Gohil J.M.,Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology CIPET |
Gohil J.M.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute |
Ray P.,Indian Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2017
This review centers on the reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes for water treatment and desalination. Specifically the RO and NF membranes, whose rejection layer is being formed using semi-aromatic polyamide in various configuration and structure, have found prominent space in membrane arena. An interfacial polymerization (IP) is a distinctive technique for producing in-situ polyamide membrane in the form of films or composites using wide variety of amines and acid chloride monomers of various compositions. In this context, thin film composite membranes prepared by IP techniques are reviewed with their history in the present review. Emphasis is given on systematic development of membranes with its structural composition and separation characteristics. The functions of various additives and effect of IP reaction parameters on performance of membranes have been briefly discussed. Types of composite polyamide (PA) membranes prepared from comonomers, their derivatives and oligomers are reviewed. Commercial PA membranes are also discussed in details with their niches in the separation of monovalent and divalent ions and organics from water. Poly(piperazine amide) and polyethyleneimine based PA membranes show promising applications for water softening (hardness removal) in the form of flat sheet and hollow fiber configuration. This review may guide the researchers and separation scientists to develop novel approach for further development and modification of membranes for removal the toxic and harmful ions from water. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Sahoo S.K.,Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology CIPET |
Mohanty S.,Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology CIPET |
Nayak S.K.,Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology CIPET
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science (English Edition) | Year: 2014
A novel bioresin, epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized by in situ method and was characterized employing FTIR and NMR. The bioresin was blended with epoxy (DGEBA) at different ratios as reactive diluents for improved processibility and toughened nature. The composition with 20 wt% bioresin exhibited improved impact strength to the tune of 60% as compared to virgin epoxy. Fracture toughness parameters critical stress intensity factor (KIC) and critical strain energy release rate (GIC) were evaluated using single edge notch bending test and demonstrated superior enhancement in toughness. Dynamic mechanical, thermal, thermo mechanical and fracture morphological analyses have been studied for bio-based epoxy blends. Curing kinetics has been evaluated through DSC analysis to investigate the effect of bioresin on cross-linking reaction of neat epoxy with triethylenetetramine as curing agent. © 2015, Chinese Chemical Society, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.