Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center

Hyderabad, India

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center

Hyderabad, India
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Ramesh Kumar R.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Reddy L.P.A.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Komaraiah K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Purnanand S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Sastry K.P.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an important medicinal plant and its dried roots are used in traditional systems of medicine. The market price of roots is determined by physical (textural) quality. Brittle roots with high starch and low fiber are considered to be superior because of ease in grinding. Genetic diversity studies based on root textural parameters have not been done so far. So the present study was designed to assess genetic diversity for morphometric traits and root textural quality parameters among two morphologically distinct groups: Poshita and Nagore. The PCA separated the morphometric and root texture variables distinctly into two different principal components: PC-1 and PC-2 respectively, indicating that both are negatively associated. All the morphotypes in Poshita group showed high positive loadings in PC-1 indicating that component genotypes are high root yielding. Nagore morphotypes were low yielding but the root texture was good. Clustering of morphotypes grouped Poshita and Nagore separately with high inter-cluster distances indicating that both groups are highly divergent from each other, suggesting that there is sufficient scope for varietal improvement through hybridization. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Rajeswara Rao B.R.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Rajput D.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Mallavarapu G.R.,A602 Renaissance Temple Bells
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Wild and cultivated Murraya koenigii leaf essential oils collected from ten Indian locations were investigated for their chemical diversity. The essential oil yields ranged from 1.2-2.5 ml/kg biomass. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed ninety compounds, constituting 93.8-99.9% of the essential oils. The highest concentrations of α-pinene (55.7%) and β-pinene (10.6%) were found in the essential oil of wild plants. α-Pinene (13.5-35.7%) and/or β-phellandrene (14.7-50.2%) were the dominant essential oil constituents of seven locations. (E)-Caryophyllene (26.5%, 31.5%) and α-selinene (9.5%, 10.4%) were the principal essential oil components of two locations. The odour profiles of the essential oils were distinctly different. Tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, piperitone, cada-1,4-diene,1,10-di-epi-cubenol, γ-eudesmol, α-muurolol, (Z,E)-farnesol and (Z,Z)-farnesol are identified for the first time in curry leaf essential oil. The chemical diversity of the oils offers opportunity to flavourists to choose curry leaves and essential oils with preferential flavour composition. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mallavarapu G.R.,Renaissance Temple Bells | Syamasundar K.V.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Rameshc S.,Research Center | Rajeswara Rao B.R.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GCMS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (δ-selinene) + β-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), β-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11- one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1(10),11-dien- 2α-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2α-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, δ-selinene, β-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, α-vetivone, and β-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil.


Rajeswara Rao B.R.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Kothari S.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Rajput D.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Patel R.P.,CIMAP | Darokar M.P.,CIMAP
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

Biomass, essential oil yield, essential oil composition diversity, and antibacterial and antifungal activities of 14 selections of 4 Ocimum species [Ocimum basilicum L. (selections: T 1-T 10), O. gratissimum L. (selections: T 11-T 12), O. tenuiflorum L.f., syn. O. sanctum L. (selection: T 13) and O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex. Guerke (selection: T 14)] were investigated. O. basilicum selections T 9 (methyl chavicol: 87.0%) and T 10 {(Z)- and (E)-methyl cinnamate: 69.1%} produced higher biomass (67.8 and 56.7 t/ha) and oil (203.4 and 141.7 kg/ha) yields relative to 8 (T 1-T 8) linalool (up to 58.9%), or methyl chavicol (up to 61.8%) rich selections. O. gratissimum selection T 12 (eugenol: 84.1%, 254.6 kg/ha oil yield) was significantly superior to T 11 (62.1% eugenol and 18.4% camphor). O. tenuiflorum (T 13, methyl eugenol: 72.5%) and O. kilimandscharicum (T 14, camphor: 51.7%) produced 171.7 and 96.2 kg/ha essential oil, respectively. The essential oils exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial (against 5 Gram-positive and 7 Gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal (against 10 fungi) activities. The bacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungal species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, and Sporothrix schenckii were more sensitive to the essential oils.


Singh R.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Kalra A.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Ravish B.S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Divya S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Based on earlier results obtained in pot experiments, 2-year field experiments were conducted with five bioinoculants and neem cake under organic field conditions (with vermicompost as a nutritional supplement) to evaluate their potential to control root-rot and wilt (a complex problem involving Fusarium chlamydosporum and Ralstonia solanacearum) of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Plants treated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus fasciculatum), neem cake or Pseudomonas fluorescens showed significantly increased plant height (15-31%), plant spread (25-33%), number of branches (63-67%) and dry root (129-200%) yields, and reduced disease incidence (47-50%) compared to controls. Increases in yields were reflected by increases in N (51-81%), P (17-76%) and K (44-74%) uptake. The forskolin content of the roots was found not to be affected by any of the bioinoculants, but forskolin yield (calculated) was increased significantly by treatment with G. fasciculatum (227%), neem cake (222%) or P. fluorescens (159%). © 2012 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2012 BSPP.


