation but single approach could not suffice for all. In modern era, the logical base of controlling browning is either to control the responsible enzyme or remove the undesirable product of enzyme catalyzed reaction. Thus enzyme technology with good postharvest practice can definitely solve this problem.


Kumar S.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Kumar R.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Nambi V.E.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2016

Pomegranate fruits are difficult to peel and once peeled, extracted arils have very short shelf-life. Therefore, present investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of minimally processed pomegranate arils using pectin methyl esterase (PME) and CaCl2 treatment during refrigerated storage. The arils of freshly harvested pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum L.) were treated with different concentrations of food-grade PME (50-300 units) and calcium ions (0.5-2.0 % CaCl2 for a period of 5-30 min using response surface methodology. Treated and untreated arils were then packed in low density polyethylene bags (25 μ) and maintained under low temperature (5°C; 90% RH) for evaluating the physical, biochemical and microbial quality of pomegranate arils at four day interval. Physiological loss in weight increased during storage but no food-borne pathogens were found during 28 day of cold storage in treated arils. Color and firmness of both treated and untreated arils decreased during storage but it was better maintained in treated arils. The firmness was found to be 0.630 N in treated samples compared to untreated one (0.511 N) after 20 d of storage. Total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase activities increased during storage. Treatment with 249.33 units of PME and 1.70 % CaCl2 for an immersion time of 24.93 min was found to be most effective treatment for maintaining the quality of minimally processed arils for longer period. Sensory score was also higher in treated pomegranate arils that were quite acceptable even after 20 day of referigerated storage as against 12 day for untreated ones. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


Sethi S.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Tyagi S.K.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Anurag R.K.,ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cow’s milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate. © 2016 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)


Bansal S.,ICAR Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology | Mangal M.,Indian Institute of Science | Sharma S.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Yadav D.N.,ICAR Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology | Gupta R.K.,ICAR Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Functional food market is dominated by dairy based probiotic products mainly yoghurt. There is need to develop dairy alternatives due to allergenic milk proteins, lactose and high cholesterol content. In this paper, efforts have been made to develop yoghurt like probiotic product from peanut milk utilizing single probiotic culture and without any supplements. The conditions were optimized utilizing response surface methodology by studying the individual and interactive effects of three process variables i.e. inoculum concentration, incubation temperature and time. Inoculum concentration of 1.9%, incubation temperature of 38 °C and 12 h incubation time was found optimum for probiotic peanut yoghurt preparation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cows milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

Present study was undertaken to optimize the level of food materials viz. groundnut meal, beetroot juice and refined wheat flour for development of nutritious pasta using response surface methodology. Box-benken design of experiments was used to design different experimental combinations considering 10 to 20g groundnut meal, 6 to 18mL beetroot juice and 80 to 90g refined wheat flour. Quality attributes such as protein content, antioxidant activity, colour, cooking quality (solid loss, rehydration ratio and cooking time) and sensory acceptability of pasta samples were the dependent variables for the study. The results revealed that pasta samples with higher levels of groundnut meal and beetroot juice were high in antioxidant activity and overall sensory acceptability. The samples with higher content of groundnut meal indicated higher protein contents in them. On the other hand, the samples with higher beetroot juice content were high in rehydration ratio and lesser cooking time along with low solid loss in cooking water. The different level of studied food materials significantly affected the colour quality of pasta samples. Optimized combination for development of nutritious pasta consisted of 20g groundnut meal, 18mL beetroot juice and 83.49g refined wheat flour with overall desirability as 0.905. This pasta sample required 5.5min to cook and showed 1.37% solid loss and rehydration ratio as 6.28. Pasta sample prepared following optimized formulation provided 19.56% protein content, 23.95% antioxidant activity and 125.89mg/100g total phenols with overall sensory acceptability scores 8.71.

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