Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics

Vienna, Austria

Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics

Vienna, Austria

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Wu C.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Liu J.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Zhao P.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection | Piringer M.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Schauberger G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

Continuous odour measurements both of emissions as well as ambient concentrations are seldom realised, mainly because of their high costs. They are therefore often substituted by concentration measurements of odorous substances. Then a conversion of the chemical concentrations C (mg m-3) into odour concentrations COD (ouE m-3) and odour intensities OI is necessary. Four methods to convert the concentrations of single substances to the odour concentrations and odour intensities of an odorous mixture are investigated: (1) direct use of measured concentrations, (2) the sum of the odour activity value SOAV, (3) the sum of the odour intensities SOI, and (4) the equivalent odour concentration EOC, as a new method. The methods are evaluated with olfactometric measurements of seven substances as well as their mixtures. The results indicate that the SOI and EOC conversion methods deliver reliable values. These methods use not only the odour threshold concentration but also the slope of the Weber-Fechner law to include the sensitivity of the odour perception of the individual substances. They fulfil the criteria of an objective conversion without the need of a further calibration by additional olfactometric measurements. © 2015 The Authors.


Schauberger G.,Working Group Impact from Livestock Buildings of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture | Schauberger G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Piringer M.,Working Group Impact from Livestock Buildings of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture | Piringer M.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

In Austria a new guideline is under development to calculate the separation distance between livestock and residential areas to avoid odour annoyance. On the basis of dispersion model calculations for 6 sites by the Austrian odour dispersion model (AODM) a regression model is developed, using a power function S-=-a E b. The power function is defined by four input parameters. The basis of the power function is the odour emission rate E (ou E-s -1) in the range between 400 ou E-s -1-≤-E-≤-24-000-ou E-s -1. The factor a and the exponent b of the power function are defined by two meteorological parameters, the relative frequency of the wind direction F, the mean wind velocity W of the wind direction for 10° sectors as well as the odour exceedance probability P of the odour impact criterion. One of the requirements for this empirical model is the aspiration to substitute the complex calculation with a dispersion model by the new empirical model. The empirical model can be used in a paper and pencil mode, which enables an evaluation of a planned livestock building in a simple way. For a more detailed assessment, a dispersion model can be applied with the entire meteorological information (e.g., stability of the atmosphere, wind field models), the geometry of the emission source, a time depending odour emission rate, and the orography of the site. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Schauberger G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Piringer M.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Heber A.J.,Purdue University
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2014

For the calculation of the separation distance to avoid odour annoyance, the odour emission rate of the livestock building has to be known as input for the dispersion model. In general, an annual mean value is used although the influence of the live mass growth of the animals as well as of indoor air temperature and ventilation rate on the emission rate is known. This simplified approach was compared with various emission scenarios for a continuous fattening system with a constant live mass of 75 kg and an all-in/allout system. For the last one a Monte-Carlo based model (inverse transfer sampling technique) was used to avoid an interaction between the growth of the animals and the annual variation of the outdoor temperature. The variation of the emission factor was taken into account twofold, first by a schematized diurnal emission pattern for the various seasons and second by a steady state simulation of the indoor climate to calculate indoor temperature and ventilation rate which both influence the odour release. The results indicate an underestimation of the odour emission rate of a livestock building during summer compared with winter when using an annual mean value. For the all-in/all-out system, this effect is superposed by an overestimation at the beginning of the fattening period and an underestimation at the end. Using emission models which take into account the growth function and/or the indoor climate, a more realistic description of the odour emission characteristics can be achieved. This will help to increase the goodness of the assessment of environmental odour by dispersion models. Copyright © 2014, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Sommer-Quabach E.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Piringer M.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Petz E.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Schauberger G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2014

To determine separation distances between odour sources and residential areas (in order to safeguard against nuisance and complaints), odour impact criteria (OIC) are adopted by the national regulatory authorities. There is a wide variety of OIC used for this purpose, which differ by the odour concentration threshold (between 0.12 ou m-3and 10 ou m-3), the averaging period (hourly or instantaneous) and by the tolerated exceedance probability of the adopted threshold (between 0.1% and about 35% of the time). Using two national OIC for the protection of rural residential properties (Ireland with a threshold of 6 ou m-3and a tolerated exceedance probability of 2%) and Germany (with a threshold of 0.25 ou m-3and a tolerated exceedance probability of 20%), the direction-dependent separation distances were calculated, and compared against those of 166 different OIC. It is interesting to investigate whether the large range of national OIC results in large differences in the modelled separation distances. For this investigation, the normalised mean standard error (NMSR) was selected as a statistical measure. There are two groups of OIC used in various jurisdictions: the first one with a low odour concentration threshold and a high tolerated exceedance probability (e.g. Germany); and the second group with a high odour concentration threshold and a low tolerated exceedance probability (e.g. Ireland). The modelled direction-dependent separation distances (using OIC which are supposed to offer the same protection level) can vary significantly. The OIC of the second group, considering higher ambient odour concentrations, show a much lower sensitivity to site-specific meteorological data. Therefore, a higher tolerated exceedance probability seems more appropriate for the determination of OIC. Even if the similarity of separation distances by various OIC could be determined, the direction-dependent separation distances differ considerably for the same protection level for a certain receptor type, e.g. rural residential properties. Copyright © 2014, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Sommer-Quabach E.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Piringer M.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Petz E.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Schauberger G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