Rajeevkumar S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Anunanthini P.,Bharathiar University | Sathishkumar R.,Bharathiar University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Epigenetic silencing is a natural phenomenon in which the expression of genes is regulated through modifications of DNA, RNA, or histone proteins. It is a mechanism for defending host genomes against the effects of transposable elements and viral infection, and acts as a modulator of expression of duplicated gene family members and as a silencer of transgenes. A major breakthrough in understanding the mechanism of epigenetic silencing was the discovery of silencing in transgenic tobacco plants due to the interaction between two homologous promoters. The molecular mechanism of epigenetic mechanism is highly complicated and it is not completely understood yet. Two different molecular routes have been proposed for this, that is, transcriptional gene silencing, which is associated with heavy methylation of promoter regions and blocks the transcription of transgenes, and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), the basic mechanism is degradation of the cytosolic mRNA of transgenes or endogenous genes. Undesired transgene silencing is of major concern in the transgenic technologies used in crop improvement. A complete understanding of this phenomenon will be very useful for transgenic applications, where silencing of specific genes is required. The current status of epigenetic silencing in transgenic technology is discussed and summarized in this mini-review. © 2015 Rajeevkumar, Anunanthini and Sathishkumar.


Rajeswara Rao B.R.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Rajput D.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Patel R.P.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Purnanand S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2010

Changes in leaf biomass yield, essential oil yield, and chemical composition were investigated during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa {Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., family Poaceae}. Eleven leaves representing different developmental stages, serially numbered from the apex to the base of the plant were utilized for the study. Leaf biomass yield increased up to the eighth leaf. Essential oil recovery increased up to the third leaf; thereafter it decreased. Minimum essential oil recovery was observed in the eleventh leaf. Essential oil yield/leaf increased up to the sixth leaf. Essential oil yield and concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol, geranyl isobutyrate and geraniol were relatively higher in the essential oils of mature, older leaves. Essential oil recovery, and percentages of myrcene, β-caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, (E,Z) farnesol and geranyl hexanoate were higher in the essential oils of young, expanding leaves.


Rao B.R.R.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center | Rajput D.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011

A field investigation was carried out on red sandy soil in the semi-arid tropical climate of south India to investigate the response of industrially important, multi-harvest, aromatic crop palmarosa {. Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., family: Poaceae} to foliar application (2.5. g/L single application for each harvest at 700. L nutrient solution per hectare) of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), boron (B) and their residual effect on the succeeding harvest. During the experimental period, palmarosa crop afforded four harvests, 49.5-70.6. t/ha total biomass yield (fresh weight), 211.4-384.2. kg/ha total essential oil yield and Rs. 232,540-422,620/ha (US$ 4844.6-8804.6/ha) gross returns. Fifth harvest (no nutrients were applied) performed to examine the residual effect of Mg and micronutrients applied to the previous four harvests revealed the absence of residual effect pointing to the need for application of nutrients to individual harvests. Foliar application of Mg and micronutrients significantly increased the yield attributes (plant height, tiller number/plant, leaf number/plant), biomass yield, essential oil yield and gross returns of palmarosa. Mg and micronutrients enhanced the total biomass yields by 37.0-42.6% and the total essential oil yields by 44.6-81.7% in comparison to the control (water spray). All the treatments produced good quality essential oils with 1.5-3.2% linalool, 79.7-85.8% geraniol and 4.5-10.3% geranyl acetate. Mg and B additions declined linalool (%) in the second and fourth harvests and increased geraniol (%) in the first harvest. Mg and micronutrients application improved geraniol (%) in the second harvest. Except Zn, all the other nutrients decreased geranyl acetate (%) in the second harvest, but in the third and fourth harvests Mn and B increased geranyl acetate (%). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center and Bharathiar University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2015

Epigenetic silencing is a natural phenomenon in which the expression of genes is regulated through modifications of DNA, RNA, or histone proteins. It is a mechanism for defending host genomes against the effects of transposable elements and viral infection, and acts as a modulator of expression of duplicated gene family members and as a silencer of transgenes. A major breakthrough in understanding the mechanism of epigenetic silencing was the discovery of silencing in transgenic tobacco plants due to the interaction between two homologous promoters. The molecular mechanism of epigenetic mechanism is highly complicated and it is not completely understood yet. Two different molecular routes have been proposed for this, that is, transcriptional gene silencing, which is associated with heavy methylation of promoter regions and blocks the transcription of transgenes, and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), the basic mechanism is degradation of the cytosolic mRNA of transgenes or endogenous genes. Undesired transgene silencing is of major concern in the transgenic technologies used in crop improvement. A complete understanding of this phenomenon will be very useful for transgenic applications, where silencing of specific genes is required. The current status of epigenetic silencing in transgenic technology is discussed and summarized in this mini-review.


PubMed | Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Center
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Natural product communications | Year: 2012

Biomass, essential oil yield, essential oil composition diversity, and antibacterial and antifungal activities of 14 selections of 4 Ocimum species [Ocimum basilicum L. (selections: T1-T10), O. gratissimum L. (selections: T11-T12), O. tenuiflorum L.f., syn. O. sanctum L. (selection: T13) and O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex. Guerke (selection: T14)] were investigated. O. basilicum selections T9 (methyl chavicol: 87.0%) and T10 {(Z)- and (E)-methyl cinnamate: 69.1%} produced higher biomass (67.8 and 56.7 t/ha) and oil (203.4 and 141.7 kg/ha) yields relative to 8 (T1-T8) linalool (up to 58.9%), or methyl chavicol (up to 61.8%) rich selections. O. gratissimum selection T12 (eugenol: 84.1%, 254.6 kg/ha oil yield) was significantly superior to T11 (62.1% eugenol and 18.4% camphor). O. tenuiflorum (T13, methyl eugenol: 72.5%) and O. kilimandscharicum (T14, camphor: 51.7%) produced 171.7 and 96.2 kg/ha essential oil, respectively. The essential oils exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial (against 5 Gram-positive and 7 Gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal (against 10 fungi) activities. The bacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungal species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, and Sporothrix schenckii were more sensitive to the essential oils.

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