To determine separation distances between odour sources and residential areas to avoid odour nuisance and complaints by the residents, odour impact criteria OIC have to be adopted by the responsible authorities. There is a wide variety of OIC used for this purpose, which differ by the odour concentration threshold between 0.12oum-3 and 10oum-3 and by the tolerated exceedance probability of this threshold between 0.1% and about 35%. For two national OIC for a protection level of rural residential areas (Ireland with a threshold of 6oum-3 and an exceedance probability of 2% and Germany 0.25oum-3/20%) and two national OIC fur urban residential areas (Ireland: 3oum-3/2%, Germany 0.25oum-3/13.6%), the direction depending separation distances were calculated, and the similarity to 166 various OIC was investigated. The large discrepancies among the national OIC provokes the question if separation distances calculated for the same protection level are then still comparable and thus meet general expectations or not. For this comparison the normalised mean standard error was selected as a statistical measure. There are two groups of OIC used in various jurisdictions: The first one with a low odour concentration threshold and a high exceedance probability evaluating ambient odour intensity close to the perception threshold (Germany) and the second group of the remaining countries with high odour intensity by using a high concentration threshold and a low exceedance probability. The direction depending separation distances of OIC with the same protection level can vary considerably. The OIC of the last group, evaluating higher ambient odour intensities, show a much lower sensitivity to site specific meteorological data. Therefore a higher exceedance probability seems more appropriate for the determination of OIC. Even if the similarity of separation distances by various OIC could be determined, the direction dependent separation distances differ considerably for the same protection level. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Schauberger G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Piringer M.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2012

The assessment of the impact of environmental odour emissions is based on four steps: (1) the determination of the odour flow of the source, (2) the dilution in the atmosphere, described by dispersion models, calculating time series of one-hour mean values, (3) short-time peak concentrations derived from one-hour mean values, to mimic odour sensation of the human nose, and (4) odour impact criteria, defined by the odour concentration threshold and its exceedance probability. The procedure of the determination of odour annoyance by the last two steps (peak-to-mean factor and odour impact criteria) is compared for various national jurisdictions showing a great variety of criteria. To reach a better comparability for separation distances, calculated by impact criteria for different countries, an alignment of the peak-to-mean factors and the odour impact criteria should be aspired. An important requirement to improve the reliability of the calculated separation distances is the use of a peak-to-mean factor, which decreases with distance from the source. The separation distances calculated for the same protection level but with different national odour impact criteria, contrary to expectation, are very different and show a stronger dependence on wind direction for higher exceedance probabilities. It must be concluded that the concept of odour impact criteria used in various jurisdictions should be harmonized. It is obvious that separation distances, calculated for an identical protection level, should be similar. Copyright © 2012, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Schauberger G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Piringer M.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Petz E.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2016

The environmental impact of odour is determined by direction dependent separation distances to avoid odour annoyance. In general, the separation distances are calculated by dispersion models using time resolved meteorological data sets of wind velocity, wind direction and the stability of the atmosphere. The calculated ambient odour concentrations are evaluated by odour impact criteria defined by an odour threshold concentration and a related exceedance probability. A relevant model prerequisite is the emission flow rate of an odour source, in most cases assumed as a constant value over time. In reality it is well known that this is not a realistic assumption. In the present study, the sensitivity of the separation distances to increased variations in the emission rates from a constant value up to a coefficient of variation of 20% - is investigated. This is here undertaken for the national odour impact criterion of Ireland with an odour concentration threshold of 3 ou/m3 of the hourly mean value and an exceedance probability of 2% (98-percentile). The sensitivity study shows that the assumption of a constant odour emission rate will underestimate the separation distances, especially in the main wind directions. The higher the variability of the emission rate, the larger the separation distances. This means that, in the future, time resolved odour emission rates will constitute a necessary prerequisite to calculate reliable separation distances. © 2016, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Jabbar T.,University of Vienna | Steier P.,University of Vienna | Wallner G.,University of Vienna | Priller A.,University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Concentrations of gases and particulate matter have been proven to be affected by meteorological and geographical variables from urban locations to high mountain clean air sites. Following our previous research in Vienna, we summarize here new findings about concentration levels of iodine isotopes in aerosols collected at two Alpine meteorological stations, Sonnblick (Austria) and Zugspitze (Germany) during 2001. The present study mainly focuses on the effect of altitude on the anthropogenic concentration of 129I and on the isotopic ratio 129I/127I. Iodine was separated from matrix elements by using either an anion exchange method or solvent extraction, and was analyzed by ICP-MS and AMS. Over the altitude change from Vienna to Zugspitze and Sonnblick (202 m to 2962 m and 3106 m above sea level), stable iodine level decreased from an average of 0.94 ng m-3 to 0.52 ng m-3 and 0.62 ng m-3, respectively. Similarly, 129I concentrations at both Alpine stations were about 1 order of magnitude lower (104 atoms m-3) than values obtained for Vienna (105 atoms m-3) and reveal a strong vertical concentration gradient of 129I. A high degree of variability is observed, which is due to wide variation in the origin of air masses. Furthermore, air trajectory analysis demonstrates the importance of large scale air transport mostly from southeast Europe for influencing Sonnblick whereas influence from northwest Europe is strong at Zugspitze. In contrast to 129I, a higher concentration of 7Be was found at higher altitude stations compared to Vienna which probably results from its production in the upper atmosphere. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Zebenholzer K.,Medical University of Vienna | Rudel E.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics | Frantal S.,Medical University of Vienna | Brannath W.,Medical University of Vienna | And 3 more authors.
Cephalalgia | Year: 2011

Aims: Weather is mentioned as a trigger factor by migraine patients most frequently. We examined the impact of meteorological factors and the impact of their day-to-day change on the risk of occurrence and persistence of headache and migraine and the correlation of subjective weather perception with objective weather data. Methods: We performed a prospective, diary-based cohort study in 238 patients suffering from migraine with or without aura. Patients had to live within 25 km of the Vienna meteorological station and were required to keep a diary for 90 days. We analysed 11 meteorological parameters and 17 synoptic weather situations. For evaluating the hazard of occurrence and persistence of migraine and headache, we performed a univariate and a stepwise multivariate Cox regression analysis. We calculated correlations between subjective weather perception and meteorological data. Results: In the uni- and multivariate analysis, a ridge of high pressure increased the risk of headache occurrence, lower mean daily wind speed increased the risk of migraine occurrence and a day-to-day change of daily sunshine duration increased the risk of migraine occurrence. A day-to-day change of the daily minimum temperature decreased the risk of migraine persistence. After correction for multiple testing, none of these findings remained statistically significant. Subjective weather perceptions did not correlate with the occurrence or persistence of migraine or headache. Subjective perception of cold and too-cold weather and of too-warm weather correlated with daily minimum, mean and maximum temperature. Conclusion: The influence of weather factors on migraine and headache is small and questionable. © International Headache Society 2010.


Koboltschnig G.R.,International Research Society INTERPRAEVENT | Schoner W.,Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2011

This paper quantifies the contribution of glacier melt to river runoff from compilation and statistical interpretation of data from available studies based on observations or glacio- hydrological modelling for the region of Austria (Austrian Salzach and Inn river basin). A logarithmic fit between the glacier melt contribution and the relative glacierized area was found not only for the long-term mean glacier contributions but also for the glacier melt contribution during the extreme hot an dry summer of 2003. Interestingly, the mean contributions of glacier melt to river runoff do not exceed 15 % for both river catchments and are uncorrelated to glacierization for glacierization values >10 %. This finding, however, has to be seen in the light of the general precipitation increase with altitude for the study region which levels out the increase of absolute melt with glacierization thus resulting in the rather constant value of glacier melt contribution. In order to qualitatively proof this finding another approach has been applied by calculating the quotient qA03 of the mean monthly August runoff in 2003 and the long-term mean August runoff for 38 gauging stations in Austria. The extreme summer 2003 was worth to be analysed as from the meteorological and glaciological point of view an extraordinary situation was observed. During June and July nearly the entire snow-cover melted and during August mainly bare ice melt of glaciers contributed to runoff. The qA03 quotients were calculated between 0.32 for a non-glacierized and 2.0 for a highly glacierized catchment. Using the results of this study the mean and maximum possible glacier melt contribution of catchments can be estimated based on the relative glacierized area. It can also be shown that the found correlation of glacierized area and glacier melt contribution is applicable for the Drau basin where yet no results of modelled glacier melt contributions are available. © Author(s) 2011.

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